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The Impact of Internet on Indian Punjabi Music Industry Essay

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Paper type: Essay Pages: 46 (11367 words)

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OBJECTIVES:

            The primary objective of this literature review is to demonstrate the possible impacts of internet, specifically in e-commerce and online advertisements, to the industry of Punjabi music. Furthermore, the literature review explores various points of researches, studies and arguments of different authors on how internet can be either beneficial or damaging component towards Punjabi music industry.

The study explores significant contributing factors that influence the trend of e-commerce, advertisements and online outsourcing and on how these factors affect the sales, security, artists, profession and the overall field of Punjabi music industry.

2.1 Indian Punjabi Music – A Popularity

            The increasing popularity of Punjabi music is said to be due to its musical content. According to Kalra, Kaur and Hutnyk (2005), Punjabi music is clearly derived from the nature of maximizing the sense of the cultural hybridity between tradition and neo-modern approach, such as the use of high energy contemporary Punjabi music, and the incorporation of Punjabi principles in the lyrical composition. Unlike foreign musical genre, the musical content or composition of Punjabi music is more oriented to the simplier illustration of Indian culture and life.

As supported by Ballard and Banks (1994), the huge popularity of modern adapatations of Punjabi music (e.g. Bhangra, etc.) together with the folk musics of Punjab are increasing the solidariy and musical inclination of the Punjabi’s younger generation.

However, despite of this argument, most socio-analysts (Manuel, 1993; Ballard and Banks, 1994; Deol, 2000) consider the intense use of Punjabi Music advertisers and promoters to the newly available modes of music advertisement, which is through the web or internet. Popularity of Punjabi music is considered to the the effects of the emerging communication technology, such as the internet. The popularity of Punjabi music has been isolated to mostly European states during the start of 1980s; however, through the advent of internet, Punjabi’ Bhangra is able to penetrate vast urabanized places in both South Asian nations and Western coasts. However, there have been arguments in terms of Punjabi’s promotion in European states and the negative impact of internet to the music industry.

From the cassette revolution in India now comes the modern way of popularazing the trends of Punjabi music through cyberspace advertisements and global promotion of Punjabi’s proud music. As mentioned by Emadi (2005), many Punjabi singers (e.g. Shazia Manzoor, etc.) have gained their place in the national and international music industries due to the advancement of music via internet search engines, such as www.punjabilok.com, www.punjabisongs.com, etc..

Punjabi musical compositions is considered to be a transformed genre of musical division that presents a hybrid of tradition and diverse cultural siginficance that appeals to the South Asian community and European middle classes. According to Mohammad-Arif (2002), one of the highly recognized Punjabi music is the neo-bhangra that became a new alternative trend of music in Europe.

2.1.1 Development Of Indian Punjabi Music

Historically, the discovery of Punjabi music has started during the early times of King Shir Ali (1868-1879) in which tensions between local music industries and foreign Afghans. According to Emadi (2005), “the King provided more support towards the Afghan musicians than with Indian locales; hence, support on the locale   community of   Indian   musicians declined (p.104)”. In an effort of recovering from the societal bias, local Indian musicans have struggled to survive their cultural patterns of music by means of altering its musical style and changing the terminologies to a more recognized Indian names. However,    Mohammad-Arif (2002) argues that even during     the time Indians changed    the name  of their world  song, Punjabi    is still unable to   penetrate   easily to other    countries due to the strong   barriers of music trends in the west.

During the entry of nineteenth century, two famous Indian music genres emerge, specifically and Punjabi and Kabuli music. Indian Punjabi music has started its immense surge of popularity during then 1980s and still continues to the present. Punjabi music is branded with creativity and popularity initially through the spread of the old-fashioned cassette tapes. According to Manuel (1993), some of the early famous compositions of Punjabi musical craft are those pop or disco versions of Bhangra, Kaherva and the various disco-derived percussion music. The concept of Punjabi music revives the neo-classical approach towards Indian religion and the sense of the modern musical trends.

The Punjabi style of music has been introduced by different musicians from Punjab by means of performing in front of Kabul Kings. From the early monarchies to 1920s, the surge of transformation in Punjabi music has been started local Punjab musicians (Emadi, 2005 104). The Punjabi musical industry became known from Middle East to European countries by 1980. “Popular music enthusiasts in Europe notice the new classification of musical forms brought by Alaap, Bhangre-based music, and other Punjabi oriented bands (Duncombe, 2002 231)”.

