Hello and welcome to the exciting world that is Advanced Placement United States History. You are now a member of an elite group: students who dare to take on an exceptionally challenging course. The risks are great, but then so are the potential gains. We will take on this challenge together and when you are done, you will be justifiably proud of yourself. This course is a one-year class designed to allow the student a head start on college level work, improve writing skills, sharpen problem solving techniques, and develop study habits necessary for rigorous course work.
This course is equivalent to a one semester introductory (freshman) level college U.S. history.
This summer’s assignment comes as a result of the time constraints placed on us all in covering the immense content in APUSH over nine months. To allow for more an in depth study of the various periods of American History, it is necessary to cover the first 350 years of history during the summer, individually, with some exceptionally readable non-fiction histories.
You will be tested over the material covered in American Colonies when you return to school in August. The assigned reading is:
• Taylor, Alan, ” American Colonies: The Settling of North America”, Part I Encounters: CH 1-5 pp. 3-113, Part II Colonies: CH 6-12, pp. 117-272, and Part III Empires: CH 13 – 19 pp. 275 – 480.
Read the book carefully. As you read, follow the instructions for the book analysis on pages 3-7 of this document.
READING & NOTE-TAKING GUIDE
As you read, you will take notes of crucial information to be described below.
You are encouraged to highlight and/or underline key passages in the book and to annotate the text for your future reference. The first unit that we will investigate in the fall semester is about the American Colonies. This corresponds to Chapters 1 – 6 in the textbook, Out of Many. You will find this book, American Colonies, by Alan Taylor, a helpful supplement to the textbook. And, as you study the textbook in the fall semester, you will identify some conflicting ideas regarding the historical significance of some events. This can serve as food for, and illustrations of, the thought processes that will help you to be successful in your study of this course.
As you read Part II, identify and take notes about the following information for each colony and colonial group:
• The name of the colony
• The founding country
• The date on which it was founded
• The name(s) of the founder(s)
• Why it was founded
• The type of colony it was (royal, proprietary, etc.)
• Difficulties after founding: both in the short- and long-term. This includes conflicts within the colony as well as outside of the colony.
• Any changes in type (self-rule to royal, etc.)
Also, as you read, write down any words that you do not know and, periodically, look up their definitions or meanings in a dictionary. A successful AP US History student will always have a good collegiate dictionary at his/her disposal. During thesecond week of school you will be tested on this material.
Focus Questions: As you read, consider the following focus questions to help guide your reading. In thinking about colonial development, consider the political, economic, and social structure of each colonial region. Further, consider the factors that influenced the relations with the Native Americans in each colonial region.
1. How did religion shape the development of the New England colonies?
2. What role did geography and tobacco play in the development of the Chesapeake?
3. Analyze and compare and contrast family life in New England. Pay attention to the role of women.
4. Why did the first major slave rebellion, the Stono Rebellion, take place in the Carolinas?
5. How did the fur trade and religion shape the development of New France?
6. In what ways did conquest, religion, and geography interact in the Spanish colonies of the American Southwest?
Directions: Students are to read carefully both books. Each chapter will have a set of questions/list of topics for which short answer responses will be asked to probe for understanding. Since this assignment is done on MICROSOFT WORD, the student need only to load the file on the computer and then bring it up on the computer screen where they can provide answers based upon what is asked for in the question. The goal is not to fish for a specific answer(s), but to ask the student probing questions for a critical understanding of what the questions are asking. Short analytical quotes are permissible; however, we do not want the student to copy the material directly from the book. It should be written in the student’s own voice as a summary of understanding.
1. Pre-Columbian America is “fraught with controversy.” What were these conflicts? Some writers depict Pre-Columbian Americans as ecological and social saints that lived in harmony with each other and nature. However due to the mythology of European colonizers, some writers believe that the Indians were warlike savages with a primitive culture.
2. What are Taylor’s three ideas which he argues about migration?
North and South America were the last continents occupied by people. Siberia to Alaska offered the readiest passage from the Old World to the New World. The period from 15,000 and 12,000 years ago was an ideal time from crossing into North America.
3. In the New World, Old world explorers encountered complex and diverse peoples. Who were these New World people? Where were they? What was left of the Hohokam was encountered by Spanish explores in the sixteenth century. These Natives lived in the hills and along the rivers in what is now southern Arizona.
4. How did some natives’ culture demand less of the environment than that of other natives?
Some Natives stayed in one area which depleted the soil and wild game. Other Natives moved from place to place following their food supply.
1. Why does Taylor makes a big issue over environmentalism? The environment worked to the European’s benefit because it gave them a whole new supply of natural resources. However, the environmental revolution worked against the native peoples and caused their population to decrease.
2. What caused the expansion of Europe—and why?
The expansion of Europe was caused by the population explosion in the seventeenth and eighteenth century that was made possible by imported food plants developed by the Indians. The increase in population traveled to settle the Americas.
3. What were the two major religions of the age of expansion? How do they come to impact the new world? The two major religions were European Christianity and those of the Muslim faith. The competition between the Muslims and the Christians was about trade to Asia. By trying to find and alternate route to Asia, the Christians explored the Atlantic which ultimately led them to the discovery of the New World.
4. Why is the Atlantic Ocean such a central vital environmental concern for the colonizers? The Atlantic Ocean was much stormier and harder to navigate than the shallow seas that the Europeans were accustomed to.
