Pages 8 (1776 words)
Background of the Study
According to the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSMA) real-time intelligence data, there are now over 8.17 billion mobile connections worldwide. It exceeds the average world population of 7.71 billion indicated by United Nation digital analyst estimates. The total world population that are now unique mobile subscribers is about 66.53% and the Philippines is in the twenty-first rank with 27.20% mobile users with the total current population of 105,341,000 in which 28,627,000 of the raw smartphone penetrations ranked by the numbers of users within each market.
CITATION How191 l 1033 (How Many People Have Phones Worldwide? n.d.)In relation with this, several findings in 2017 shows that an average American adult spends around two hours, fifty-one minutes on their mobile phones per day CITATION Tex17 l 1033 (Text Request, 2017). Considering the convenience these gadgets could offer, it seems to affect the length of time people utilize it worldwide. Additionally, Statista Research Department (2016) have shown a forecast of the average number of mobile phone users in the Philippines from 2014 to 2020.
Based from this, there would be 74.2 million users for 2019. One reason behind this is the mere fact that the activities linked to technology, specifically mobile phones, increase over time.
It has also been pointed out that communication, entertainment, business transactions, jobs directly related to mobile phones, and travelling are the most common reasons why people use their phone often CITATION GDe19 l 1033 (Geo, 2019). Thus, it seems unavoidable to use mobile phone. Moreover, these are also portable in terms of size which causes adolescents to bring their gadgets to bed.
This tempts the users to utilize it more out of habit. Additionally, Twenge (2017) stated that most mobile phones emit blue light which simulates daylight, which in return inhibits the melatonin (a hormone that helps us fall asleep and stay asleep) production of the brain. This becomes the reason why the internal clock of the body, also known as the circadian rhythm, suppresses the release of this sleep-inducing hormone. This is caused by the short wavelength, artificial blue light that is being emitted by the gadgets utilized. The more people use these gadgets, the more it is difficult for the user to sleep. Furthermore, usage of mobile phones before going to sleep reduces the onset of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which then compromises the alertness of the person in the morning. Continuous habit of this activity accumulates to a significant chronic deficiency in sleep. CITATION Why19 l 1033 (Why Electronics May Stimulate You Before Bed, n.d.)When it comes to reasons why students use their phones, Vorderer, et. al (2016) stated that with the availability of mobile smart devices, many adolescents have developed the habit of being online and connected with other users almost all the time. Furthermore, they found out that smart device usage behaviors at night and behaviors in various social situations during the day indicate that being connected to others seems to be more relevant to the students than browsing the web. Moreover, the participants expressed strong emotional responses about a temporary loss of Internet access. This only shows how dependent the adolescents are in using their smartphones.
With the increasing dependence of people in using their mobile phones, it shows its own benefits and consequences. One important factor that is affected by this is sleep. Sleep is essential for a person. It is the time where the body and mind renew, repairs and develops CITATION Kar17 l 1033 (Karadağ, 2017). Moreover, an adolescent should have an average of eight to ten hours of sleep per night CITATION Hir15 l 1033 (Hirshkowitz, et al., 2015).
Mobile phone usage deprives people from having sufficient sleep. For students, it is necessary for them to get a proper sleep for their mind to function well and show great academic performance CITATION Kwo13 l 1033 (Kwon, Lee, Yoo, & Park, 2013). Excessive use of mobile phones can also result to tiredness, headache, dizziness and sleep disorders. In addition, it can also affect the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and hormone levels CITATION Sch09 l 1033 (Schüz, Waldemar, Olsen, & Johansen, 2009).
Meanwhile, this study will go deeper between the relationship of mobile phone usage to the sleep length of students. It is important to have a better understanding of using mobile phones, something that is already considered as part of our daily lives, and sleep, which is an essential need of our body.
Statement of the Problem
This study will aim to determine the correlation between mobile phone usage and sleep length of Ateneo de Naga University Senior High School (ADNU-SHS) Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Grade 12 students. Specifically, it will seek to answer the following questions:
How long do the respondents use their phones daily?
How long do the respondents sleep daily?
What time of the day do the respondents use their phones?
Is there a correlation between the length of mobile phone usage to the length of sleep?
Scope and Delimitation
This study will focus on the relationship between the length of mobile phone usage and sleep length among Senior high school students. Meanwhile, the respondents of this study will be limited to the Grade 12 STEM students of ADNU-SHS who use their mobile phones regularly.
Significance of the Study
This study will address significant concerns of the following members of the society and the general public:
- Senior High School Students. The data will be able to guide the Senior High School students of Ateneo de Naga University as to how they are to control the amount of time they spend on their mobile phones.
- Teachers. The data will help teachers to guide their students as to how they are to control the amount of time they spend on their mobile phones.
- Parents and Guardians. The data will help teachers to discipline their children as to how they are to control the amount of time they spend on their mobile phones.
- Future Researchers. The data will help the future researchers to be guided on the relationship of the length of mobile phone usage to the sleep length of students.