Gokulsing and Dissanayake (2004) mention that despite of the Bhara lyrics and the unfamiliarity of people towards the language, Punjabi music is still being supported due to its fusion-based dance orientation. Punjabi music has been further developed by the time it entered the European states. Westerner’s remixes, digital sounds, and other forms of music modifications have also influenced the modern Bhangra and punjabi music. However, Emadi (2005) argues that despite of the influence of Western digital sounds, Punjabi music is still able to maitain the traditional character of its music and entertainment. Although, modification indeed persists, but punjabi music’s indigenuous quality has been maintained.

2.1.2 Digitalization Of Indian Punjabi Music

During 1997, the expansion of contemporary and traditional music, such as Punjabi music industries, has started through the evolution of wide-scope broadcasting, new forms of media and globally feasible modes of communication. Due to the evolution of these forms of technology, digitalization and spread of Punjabi music, especiallly Bhangra, have started even during 1990s.

According to Taylor (2007), the digitalization of Punjabi music in 1990s has been introduced in two different setups: (1) the digitalization of the music itself and (2) the digitalization of Punjabi music promotion. In terms of Punjabi musical digitalization, the transformation is initiated through the use of digital sounds to make Bhangra remix and various digital techniques (Becker, Buhse, Gunnewig and Rump, 2003).

Traditional forms of Punjabi music in late 1970s and 1980s did not qualify to most South Asian and Westerners; hence, new innovation of rock-played Bhangra music started (Taylor, 2007). However, digitalization started to dwindle in the late months of 1996; hence, music personnel, such as Panjabi MC (South Asian based in Britain), DJ Jiten (based in Toronto), brought back the traditional forms of Punjabi music. The 1996 Punjabi album oriented in traditional Bhangra, Grass Roots, by Panjabi MC was one of the most considerable mark of traditional Punjabi music revival (Taylor, 2007). However, the digital side of Punjabi did not actually disappear but was passed on to various transformations of Punjabi music. The digital sounds were mainly the influence of the Western trends, especially the disco fever, the heavy metal fad, and popular bands of the 1980s that utilized a different form of music (e.g. Kisses, Biggys, etc.)

On the other hand, another form of Punjabbi digitalization is the use of digital forms of advertisement through the use of cyberspace. The advent of internet technology approaches the musical trends of Punjab from a number of different and complementary views (Deol, 2000): (1) primary isntrument of musical development in the twenty-first century, (2) provides a more efficient means for international information revolution, (3) initiated both physical and cyberspace mass-media phenomenon, and (4) trigger the socioeconomic development representing the demonopolization of the music industry (Manual, 1993).

During the past two decades, Punjabi music has assumbed great popularity among the second and third-generation of Punjabi immigrants. The culturally inclined music of Punjabis have been widely accepted and recognized mostly by Europeans, “especially in London – significant centre of Punjabi music industry (Deol, 2000 185-186).” The use of internet advertisement has provided significant contribution to the promotion and spread of Punjabi music.

2.1.3 Online Availability & Demand of Indian Punjabi Music Industry

 

            The expansion of various forms of media has provided significant means in order raise popularity and eventually the demands of the commodities due to global advertisements. According to Roy (2001), during the wide availability of cyberspace at India, especially at Punjab, music composers and industries have thought of an idea of advertising their music via web or online (Din and Cullingford 2004). In 1997, various Punjabi entertainment managers engage in developing websites to host their kind of music. As of 21st century, there are hundreds of Punjabi websites under independent management and offering free Punjabi music downloads. The benefits of these websites are the vast promotion and advertisements it obtains from the public; however, these websites are also gaining high expenses due to the maintenance of their web open-sourcing.

The earlier developed Indian websites, such as www.musiccindiaonline.com, www.desiest.com, etc. Punjabi music are being distributed by means of shareware downloading system, which facilitates immediate promotion and advertisement while providing monetary benefits to the music industry as well (Din and Cullingford 2004).

From the early forms of Punjabi entertainment web providers, advertisers are able to realize the rise in popularity due to online advertisements. According to Malik (2005), the demand on Punjabi music has tripled to the approximate statistical sales of 45% compared to previous years wherein sales only vary from 12 to 18% annually. Hence, the increased demands on Punjabi music in 1997 triggered the establishment of other innovative web sites catering the same commodity –Punjabi music. Currently, some of the most popular sites established are www.Chutneyradio.com, www.bubbley.com, www.allpunjabi.com, etc.