5. Once across the Ocean, what were contributions of the colonizers to the New England area? The colonizers cleared the land for planting and grazing, but the biggest impact was the epidemics they brought to the native peoples that caused them to die in great numbers.
6. What does Taylor say about slavery in the new world?
The colonists enslaved the people to work on sugar plantations, and the colonists justified their actions by saying that slavery would ultimately save the Indians’ souls from hell.
7. How significant was Renaissance science and technology for the colonizers? The discoveries of the New World launched new interest in science and technology which the colonists later benefitted from.
Using short paragraphs, summarize Taylor’s assessment of the following:
In the sixteenth century, the Spanish colonized parts of the North and South America and the Caribbean. Due to their fear of the Spanish Empire, the French, Portuguese, English, and the Dutch attempted to take some of the colonized land from the Spanish. The Spanish also raided Central America where they took slaves who told them about the riches of the Aztec Empire. The greatest advantage that the Spanish had in their conquests was the various diseases that they unintentionally passed on to the Indians.
Conquistador expeditions were private and led by independent military contractors for profit. They usually had a license from the crown which gave the country a portion of any treasure claimed by the conquistador. The overriding trait for a conquistador was greed. Also, conquistadores believed that anything they did was acceptable because they forced pagans to accept Christianity and Spanish rule.
The Spanish crown feared the conquistadores had too much power to rule New Spain. The crown also thought that they killed or enslaved too many Indians who might have become Christians and tax paying subjects. Eventually, many leading conquistadores died fighting each other or were forced into retirement by the crown. 4. Colonists:
During the sixteenth century, about 250,000 Spanish immigrated to the Americas. People from all social classes went, but the middle classes skilled artisans dominated. Women rarely emigrated which resulted in the men taking wives among the Indians. This mixing resulted in a castas social system.
The center of the Spanish Empire consisted of Mexico and Peru. The American Empire was divided into two large administrative regions called viceroyalties. They were governed by a viceroy that was appointed by the king. The viceroyalty of New Spain was made of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean islands. Peru included all of South America except Portuguese Brazil.
6. Gold & Silver:
Mexico and Peru produced a large amount of gold and silver. Between 1500 and 1650, the Spanish shipped about 181 tons of gold and 16,000 tons of silver from America to Europe. While this seemed like a good idea at first, it actually led to economic inflation. This eventually led to the decline of the Spanish military and economy during the seventeenth century.
1. How and why does Florida became the focus of Spain?
Florida becomes the focus of Spain because so many Spanish ships hauling royal revenue were attacked off of Florida’s coast. To combat this,
the Spanish crown established a fortified colony along the Atlantic coast of Florida.
2. Spain reaches west to New Mexico—use of the Adelanto system. Who was Onate? He was the viceroy who was given the job of founding the colony of New Mexico. He founded New Mexico among the Pueblo people who he greatly exploited and eventually massacred, maimed, and enslaved. He was eventually found guilty of adultery and abusing Indians and colonists.
3. What significance can be attached to New Mexico Missions? Franciscans. By 1628, the friars had fifty missions in the Rio Grande Valley. These churches had thousands of converts.
4. What was the Pueblo Revolt, how did it begin and what happen to cause the fanaticism? After years of on and off conflict with the governors and the Franciscans, the Pueblo vented their rage by destroying missions, farms, and ranches. The Pueblos in the uprising made a special point to desecrate churches and mutilate the corpses of priests.
[a shift in geography, a new culture, and very different group of Native Americans]
1. What were the two major Native American cultural groups? How were they distinct? Algonquian and Iroquian. These two groups of Indians were distinct because of their cultures and languages.
2. The key for economic development was the fur trade of New France. Why was that so? Fur trading by the Europeans and Natives made them mutually dependent on each other.
3. How and why did trade develop? Discuss.
The French traders developed alliances with the Northern Algonquians and later the Hurons of the Iroquian culture.
4. How did the fur trade operate in its widest applications Fur trading with the Indians began when the Indians exchanged furs with the
colonists fishing at Newfoundland. The Indians desired shiny beads and copper, while the colonists highly valued furs. Due to overhunting in Europe, furs were scarce and very expensive.
5. Analyze and characterize The Five Nations. Who were they? The Five Nations Iroquois lived in large, fortified hilltop villages. The women farmed large fields that fed the young men so that they could go to war. They could travel long distances to launch raids against many enemies.
6. What impact did old world disease have upon new world natives? Between 1633 and 1635, smallpox and measles killed half of the Iroquois population.
7. How important was the formation and development of Dutch trade system & involvement? It led to a situation in which the Iroquois and the French needed each other as enemies in order to maintain the Dutch traders at Fort Orange.
8. In the new world the French brought the militant Jesuits to catholicize the new world. Did it work? It did not work. The Iroquois eventually killed or ran off all of the Jesuit priests and their converts.
1. How did English colonization differ from that of the Spanish and French? What was a later outcome of this difference?
English colonization was different from the colonization of the Spanish and the French because the English colonized the mid-Atlantic seaboard. The French and Spanish believed that this area was too cool for tropical crops but too warm for the best furs. This colonization led the colonists to the discovery of the prime commodity of tobacco in 1616. Tobacco permitted an explosive growth in population, territory, and wealth.