- Mobile Phone Users. The data will help mobile phone users to be guided as to how they should control the amount of time they use their phones.
- Guidance Counselor. The data will help the guidance counselors to have a reference as to how they should address the problems of students that is related to mobile phone usage.
- Administrators. The data will guide the administrators on how they are to control the usage of mobile phones of its students or the institution itself.
- Psychologists. The data will contribute to the knowledge of psychologists as to how they are to address the problems of their patients that have problems related to mobile phone usage and sleep.
Definition of Terms
To eliminate ambiguity in the discussion, the following terms will be defined:
- Technology. This is an application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life, or to the change and manipulation of the human CITATION Kar15 l 1033 (Karadag & Samancioglu, 2015). In this study, this will refer to the machine or equipment used by the Grade 12 STEM students of ADNU-SHS that can either affect their sleep length or not.
- Mobile Phone. It is a portable device for connecting to a telecommunications network in order to transmit and receive voice, video or other data CITATION Mob19 l 1033 (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019). This will pertain to the gadget used by students which will be analyzed if the usage of it have a correlation with sleep length of the students.
- Mobile Phone Usage. It is defined as any application of the cell phone as a tool, including talking, text messaging, game playing or the sheer accessibility of the instrument CITATION Sho16 l 1033 (Should Phones Use A Distraction?, 2016). In this study, this will refer to the access or exercise of the mobile phones by the Grade 12 STEM students of ADNU-SHS that can either have a relationship with their sleep length or not.
- Sleep Length. It refers to how long a person sleep on a daily basis. Sleep is a basic necessity that constitutes almost one-third of the hours in a human’s lifetime. It is a state of irreversible unconsciousness where the body and mind are renewed, repaired and developed CITATION Akc18 l 1033 (Akcay, 2018). In this study, it will pertain to the act that the researchers will be highlighting in this study, by means of analyzing the sleep length of the students. Its relationship to mobile phone usage will also be determined at the end of the study.
- Akcay, D. (2018). The effect of mobile phone usage on sleep quality in adolescents.
- Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019). Retrieved from Mobile telephone: https://school.ebonline.com/levels/high/article/mobile-telephone/471217
- Geo, D. (2019, March 28). Revealing Statistics about Cellphone Usage in 2019. Retrieved July 8, 2019, from TechJury: https://techjury.net/stats-about/smartphone-usage/
- Hirshkowitz, M., Whiton, K., Albert, S. M., Alessi, C., Bruni, O., & DonCarlos, L. (2015, March). National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Health, I(1), 40-43.
- How Many People Have Phones Worldwide? (n.d.). Retrieved July 6, 2019, from BankMyCell: https://www.bankmycell.com/blog/how-many-phones-are-in-the-world
- Karadag, E., & Samancioglu, S. (2015, July 27). Effects of aromatherapy on sleep quality and anxiety of patients. Retrieved from Britannica.com.
- Karadağ, M. (2017). Retrieved July 10, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324231619_The_effect_of_mobile_phone_usage_on_sleep_quality_in_adolescents
- Kwon, J. A., Lee, M., Yoo, K.-B., & Park, E.-C. (2013, August). Does the Duration and Time of Sleep Increase the Risk of Allergic Rhinitis? Results of the 6-Year Nationwide Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. VIII(8), 1-7. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c1f1/f6534a9eec39285a872a4a37fd4b04a3dcfd.pdf
- Schüz, J., Waldemar, G., Olsen, J., & Johansen, C. (2009, February 5). Risks for central nervous system diseases among mobile phone subscribers: a Danish retrospective cohort study. IV(2). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19194493
- Should Phones Use A Distraction? (2016, September 7). Retrieved July 10, 2019, from Cram: https://www.cram.com/essay/Should-Phones-Use-A-Distraction/P3QGSWSZ7BWW
- Statista Research Department. (2016, June 27). Philippines Mobile Phone Users 2014-2020. Retrieved July 8, 2019, from Statista: https://www.statista.com/statistics/570388/philippines-mobile-phone-users/
- Text Request. (2017, May 9). How Much Time Do People Spend on Their Mobile Phones in 2017? Retrieved July 7, 2019, from Hackernoon: https://hackernoon.com/how-much-time-do-people-spend-on-their-mobile-phones-in-2017-e5f90a0b10a6
- Twenge, J. (2017, October 19). Analysis: Teens are sleeping less. Why? Smartphones. Retrieved July 10, 2019, from PBS NewsHour: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/analysis-teens-are-sleeping-less-why-smartphones
- Vorderer, P., Krömer, N., & Schneider, F. M. (2016, October). Permanently online – Permanently connected: Explorations into university students’ use of social media and mobile smart devices. Computers in Human Behavior, LXIII, 694-703.
- Why Electronics May Stimulate You Before Bed. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2019, from National Sleep Foundation: https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/why-electronics-may-stimulate-you-bed