2.1.4 Listener Behavior and Demand in Music Themes

            According to Laughey (2006), there are four different types of musical enthusiast groups considered as the most frequent customers of Bhangra or Punjabi music. Aside from the national or Punjabi fans of their own entertainment commodity, international supporters have been categorized into four categories: (1) drifters, (2) surfers, (3) clubbers, and (4) exchangers. Listener behaviors among Drifters are considered casual mode of consumption, which includes public music entertainment, casual listeners, etc. Among the groups, drifter provides the minor role in the demands of Punjabi music.

Meanwhile, surfers are also casual media clients but provide exclusive access to public practices. Surfers tend to invest more time and money in order to attain the music experience. In fact, according to Ballantyne (2006), casual surfers have been the first supporters of Punjabi music demands during the 1990s due to their interest in contemporary music trends.

On the other hand, clubbers use the music in forms of intensive media utilization and exclusive public practices, such as events, establishment entertainment aesthetics, etc. Although, clubbers supporting Punjabi music have declined during 2001 due to international influence of Western musical trends, such as rap, RNB, etc (Poole 2004). Meanwhile, exchangers are those music enthusiasts that engage in inclusive public music practices but intensively consume the music media (Laughey 2006). Exchangers are those diversionalists and collectors of music traditions.

2.1.5 Old Lyric vs New Lyric

From historical accounts, old lyrics of Punjabi music dated 1870s to 1960s, the lyrics compose mostly the traditions and customs of Punjabi tribes. According to Hyder (2004), old lyrics of Punjabi music as well as Bhangra music have always been oriented to a contemporary view wherein the sense of the songs depicts the lifestyle, values and core activities among Punjabi community. In terms of language use, the classical Punjabi lyrics are based from the Punjabi language itself; however, as the advent of new era and musical influence sets in specifically in 1990, the trend of old lyrics have been modified. As supported by Kalra (2000), the new trends of Bhangra or Punjabi music have been derived from remix orientations, lingual combinations, and foreign influences.

The traditional essence of Punjabi lyrical compositions has been reduced in the new lyric compositions; however, the demands for the remix lyrical form have surged from 1990s to 1997. Although, as the millennial era approached, the desire of the public has reverted to the traditional forms of Punjabi lyrics.

According to Gokulsing and Dissanayake (2004), the emergence of traditional Punjabi music has started again by the early 21st century; hence, in order to satisfy the demands without affecting the trends of new Punjabi music, musical industries have shifted their attention in merging the two categories. Due to the wider methods of media advertisements, Punjabi music in its new and old lyrical compositions has been maintained in the market. In fact, most websites providing Punjabi music are catering Punjabi songs from even way back 1990s up to present.

2.1.6 Glimpse of Punjabi in World’s Music

            Punjabi music has evolved for the past 200 years of its practice in rural communities in Punjab. From the early times, Punjabi music was considered as a means to celebrate local events and festivities called mela; however, as the twentieth century approached and the aspects of globalization occurred, Punjabi music was influenced by foreign international music and eventually made its way to modern entertainment music (Broughton et al. 2000).

It was 1980s when Punjabi music was recognized in an international perspective and the most popular form in British and other European states was Bhangra. According to Baumann (1990), the introduction of Punjabi music was in the right timing of 1980s since most of the music at that point was influenced by the intoxicating rock and roll. However, Broughton et al. (2000) argues that even it was the right timing of Punjabi introduction, the popularity still depended on the quality and the primitive attributes of the songs.

            The characteristics of Punjabi music during the 80s provided it a window of alternative for most music enthusiasts. Considering the contemporary ambiance, the message of the song, the up beat and the sense of tradition, most musically inclined individuals in Europe saw the significant place of Punjabi music in the fields of entertainment. As supported by Huq (2006), Punjabi music, especially Bhangra, became an immediate alternative to those musically inclined groups that were not into heavy-metal bands, rock and roll, etc, which were predominantly dominating during the 80s. Hence, Punjabi music was able to attain significant place and popularity in world’s music especially in the 80s.

2.2 World Music Existence through the Internet

            World music and their existent in the internet had long been started even prior to the online recognition of Punjabi music in 1997. According to Sivadas, Rajdeep and Kellaris (1998), world music or the traditional music began its internet appearance as early as 1980s. Majority of the musical orientations published during the 1988 (start of commercial internet advertisement) were Western world music. Western world music was the first to be recognized in the cyberspace entertainment advertisement.