2. How did Sir Walter Raleigh characterize the relationship between trade and power? Ralegh believed that whoever commanded trade was the lord of the world’s wealth.
3. What was the role of Roanoke?
Roanoke was established because the island was buffered by dangerous shoals and long sandbanks. Because of the island’s location, the English believed that Roanoke promised obscurity from Spanish discovery and attack.
5. Who were the “sturdy beggars”?
Sturdy beggars were English peasants who had been made homeless and unemployed by increased agricultural productivity and national wealth. This occurred because of a loss of common lands formally worked by the peasants.
6. Who was Powhatan? What is the character of the Native Americans in the area? Powhatan was the paramount chief of about 24,000 Indians that were divided into thirty tribes. These Indians were united by an Algonquian language. These Native Americans were distinct because of the mobile way of life and the way that they divided tasks along gender lines.
7. What was the importance of tobacco cultivation?
Tobacco allowed the colonists to produce a commodity that consumers would pay high prices for in England.
8. What was the “headright” system?
If a man could pay his way over on a ship to Virginia, he would be given fifty acres of land and another fifty acres for every servant or relative whose way he also paid on the ship.
1. Who were the leaders of the Chesapeake colonies?
Hard-driving merchants and planters of the middle class claimed the highest offices in the Chesapeake colonies.
2. Who were the workers in the Chesapeake colonies prior to 1676? The workers in the colonies were indentured servants who were now planters and their families. The successful planters consolidated to form large plantations which forced newly freed servants to become tenant farmers or move to the frontier.
3. What were the frustrations of freedmen, and to where did they move? The freedmen either had to become tenant farmers, or they had to move to the frontier where they later had problems with Indians.
4. Characterize Governor Berkeley.
He spoke against Virginia’s economic addiction to tobacco. He felt that the people under his rule were so desperately poor that they might decide to team up with the Indians to raid the colony to better themselves. Berkeley was well liked by the wealthiest colonists, and he gave the wealthy well paying public offices as well as other perks.
5. What was his policy toward Indians?
Berkeley opposed killing off the Indians because it would end the profitable deer skin trade that he and his friends enjoyed.
6. Describe the rebellion led by Nathanial Bacon.
Bacon led a group of elite planters who were upset with Berkeley and a rival group of planters who resented their lack of offices and other rewards. They gained support among the common planters and servants by promising to help them. They attacked the governor and his supporters and ran them out of Jamestown in September 1676.
7. How did the British Crown respond, and what happened to Governor Berkeley? The king said the Berkeley was “an old fool”, so he sent an army to restore order in Jamestown. Governor Berkeley and his supporters were run out of Jamestown in September 1676 by the attackers.
8. How did the Chesapeake planters respond to the declining supply of white laborers? Chesapeake planters turned to African slaves to replenish servants who had become too scarce and expensive to keep.
9. What, then, did the planters do in order to keep the slaves intimidated?
How did they, then, treat the common white man?
The planters formed a colonial militia made up of common white men to keep the slaves from rebelling. The planters no longer feared the common white man.
9. What colonies comprised the Chesapeake group?
Virginia and Maryland.
1. Compare and contrast the settlers in New England with those in the Chesapeake colonies.
Both colonies were generated due to the social and economic pressures within England. Unlike the Chesapeake colonists, the New England colonists were “middling sorts”. However, the Chesapeake colonists were poor and short-lived indentured servants.
2. What colonies comprised New England?
New England was compromised of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire.
3. What was the topography of New England?
New England was very cold and rocky. There were also many seaports in the New England area.
4. Who were the principal early settlers in New England?
The Puritans were the first people to settle in New England. They decided to leave the Church of England and have their own way of worshipping because they did not like the monarch’s religious aspects. They also came to share and preach the gospel to those who were lost.
5. Contrast labor and land ownership in New England with that in the Chesapeake colonies.
The New England colonies granted land to mean who banded together to found a town, but the Chesapeake colonies’ leaders allocated land directly to wealthy individuals. In New England, the town was a local
government which was fundamental to its politics. However, the Chesapeake colonies relied of the larger county.
6. Characterize the Puritans. What was their motivation in coming to the New World? What were the principal tenets of their religion?
Faith and economics aspired the Puritans to come to the New World. The Puritans were angry with their Anglican rulers, and they thought that in New England they could purify their churches, supervise one another, and enact a code of laws derived from the Bible. The Puritans also believed that New England would allow them to have a fresh economic start.
7. Describe the Great Migration.
John Winthrop was the promoter of the Great Migration. It was the most significant emigration of Puritans to the New England area. The colonists in the New England territory fared much better than the Virginia colonists.
8. How did the Puritans reconcile their religion with the profit motive? The Puritans first tried to make some money. To help in keeping the people calm, the Puritans started supervising one another, purifying their churches, and making many laws. They maintained peace and order throughout their towns.
9. Why were the Puritans concerned with a: Theocracy? Education? Morality? Where they as bad as contemporary writers have alleged? The Puritans wanted a theocracy because it was the study of God and religion. They wanted to spread the word of God throughout the entire world and having a theocracy would help them in that goal. Because the Puritans always wanted growth in their towns, they always sent their children to school to learn about their colony.
10. What were the principal trades in New England? (How did the people make their money?)
New England used the fishing industries as their principal trade because their soil made it hard to grow crops. The Puritans learned to tolerate the fishermen because they made large sums of money, even though they had no morals. Timber was also a good business for the Puritans.