At that point, online advertisements and promotion of entertainment commodities were not yet popular; hence, many still relied on physical forms. According to the Lee (2001), most artists and musicians of pre-internet era promoted their crafts through physical forms of advertisements, such as tours, newsletters, television broadcasts or radio. Although, according to Haig (2001), the sales and demands to western music were soaring high due to the absence of piracy, free music outsourcing and the wide support of the public to original copyright buying. However, world music was being left behind due to the insufficiency of support and lack of promotional/ advertisement opportunities.

            However, during the invention of Microsoft 1995, internet slowly became recognized and media promotion of world music began its step to online advertisements. By early 1997, vast sources of Western entertainment media were already published online and were being advertised (Ghini et al. 2004). Meanwhile, during the 1997, Punjabi music advertisements and promotions were able to get in touch with internet utilization. Some of the promoted Bhangra singers in 1997 were Amar, Spellbound, Black Star Liner, and Deepika (Maira 1998). The spread of world music worldwide became intense through the internet; hence, entertainment industries had termed the phenomena as the media globalization (Ghini et al. 2004).

2.3 Push and Pull E-Marketing Strategy

            Push and pull e-marketing strategy has always been the basic principle being followed for online advertisements and promotions. As the internet progression enters the 21st centuries, various electronic forms of marketing have been available for not only advertisements, but even for online transactions, search of potential prospects, product transfer, etc. According to Haig (2001), “push in e-marketing stands for the strategies in directing potential customers towards the advertised products and/or services, and the establishments of online categories for the viewing of real-time consumers (104).”

In fact, PUSH principle has been the earliest forms of online strategy utilized by world music promotion (e.g. Punjabi online advertisements). As supported by Leyshon, Matless and Revill (1998), world music is able to introduce their presence in the online market through the pushing of web advertisements, free out-sourcing of top album hits, and the provision of wide database of vintage world music collections. Music industries are pushing their offered products and services to potential clients that possess the capacity to pull these commodities.

According to Peitz and Waelbroeck (2003), online marketing pulls the potential clients or consumers of the pushed commodities through the use of wide-scope global advertisements, search-engine optimized websites (for word music keyword searching- e.g. Punjabi, Music, Bhangra are some of the potential keywords for online searching) and consumer assessments.

2.4 Internet Marketing vs Other Media’s of Marketing

            Internet or online marketing has become the most advancing form of media marketing especially during the entry of the twenty-first century. E-marketing commonly utilizes website-based advertisements, web affiliation, web networking, e-mail marketing, contextual advertising, etc. According to Lee (2001), music industries have attained advanced and exponential benefits from internet marketing due to the lesser cost of advertisements but wider span of population being reached-out. The evolution of internet marketing in world music business has become evident only in 1997 but the expansion of this form of media has already increased world music sales profit by 36% in 2000 (Leyshon, Matless and Revill 2005).

            However, despite of the advancements of internet commerce, other forms of media potential for marketing benefits are still being utilized currently. Other forms of media marketing for entertainment promotion involve television advertisements, concert tours, radio broadcast advertisements, literary promotions (e.g. newspaper, magazines, etc.).

According to Frith, Straw and Street (2001), the advantages of these traditional forms of advertisements are the higher viewing rates compared to internet entertainment surfing, better national population affinity than broad-scope internet advertisements, and lastly, almost 95% of the audiences for these traditional media marketing possess the capacity to understand and comprehend the marketing messages since not all individuals possess internet access.

2.5 Planning the E-Market Strategy and the Environment Scope:

            E-marketing provides wide forms of marketing diversions and alternatives depending on the kind of commodities and the target population. Utilizing the SWOT analysis, the following are some of the possible methodologies in order to attain the maximum potential of traditional music E-marketing:

Figure 1: SWOT ANALYSIS
S Considering the distinct culture and traditional nature of Punjabi music, internet marketing strategies, such as online advertising, free open-sourcing downloading of music samples, and Punjabi music online database collection, are considered as the most advantageous due to the capacity to reach international coverage (Lee 2001), low-cost advertising (Chaffey et al. 2006), and highly adaptive and mobile (Amor 2001).
W Despite of the high coverage of Internet marketing, there are also some existing weaknesses to these strategy of world music promotion, such as the low number of population, especially Asian and Eastern continents, who are capable of internet browsing (Braheny 2006), and the low probabilities of getting searched due to western music saturation against Punjabi music (Belleville 2000).
O Opportunities on using E-Marketing involve higher popularity rates for high traffic, search optimized features of commercial sites, less maintenance of site services and music downloads, and easy updating (Lee 2001 165; Braheny 2006).
T Threats using E-Marketing are the low chances of getting viewed if traffic is low and lesser chances of getting music downloads if songs are unpopular (Haig 2001).