11. What was the economic relationship between New England and the West Indies? The New England colonists took their timber and fish to the West Indies. They would in return get molasses, tobacco, and rum for their colony. They would sometimes also get servants to work on small plantations.
12. Characterize the Bible Commonwealth.
The Bible Commonwealth believed that if they did good deeds for others that in return they would receive salvation and save others. They were against worshipping idols, breaking the Sabbath, practicing magic, and blaspheming. They also believed that they were the only people that were right.
13. What was the influence of Harvard University graduates on the Puritan hierarchy? The graduates were usually very important men that influenced their society in a positive manner. These men were also ministers of England.
14. Characterize Rhode Island. How did it influence Massachusetts and Connecticut? Rhode Island did not judge people by their looks or their background. They kept their state ideas and problems completely away from their church ideas and problems. Connecticut and Massachusetts did not look highly upon Rhode Island, but they were thankful for them when M&C had problematic people.
15. Why did New England ultimately fail as a “City upon a Hill?” New England ultimately failed because the English showed no interest in their colonies. To most people in England, the Puritan experiment seemed at best strange. New England also appeared irrelevant after the triumphant restoration of the monarchy in 1660.
16. Why was there such a flap over the Witchcraft Issue? Where did it occur? People were frequently accused of witchcraft because most people did not feel safe with strange events that occurred around them. They believed that the strange things that happened had a supernatural meaning. Witchcraft took place in almost the entire New England area, but it mainly happened in Salem, Massachusetts and Virginia.
1. List several concerns Taylor discusses in this chapter about the culture and contributions of the Natives The Natives did not waste their land at all. They planted only what was necessary for them to get through the winter and summer months. While the men would be out hunting animals, the women would tend to the fields. Colonists soon took over and took the Natives’ land away. However, the Natives supplied the colonists with tools in order to make a high profit.
2. What was the issue of property? What was meant by tribute? Were the natives exploited? Why?
The colonists did not like that the Natives were wasting their land. The colonists made the Natives mad by clearing out the forests which made all of their game leave. Tribute was opportunities with trade between the Indians and the colonists. Yes, because the colonists took advantage of the Natives and gave them less than what they deserved.
3. Discuss the Pequot War. What were the important elements, and what was the result?
The Pequot War was the first major battle between the Indians and the English. The Pequot War started in 1636. The war occurred because the colonists wanted more land, so they told the Indians to pay them in wampum. The colonists also wanted the Native children held as hostages. Only five natives were able to survive the war because the colonists set fire to the village.
4. Discuss King Philip’s War. What were the important elements, and what was the result? What type of war did it eventually become? King Philip’s War began because the colonists hung three Natives because
they had allegedly killed a praying town Indian. A civil war soon broke out with Indians due to this. Since the Indian rebels ran out of food, they either had to join to other Indians or were killed.
5. What was the deal about “praying towns?” What did it purport to do? The purpose of praying towns was to do missionary work in a safer environment. Praying towns also kept the Indians under close supervision and pressured them to change religions. The main components of Praying towns were weak and small bands of Indians. The Indians had to give up their culture to become English.
6. What ultimate end came as victory, and yet, end in defeat? The Indians destroyed the colonist’s fields and towns. They made French raids throughout the years which caused much havoc for the English. As a result, the English came back taking all their towns and bringing new people with them.
1. What is Taylor’s motivation to have us explore the West Indies in this chapter? In order for colonists to be rich, every colony had to have a good export crop to support them. The leading export crop in the West Indies was sugar. Because of the price of sugar, many men became rich off of it. Slaves were often used in sugar plantations.
2. What significance doe Taylor attach to Barbados? Discuss. The unusual thing about Barbados is that there were pigs all over the island. They estimated that thousands of wild pigs roamed around the entire island. The pigs also supported the early colonists until they destroyed their herds by wasting them.
3. What is revealing to the reader from the map of the West Indies? Today, the West Indies are still predominately English speaking countries. However, many islands were discovered by the English Empire because they controlled trade.
4. Discuss the major demand for the use of slavery, from whence did it come and who benefited? Slaves were mainly used to work in the sugar plantations. A large number of workers were needed to cultivate all of the crops. Eventually convicts and criminals were sent to work as slaves on the plantations. This was the period that African American slaves began to come to the Americas. The English tradesmen benefited from slavery.
5. Taylor boldly declares that sugar was a rich man’s crop. Why? What demand did it have outside the western hemisphere? Why the need for commercialization and hence colonization? Although there was a big profit from sugar, it cost a lot of money to grow. Many rich men started sugar plantations because they required expensive machinery, technical knowledge, precise timing, and strenuous labor. Many colonists came to the West Indies to make a profit off of sugar because the English used it to sweeten their tea.
6. Discuss the planter aristocracy. Analyze the social strata for the West Indies population. The planters aristocracy was an elite group of gentlemen that made a large amount of money off of the plantations in the West Indies. Corporations that could not make it alone were often bought out by the aristocracy, who gave them more land. The social hierocracy was divided into three parts: the planter elite, the middle class planters, and the slaves.
7. Finally, what does Taylor have to say about the importance of Jamaica? What is his central argument? The Jamaicans welcomed the people that left Barbados. The new colonists eventually produced more sugar than ever before on the island of Barbados. Jamaica also held many refugee camps for maroons who in turn helped catch runaway slaves.
1. Who were the initial settlers of Carolina?
The initial settlers of Carolina were a group of West Indies planters. They named Carolina after King Charles II, and they formed the colony during the 1670s. The colony was later governed by eight proprietors.
2. What was the purpose for the settlement of Carolina?
The purpose of the settlement of Carolina was to become a big plantation settlement. It offered many possibilities for the farmers because the land in the Carolina was very fertile.
3. Characterize the topography of Carolina.
Carolina had many coastal plains that had good fertile soil. It also had rivers that provided irrigation for the crops. The swamps in the Carolina area also helped the colonists in various ways.
4. Characterize the climate of Carolina.
The summers in Carolina were very long and were hot and humid. Unlike the summers, the winters were short and cold. Because the Englishmen could not stand the hot summers, they usually went away for the humid summers.
5. What was the concern about interaction between the Indians and the slaves? The colonists were worried that the slaves and Indians would join together and team up against the colonists. The colonists knew that they would be defeated because their numbers could not compare to that of the slaves and Indians.
6. How did the leadership of Carolina go about keeping the Indians and the slaves separate? If the Indians caught a runaway slave, they were promised to be given a large amount of goods by the colonists. Therefore, the Indians were constantly looking for runaway slaves to get guns, ammunition, and clothes.
7. Where was rice grown in Carolina?
Rice was planted in the wet lowlands of Carolina. The colonists attempted to plant the rice in a climate that was identical to west Africa.
8. Who taught the planters how to grow rice?
The slaves from west Africa taught the colonists how to grow rice.
9. How much rice was grown in the first half of the 1700s? What was the effect of this rice on the economy?
During the first half of the 1700s, there was forty-five million pounds of rice grown. Rice became the second largest exported plant in Europe.
10. What was a second valuable plantation crop?
The second most valuable crop was indigo. Indigo was used as blue dye in the clothing factories in England.
11. How much did this crop increase in growth between 1750 and 1760? The crop increased approximately 437,000 pounds between 1750 and 1760.
12. What was the effect of working conditions and climate on slave mortality? Many slaves were worked to death. The mortality rate increased in Carolina because the climate was much hotter than that of the West Indies.
13. What else did the imported Africans introduce to Carolina? Who was affected by this disease?
The Africans brought many diseases to Carolina that the Indians had never been exposed to. Malaria was by far the worst disease that was introduced to the Indians. Carolina planters were the main people that were affected by the diseases, but the Indians were also greatly affected.
14. What was the growing fear of the planters?
Since the black slaves outnumbered the white planters, they were afraid that their slaves would team up against them and make a rebellion against the whole planter elite.
15. What actions did the planters take in response to this fear? Due to this fear, the planters kept the slaves as busy as possible. The planters also adopted the West Indies slave system, so the slaves were constantly watched and had cruel punishments.
16. What became a reality near Charles Town on the Stono River, and when?
A real slave rebellion began on September 9, 1739. Seven plantations were burned, and their owners were killed.
17. Who were the founders of Georgia?
British imperialists and Carolina officials.
18. What role does Oglethorpe play?
He led the first group of colonists to Savannah, Georgia, and he was also the leader of the Georgia Trustees who was a group of social reformers interested in Georgia. He could have been known as the leader of Georgia.
19. How was the colony financed, and what was the significance of that? The colony was primarily funded by the crown and parliament. However, charitable donations were also made by various people. Georgia was the first colony funded by British taxpayers.
20. Compare and contrast land ownership in Georgia with the other Southern colonies, especially for the purpose of increasing the number of whites willing to work and capable of bearing guns.
Georgia did not accept slavery at first and rejected using black men as slaves. However, the white ethnicity was still dominated.
21. Why does Taylor have a section in which he discusses the gun trade? Indians would listen and help the white settlers control their slaves, if the white men would trade them their guns. This made it easier on the settlers.
22. Who were the Raiders and what is revealed about these groups? The Raiders were Westo Indians who spoke the Iroquoian language. They originated from the Indians around Lake Erie. The Westo Indians eventually destroyed all of the Cusabo people.
23. What good reasons does Taylor have for discussing “terror” in the territory? Many white planters were scared that the slaves would
rebel and kill all of them throughout all of the colonies. The European countries would be put in debt if all of the white planters were killed. Destruction was horrible when the slaves rebelled.
24. What were the main points of Georgia governing?
The main governing power of Georgia was the Georgia Trustees. The crown and parliament also governed Georgia by funding every expense they had.
25. What characteristic did the low country of Georgia and South Carolina replicate? Georgia and Carolina replicated the West Indies plantation system. They also relied on slaves to work for them in their large agricultural businesses.
26. What is Taylor’s final conclusion about this area during this century? Georgia and Carolina provided many opportunities for the settlers, whether it was a settler that got a big piece of land or a small piece of land.
1. What region did the English neglect during the early 17th Century? The English neglected the area between the New England colonies and the Chesapeake Bay colonies.
2. Describe the topography and climate of the mid-Atlantic region. Compare and contrast with New England and the Chesapeake.
The land in the mid-Atlantic region was fertile, unlike the rock soil of New England. There were three major rivers that provided irrigation and fish. The Chesapeake colonies were also much more sickly than the mid-Atlantic regions.