2.6 Issues in Using the Internet as a Marketing Media

 

2.6.1. Increased Opportunities

 

            The use of internet as another form of media marketing has already expanded for the past two decades. Currently, most intangible products and services are being marketed and advertised in the internet for market overview. According to Taylor (2007), the entry of Punjabi music in online marketing has provided windows of opportunity in terms of the increased consumer demands and lower cost. This statement is supported by Oren and Petro (2004) in terms of the increasing online exclusive websites for Punjabi music advertisements and downloads. However, there are no available statistical data to prove the monetary and timeframe based sales of Punjabi entertainment websites since most of these firms are independently founded and considered as private sectors.

2.6.2 Improved Accessibility

            Due to wide coverage of internet marketing, Punjabi singers and composers’ advertisement are now able to reach out various culture in an international perspective (Bhatti 1999). In addition to e-marketing’s accessibility, the free open-sourcing of Punjabi music websites, availability of online transactions, and efficient composition purchasing have greatly facilitated easy buying and marketing in the part of the consumers. Furthermore, the improvements of accessibility via internet are able to facilitate the introduction of traditional Punjabi music to other music remix or blends. According to Bennett and Peterson (2004), Punjabi’s Bhangra has become one of the major influence of disco music during the early 1998 (4). The accessibility of Punjabi music promotion has surged the popularity of this type of musical composition.

2.6.3. Utility

            In terms of utility, Punjabi’s popularity among musical enthusiasts started during the early 1980s even without the contribution of E-marketing. Oren and Petro (2004) mentioned that the demands on Punjabi music even surged during 1998 due to online advertisements.

Note: Graphical illustration of utility is based from yearly evaluation based from Bhachu 2003; Taylor 2007; Bennett and Peterson 2004; Leyshon, Matless and Revill 2005

The utility curve emphasizes the satisfaction and trends of decline and demand of Punjabi music popularity. According to Taylor (2007), there have been slowly progressing demands of Punjabi music during the span of 1992 until the utilization and promotion using E-marketing. The statement is supported by Bennett and Peterson (2004) with their statement that the demands of Punjabi music services surge upward during 1998 due to international broadcast and advertisements. Lastly, Leyshon, Matless and Revill (2005) have mentioned that in 2000 the sales of Punjabi music albums based from Punjab’s top three music industries increased to 36%.

2.6.4 Effective Advertising

            E-marketing advertisements had increased the ever since it was utilized in 1998. From that point, the increased profit returns had occurred in industry. Effective advertisements were one of the considered primary inducers of the consumer demands as according to various advertising analysts (Volk, 1998; Leyshon, Matless and Revill, 2005).

Online advertising provided an absolute increase in demands of consumers due to the setting or influence of entertainment trends. According to Tatla (1999), Punjabi’s Bhangra was able to influence western music setup, especially the disco, fusion dances, digital remix sounds, and other forms of contemporary traditional music due to the popularity of Bhangra in 1997. Effective advertising provides significant means of information dissemination, especially among far countries that are open to other cultural set of trends, such as the United States.

            Online advertisements of Bhangra music or Punjabi in general come into various forms. The most commonly utilized medium are web affiliations. Punjabi music websites tend to form web links or affiliate sites in order to direct clients towards their websites. Such strategy is the common demonstration of push and pull e-marketing strategy. According to Krasilovsky, Sidney, and Gross (2003), most privately founded websites catering contemporary music open-sourcing are usually linked to popular music database in order to increase their traffic or web-popularity (6).

Push and pull strategy has become the most primitive form of online marketing strategy. Although, Tatla (1999) argues that online commercial industries existing today have already outgrown the push and pull strategies due to the costly advertising versus the crowded site population in the web.  Krueger, Lu and Swatman (2003) add to the argument that the costly advertisements are even compromised due to the issues of marketing securities.

2.6.5 Advantages of Market Research and Analysis

            Consumer, marketing demands and trend analysis are the most essential components of E-marketing research and analysis. These components are the usual basis of marketing plans and strategies prior to the launching of websites or E-market centers. According to Krueger, Lu and Swatman (2003), market research comprises of initial assessments of potential consumers, evaluation of possible demands, setting the projected profit returns, and listing of possible conflicts and planning adjustments that might be encountered during the site establishment.

Most Punjabi music websites are not based from simple framework of advertising, marketing, selling and profit gaining. In fact, according to Bennett, Shank and Toynbee (2005), world music and sites dealing with oriental to traditional forms of entertainment merchandise need to consider critical market research and analysis since penetration against the current popular trends of music are crucial in site promotion and advertisements. Introducing Punjabi music in the entertainment market requires critical planning, especially in terms of promotions and advertisements.

            According to Leyshon, Matless and Revill (2005) and Bennett, Shank and Toynbee (2005), the entry of Punjabi music was only successful due to the saturation of heavy metal music during the 1980s. By the time the alternative music sets in, the crowd, especially music exchangers, tends to divert and try the newly introduced types. However, if the introduction or initial marketing fails, the chances of obtaining the consumers’ support are relatively decreased (Krueger, Lu and Swatman 2003).  Hence, in introducing world music, traditional entertainment and/or contemporary music, such as Punjabi and Bhangra, market research and analysis are indeed critical points to consider in E-marketing.

2.6.6 Lack of Security

            One of most commonly recognized flaws of E-marketing is the possibility of hacking the online interface or simply stealing information in order to freely obtain the products and services offered by a website. As supported by Feenberg and Barney (2004), hacking is one of the major problems of database storage, site codes and password protection of products being offered by an online-based commercial firm. In addition, non-tangible products are the most common targets of hackers, which compromise the security of products being offered by the firm. Since non-tangible downloadable are the most easily hacked products offered in the internet, one of the problems beings faced by these Punjabi music online centers are the possibility of compromised security.

Hence, according to Schmidt, Dolfsma and Keuvelaar (2007), various anti-hacking features are now being provided by third-party online servers, such as Norton, AVG, etc. in order to secure the transactions of websites offering non-tangible goods, like those Punjabi music download sites. Third party programs (e.g. Nortion, AVG) prevent possible hacking strategies that can implicate bad impact on non-tangible products by blocking or destroying hacking bugs or viruses that manifest even before they ca infect the online database (Feenberg and Barney 2004).

2.6.7 High Cost for the Users

            There have been progressive arguments between the trends of online cost being offered by sites providing non-tangible goods. According to the sides of Schmidt, Dolfsma and Keuvelaar (2007), Krasilovsky, Sidney, and Gross (2003), internet goods are now increasing the prices of their services due to the additional charges being added by their merchant account (these are online third-parties that manage the earnings received by a website on a monthly or bi-monthly basis). Most websites offering music downloads pass these additional financial obligations to their consumers; although, there are some that shoulders these, while others prefer to use direct payment system (e.g. bank wire deposits, check payment, or direct payments).

In addition, due to the rarity of world music or traditional music (e.g. Punjabi music, Bhangra music) in physical stalls world wide, these websites tend to increase the cost of their non-tangible downloads. However, according to Leyshon, Matless and Revill (2005), Krueger, Lu and Swatman (2003), Oren and Petro (2004) and Ghini et al. (2004), the high cost of Punjab music sites are not for consumers, rather for the promoters and owners of the websites. Punjabi oriented music sites, such as www.indianchild.com, www.punjab2000.com, www.13india.com, etc., are only few of the hundreds website offering free downloads and streaming of Punjabi music.

            According to Bennett, Shank and Toynbee (2005), the maintenance of Punjabi websites offering the music open-sourcing are actually spending at least $20-$130 monthly depending on the host provider and/ or additional services being utilized by these firms. In addition, the construction and programming of these websites are highly expensive due to the inclusion of product databases, professionally designed web pages and the need for site maintenance. From the statements of Schmidt, Dolfsma and Keuvelaar (2007), online programming and establishing of an e-commerce site can cost $1500 to $5000 depending on the complexities and features of the site.

2.6.8 Difficulties in Accessing

            Despite of the high accessibilities and worldwide broadcasting of online advertisements of Punjabi music websites or its affiliates, there are still certain factors that can hinder the accessibility features of these websites. First, the demographical population and the availability of internet connection within a specific area greatly affect the coverage or the number of people receiving the online advertisements. Unlike western rural and urban communities, most rural areas in other countries do not possess stable or internet access at all.