3. Who took advantage of this neglect?
The Swedes and the Dutch took advantage of the neglect, and this also led them to build small colonies in the Delaware and Hudson valleys.
4. How did England react to those who took advantage?
At first, the English starting protesting, but later they could do nothing about it because they were very weak compared to the Dutch. The English became very jealous of the Dutch because the Dutch were becoming very wealthy. The English rose up in power and started trying to take back the middle colonies.
5. What was the progression of colonial types (royal, proprietary, etc.)? At first, they were propriety colonies because England had lacked dues when they were established. Once the crown grew back in wealth, they were able to turn back into royal colonies
6. Describe the event and result of the English naval squadron in 1664. The English wanted respect from the colonists, so they wanted to take the New Netherlands away from the Dutch. In the end the English were successful because the Dutch had to thin their population to save both the Delaware and Hudson valleys.
7. Characterize the Dutch Empire.
The people from the Dutch Empire were very smart and tactful of doing things. Most of their profits came from the sugar industry unlike the other European nations. They always took care of what they had and took care of it precisely.
8. Make a list of Dutch ( New Netherland ) contributions to the area. The Dutch built New Amsterdam which became a large seaport for trading ships. They also founded the first colonies in the middle colonies.
9. Who did the Dutch welcome that were not welcome in most European realms? The Dutch welcomed the Jews into their realm. They also welcomed many different religions that weren’t looked upon from the European people. They were the most diverse in the religious outlooks.
10. What is the significance of the phenomenon of Dutch trading companies losing money?
The Dutch trading companies losing money helped them get a bigger
profit than before. It also helped establish the Dutch West Indies trading company.
11. What economic advantage did Dutch shippers enjoy? Who took advantage of this? The Dutch shippers received more profit then the English ships because the Dutch charged thirty-three percent less. The English took advantage of it.
12. Describe the Navigation Acts. What was the significance of these acts? The Navigation Acts were documents that stated only English exports could sell English ships. They were also not allowed to trade or sell with any European countries. The acts began because the Dutch was charging less, so they all sold stuff to them which made the Dutch Empire more rich than the English.
13. Highlight the events between the English and New Netherlands in 1664 and 1667. English people sent war ships to conquer the New Netherlands because the Dutch were getting too powerful. After the Dutch surrendered, the English gave the garrison to Virginia. A peace treaty was then made in 1667 where the Dutch gave the New Netherlands to the English.
14. What resulted from these events with regard to the Indian nations? The English traded with the Mohawk and Iroquoian Indians, instead of the Dutch. They also increased the prices of their goods in order to make the Indians pay more. When other Indians started to attach the Mohawk and Iroquoian Indians, the English refused to help.
15. What action did the Duke of York take in 1664? What resulted from this action? The Duke of York gave the lands between the Delaware and Hudson valleys to two men. Then they sold it to two other men which were English and Scottish Quakers. The colony of New Jersey was then split in half. The Scottish Quakers ruled the east part of Jersey, while the English Quakers ruled the west part.
16. What situation was New Jersey left in?
The crown reunited New Jersey in 1702 because it was not doing well. New Jersey was also not nearly as powerful economically and agriculturally as its two powerful neighboring colonies. This left New Jersey in the shadows of their great strength and achievements.
17. Who founded Pennsylvania , and why?
William Penn founded Pennsylvania because he had always wanted a large colony of his own.
18. Explain the factional divide that set the older, non-Quaker settlements against the more numerous and mostly Quaker newcomers.
The Non-Quakers thought the Quakers ere not a real religion and they had no right to be known as a religion. The Quakers also did not support slavery.
19. What action did Penn take when he was unable to reconcile these two regions? Penn thought that it would be best to make the Quakers a real religion by the King of England. The king made the Quakers a true religion and the non-Quakers started accepting them better.
20. What is the status of religion in the Middle Colonies? What is the status of religious dissenters?
The religion in the Middle Colonies was very diverse. They also accepted every type of religion, and they did not persecute anyone who thought differently.
As you read Part III, identify and take notes about the following specific details:
1. Who succeeded King Charles I? Characterize his dealings with the American colonies. King James II, often known as the Duke of York, succeeded King Charles I. he often called the American colonies, “cash cows.” King James II only worried about the money the people made and not the people themselves. He thought the people should do as he said and respect the crown.
2. What action did Massachusetts take in 1678?
Massachusetts stated that they thought the English laws did not reach the American colonies. The king did not like this, so he revoked their charter. He also made up all the governors in the surrounding colonies in order to have complete control.
3. Who was the governor-general? Explain what he did.
The governor-general was Sir Edmund Andros. He levied taxes which made the mother country receive more money than the needy colonies. He replaced puritan officers with Anglican officers and he also made sure the Puritan clergy did not receive a salary from the crown.
4. What significant claim did the Reverend John Wise make in 1678? What was the importance of this claim? What response did Andros make to this claim? Reverend John Wise rallied a group of people to oppose the new taxes enforced by Andros. He stated since they had the same rights as Englishmen then they could not have levied taxes against them. Andros’ response was they had left English rights behind when they crossed the Atlantic Ocean.
5. What action did the Dominion take to enforce the Navigation Acts? Why was this a particular hardship on the colonists?