Another accessibility issue is the low internet speed amounting to only 51kbps to at least 351 kbps that actually prevents (1) high streaming capacity for videos (e.g. youtube streaming), (2) downloading java applications, and (3) displaying 3D illustrations. According to Sparrow (2006), quality of access in the internet affects the online advertisement as well as e-marketing features significantly through consumers’ response during the online viewing or e-marketing sessions. The delay in the mentioned online processes restricts the elaboration and exploration of the productions being endorsed in the internet, such as those non-tangible products being promoted in the internet (e.g. music videos, java movies, mp3, mp4 and midi streams).

According to Chan-Olmstead (2005), most rural communities, especially in second and third world countries, do not possess internet connections, which poses as a significant loss in online advertising. In fact, most audiences of online advertisements are only those from urban communities, which actually comprise as percentage of population from the overall international scope.

On the other hand, another issue on accessibility is that not all individuals living in an urban setting possess knowledge in using online. Even considering the popularity of Punjabi songs to other rural and urban settings, not all knows the existence of Bhangra or Punjabi music trends, which again decrease the likelihood of being able to surf towards Punjabi music websites (Braheny 2006). According to Sparrow (2006), unlike online advertisements, television and other physical forms of advertisements force the promotion to the public by simply glancing on newspapers or viewing the television.

2.6.9 Control

            In terms of control, web advertisements provide the user or advertisers different ways to advertise their products and services online. Most Punjabi online music open-sourcing websites utilize the means of web affiliations and direct banner postings in order to pull their potential consumers directly through their site. However, controlling online advertisements are complex, especially for those users who only depend on programmers or web designers to do the tasks of advertisements.

According to Bennett, Shank and Toynbee (2005), e-marketing requires most users, especially those independent or private web owners (e.g. most Punjabi open-sourcing music sites like www.musiccindiaonline.com, www.desiest.com, etc.), require a certain standards of knowledge in programming and establishing of web functionality in order to successfully advertise. Otherwise, e-marketing can cause higher monetary expenses due to programming and web services.

However, for those Punjabi webowners (e.g. www.punjabilok.com, www.punjabisongs.com) who are capable of independently establishing their site online, these web owners have the advantage of easily controling the proceedings, appearances, traffic or even the number of viewers potential for the site. These are done by appropriately coding the meta-tags or applying SEO (Search Engine Optimization) for better site control.

2.7 World Music Industry – A Background

2.7.1 Features of Traditional Music Market:

            During the height of world music popularity, various sociologists (Taylor 2007; Tatla 1999; Broughton et al 2000) explored the different features present in this world music, which caused the setting of music trends. According to Leyshon, Matless and Revill (2005), aside from the fact that world music became the best alternative of the public against heavy-metal craze, the indigenous and content of the world music songs had cause the shifting of interests among music enthusiasts. Meanwhile, Laughey (2006) considered the group of music exchangers as the number one promulgators of world music due to its wide and flexible music genre.

It was supported by Taylor (2007) in the reasoning that world music can actually be modified to various forms of musical styles, such as disco, rap, hip-hop and classical forms, which even provided significant value to crowd’s musical adaptation. However, traditional music market was unable to break the existing barriers of the crowd’s fad towards the 1980s demand on heavy metal bands and songs from the Kisses, Aerosmith, Michael Jackson, and other western influence. During the early 1970s, world music endorsers and music industries were only considering the national scope as the grounds for promoting and establishing their traditional music since Western songs were much stronger trends to break.

2.7.2 Position of the Music Industry Prior to Introduction of Internet

            During 1980s, the entry of world music in the European worlds has created undeniable impact, especially to the music enthusiasts. According to Tatla (1999), the public’s appreciation and patronization of Punjabi music is due to the unique features present to most world or traditional music and the modernized approach of Punjabi’s Bhangra. World music, despite of its conservative and classic nature, is still able to keep up with evolving music industries. According to Aharoni (1997), world music industries have started their craft even during the late 1940s.

During this era, world wars have prevented the expansion of various forms of world music; however, by the time of international settlements, in 1960s, traditional trends of world music became available to worldwide market, especially the Western and European continents. World music demands were very much evident during the post-war era. The messages of the song implicating core values (e.g. songs, “We are the World”, “Patience”, etc.) have started the trends in the Western world. During the entry of 1980s, the western’s support on world music has shifted to heavy metals, rock and roll and loud music, which somehow paved the entry of various traditional music in Europe.