The Dominion established a vice-admiralty court that condemned at least six merchant ships. This made some of their money useless because they could only trade with Englishmen.
6. By what name were the supporters of William, the Dutch Prince of Orange known? What did they call for?
The supporters were known as Whigs. The Whigs wanted a Glorious Revolution, which meant a united group of English people had to come together. Later, the Glorious Revolution happened.
1. What effect did the Navigation Acts have on the Chesapeake and the West Indies ? The Navigation Act ordered that the Chesapeake and West Indies export their sugar to England. They were given bills of exchange that allowed them not to have any debt, since they exported more than they
2. What effect did a growing economy have on free colonists? The free colonists were taxed less than the English and obtained a better income than those in England. They were also allowed to have a higher standard of living that their counterparts in Europe.
3. Explain the effect that a larger disposable income had on free colonists. They were able to but farms and raise livestock to support themselves. It also enabled them to build houses at a cheaper price. Since they made a little bit of extra money, they were able to live a healthier life style.
4. How many slaves did the British colonies import during the 18th Century? One and a half million slaves were imported during the eighteenth century.
5. What was the mortality rate among new slaves in the Chesapeake colonies during the early 18th Century?
Since the Chesapeake colonies were fed much better and healthier than those in the West Indies, they survived longer.
6. How did the number of African-born slaves compare to the number of American-born by the mid-18th Century?
The African born were still overpowering the numbers of the American born.
1. Identify 10 facts about religion and religious establishments in the colonies 1700 – 1775.
The colonist were required to attend and pay a tax to an established church in the colonies. Congregationalist sustained an especially impressive establishment in New England, except for Rhode Island, the Congregationalist had the largest denomination. Also, the New English owns enforced a Sabbath that restricted activity to the home and church, if you got caught working, playing or traveling, you got fined.
2. Describe the results of denominational reconciliation between the late 1740s and 1772. When they attracted more listeners and training ministers, they got together to celebrate their victory. They also did not care about the religious radical, so they got together.
3. Who was George Whitfield? What is his contributions?
George Whitfield, a young Anglican minister, helped develop an evangelical style of preaching at differences with the church of England. He also became the first celebrity seen and heard by many colonists. He traveled and told many people about God. He helped the printing press get revolutionized by getting his stories printed.
4. Discuss Old Lights vs. New Lights—who was what?
The New Lights were those people who believed in the divine grace and the Old Light were those who were against the evangelical style of preaching. The Old Lights believes in structural spiritual preaching with completely no emotions, while the New Lights believed in Whitefield’s preaching methods.
Chapters 16 – 19 using the following topics Taylor discusses, outline why they are historically significant and what impact they had on colonial development.
Started going to Canada, the fur trading company district for the French. In 1673, the government wanted to save money, so they stopped which caused emigrants to stop coming. The emigrants helped develop many new towns that enriched France.
The winters in French America were extremely long and cold. The river they had was the ST. Lawrence, which was frozen a lot of the time, so voyages were much longer. The emigrants were usually very few because of these harsh conditions.
When the French lived in France, they were poor, but if they stayed in Canada, they had a higher standard of living. They would hunt game for food. The wives were treated mush better in Canada than in England. The women were able to own land or even live as nuns in convents.
Louis XIV ruled over everyone at his house without and parliament rulers. He appointed three rival officials, a governor, a general, a civil administrator and a Catholic bishop. Although they sometimes fought, they always performed a decent job of keeping the French colonies orderly.
5. The Upper Country
The Upper Country was a land full of forests and lakes. They also das a middle ground solutions that states that neither Indians nor colonists could dominate each other. They set up small refugee camps, so when the Indians were in trouble they could find a place of refuge
Sieur de La Salle established Louisiana for King Louis XIV. They traded guns, ammunition and furs with the Indians. He geography of Louisiana was a very wet, swampy area with very hot summers. Colonists who lived there cared more about their slaves because they cost more than the soldiers.
7. Rebels and Allies
Louisiana was split into two distinctive settlements. The first was a small plantation with settlers. The second was an immense hinterland dominated by Indians. The Natchez people decided to kill many of the settlers because they went into their territory.
The crown pulled upper country posts because they were so tired of losing money. The Indians depended on the French for trade, so the French got stuck with them. The French sold goods for less than the English, so they did not help the English Empire.
1. Villagers and Nomads
The Villagers lived along the rivers of the southern plains. One group of villagers spoke Siouan which consisted of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Omaha and Ponca. The others were Caddoan speakers. The villagers would walk far out into the plain twice a year to hunt buffalo. The Nomads also hunted buffalo, but when they ran out they would kill their dogs and eat them.
2. The Bread Basket of the World
The Bread Basket of the World was when the Villagers and Nomads would plant different foods. They would sometimes plant rice, wheat, potatoes, manioc or maire to feed themselves. They would plant a lot at one time and save it for the winter months.
Genizaros were captives that worked for New Mexicans or were sent to work in the silver mines. Whenever they were taken captive, they were usually children and usually never returned home. The children worked on ranches and often suffered sexual exploitation. After 1740, the free Genizaros got together and formed small communities. Later, they obtained land and served New Mexico as border guards.
4. Horses and guns
Horses first evolved in North America before spreading eastward. They became extinct in North America for some time, but they then returned to North America as domesticated animals kept by Hispanic colonists. As the Great Plains people obtained horses, they also obtained firearms. The primary reason they wanted guns were to defend their villages and raid their enemies. However, they still used bows for hunting their buffalo.
The French traders traveled the Great Plains during the eighteenth century to seek people to trade items with. The Wichita Pawnee villagers got better firearms than the mission Indians and raided the Apache and
Pueblo for captives to sell. In 1716, the Spanish built new missions in east Texas, where the Caddo people lived.
6. Comanche and Apache
The Comanche were the big winners, but the Apache were aggressively catching up to the Comanche. The Comanche soon acquired horses as they moved southeast onto the southern plains. The Comanche would often raid the Apache for horses, women, children and buffalo territory.
7. Bourbon Reforms
New Mexico was saved by Spanish officials during the 1770s and 1780s. The reform was very slow at first, but it progressed very quickly under the leadership of Teodoro de Croix, military commander of the northern frontier, Bernardo de Galvez, viceroy of New Spain and Juan Bautista de Anza, governor of New Mexico.
8. The Northern Plains
The Northern Plains completion was between the British and French traders. It cost the British much less to get across the Northern Plains than it did the French. London merchants set up fortified trading posts on the bay’s western shore. The traders were more of a help than a threat to the colonists.
1. Renewed War
The British began to realize the increasing wealth and power of France. The French Empire began to grow in the West Indies because of their sugar plantations. Instead of directly attacking the French, the British attacked France’s ally, the Spanish. The British attacked Spanish shipping, ports, and islands around the Caribbean in hopes of restoring British predominance.
2. Balance of Power
Both English and French imperialists recognized in North America that the Indians determined the balance of military power. Because the
Indians dominated the forests between the two empires, they could obstruct the advance of their colonial enemy and destroy settlements. The Indians held the ultimate power position between the French and British.
3. Seven Years War
Peace did not last long in the New World. In Nova Scotia, the British built a navy base at Halifax in 1749 to counter nearby Louisburg. Alarmed, the French built two new forts at the Bay of Fundy, which the British resented as an intrusion on their colony. The Seven Years War formed because of the French and British overacting to local aggressions.
4. Indian Rebellions
The collapse of New France began a series of problems for the Indians. They could no longer play the French and the British off against one another to maintain their own independence, maximize their presents, and ensure trade competition. Most colonial traders cheated and abused Indians in pursuit of immediate profit, which ultimately led to many rebellions.
5. Imperial Crisis
The Imperial Crisis was primarily about the colonists not wishing to pay taxes levied by a parliament in England in which they were not represented. This happened even though they were already taxed far less than Britain that lived in England. The tax demands of the British also happened at the same time the economy of the colonists was in a postwar depression.
6. Empire of liberty
At first, the colonists wanted to remain a part of the Empire of Great Britain because they had such a good deal. Only after Great Britain began to insist on new taxes did they consider independence. The colonists did not want a war, and they thought that Great Britain would back down. After winning independence, the new Americans spread across the continent to the west as their military pushed the Indians and the Hispanics out of the way.
The Russians came eastward across Siberia because of hunting. They traded in western Europe and eventually China in exchange for porcelain, tea, and silk. The Russian traders, known as promyshlenniki, were well armed and came in large number to intimidate the Siberian native people. The Russians also exposed the Siberians to diseases and alcohol which caused their population to be devastated.
The Russians continued this system of terror and forcing natives to produce skins in the Aleutians and Alaska. They wanted to set up something like the Hudson’s Bay Company in Canada, but they were not able to do so.
3. Alta California
By the 1760s, the Spanish learned about the Russians being in the Aleutians Islands and were worried that they would go further south and west. They were also worried that the British would cross the Great Plains to the Pacific Ocean. Therefore, they ordered the colonization of California.
The Spanish failed to colonize the Alta California area to much extent because they lacked horticulture, precious metals, and adobe towns that the Spanish considered necessary for conquests and missions. The mountainous coast also provided few well-sheltered harbors for shipping.
The Spanish thought that the California Indian cultures were stupid and insensible. They thought of the Indians as children who needed to be rescued, baptized, and converted to Catholicism.
The Pacific Islands were not explored by the Spanish until the early sixteenth century when Magellan discovered a western route into the Pacific through the strait named for him. After this, the Spanish established a colony at Manila in the Philippines.
During 1778, Captain Cook sailed along the northwest coast of North America while going between Hawaii and Vancouver Island. During this time, Cook spent a month at an inlet on Vancouver Island’s west coast. This was mistakenly called Nootka by Cook. The Natives actually named this place Yuquot. This place and people were referred to as Nootka from that time on.
During the 1780s and the 1790s, Chief Kamehameha became the dominant chief of the Hawaiian islands. He defeated the chiefs of the other islands and unified Hawaii under one ruler.
9. Conclusions: What are they
The Spanish lost out in North America because they were more interested in Catholic converts than establishing economic strongholds. The dominant power on the Pacific Rim became the United States. The United States also dominated from the Atlantic west to California, bought Alaska from the Russian, and absorbed Hawaii in 1898.
Grading of the written assignments
1. The responses to the questions will be graded on: clarity, comprehension and understanding of the material. Each answer to the questions must be in your own words. DO NOT COPY WORD FOR WORD FROM THE READINGS!
2. This assignment is worth 100 points.
So, there it is: Your summer assignment for AP United States History.