By the middle 1980s, British states, specifically London, became the settlements of most world music industries and opportunities. According to Taylor (2007), in order for European classicists to escape the Westerners’ trends of loud entertainment, European music and entertainment society diverted their interests in various forms of world music (e.g. folk songs, classical and contemporary compositions of Italian composers, etc.). The popularity of world music began to emerged and Punjabi singers and music industries took the opportunity to promote their compositions in London.

One of the first Punjabi singing bands, specifically on Bhangra music, formed was Alaap (1977) who originated from Southwall, West London.  According to Broughton et al (2000), it was Pran Gohill who discovered Alaap in 1978 as potential Bhangra-oriented singing group. Gohill had to set up the U.K-based Multitone label to import music from sub-continent and initiate an Indo-disco wave in the U.K. Eventually, Gohil, as one of the first Punjabi music enthusiasts in the European entertainment producers, discovered singers like, Salma Agha and Mussarrat Nazir (Broughton et al 2000).

Following the Alaap discovery was the creation of their first album under Gohil, which again caused a major landslide of demanding consumers. From then on, world music, such as Punjabi’s Bhangra, became popular in the fields of foreign music industries. Deepak Kazanchi and Heera were some of the next promulgators of Bhanga music under Aristhma Records (1981). The known pioneers of Bhangra music craze were Amarjit Sidhu, Chirag Pehchan (setup the annual Asian Pop Reward and Kamlee record label), Kuljit bhamra, and Mohinder Kaur Bhamra (Broughton et al 2000). By the mid-1980s, Bhangra singers, bands and composers were able to penetrate the disco world completely from the inner lands of London to other areas of the mainland.

The popular groups recognized during this point were X-Executive Sounds and Hustlers Convention who served up the latest Bhangra beats mixed with soul, disco and hip-hop tracks. However, despite of wide recognition of Bhangra and other world music craze in Europe, the spread of the music fad was not that progressive outside the European states. According to Taylor (2007), there were no efficient means to popularize Punjabi music or other forms of world music outside Europe during the 1980s; since, the barrier fads in the Western states were the massive preferences to loud music and heavy metal songs.

During the time of pre-internet days, world music enthusiasts were mostly isolated within the consorts of Europe or the mainland’s colonies. In addition, advertisements at that point were not as open as today since most countries (e.g. Middle East, China, Korea, Japan, etc.) were not yet open to other forms of tradition; hence, at that point, physical media advertisements were considered pointless and non-productive.

2.8 Impact of Internet on the Music Industry

            Despite the raging benefits of world music advertisements and Punjabi music industry growth due to online promotions, the impact of internet had caused much more severe damage to the music industry as a whole than petty benefits. According to Giddens and Griffiths (2006), the global music industry was able to experience substantial growth during the mid-1990s, with sales in developing countries particularly strong, prompting many of the top companies to sign more local artists in anticipation of further market growth. Online marketing of music downloads was introduced particularly in 1997, and from that point onward, the industry was gravely placed at risk.

The arrival of internet in music industry, aside from providing massive global advertisements, was also considered as a major threat in music market demands due to free downloading or free music open-sourcing (Giddens and Griffiths 2006). Such claim was supported by the statements of Frith (2004) that according to him the advent of millennial internet access had caused the decline of music disc or cassette tapes due to massive copyright violations existing in the worldwide web. The music industry was threatened by the musing online sharing and downloading of free tracks, which greatly cut the marketing sales of mostly popular hits through compromise of album selling.

2.9 Supply of Music after the Introduction of Internet Marketing

            The digital-music era is bombarded with creative activity, and new interlinked peer-to-peer online connection that continuously evolve allowing more efficient means to share, download and obtain free music tracks of famous international to local artists. Such new age phenomenon has indeed affected the supplies of physical music marketing, and has delivered significant negative commercial implications than the beneficial forms.

According to Kalakota and Robinson (2000), the advent of internet sharewares and open-sourcing has both promoted the previously unrecognized musical compositions, such as world music, traditional compositions, etc, while at the same time corrupting the highly popular hits of mostly Western songs. Hence, the market demand for musical compositions of famous Western popular hit songs has declined, which eventually cause the reduction of supply to most public album stores. As supported by Sparrow (2006), the advent of PC and internet availability and CD burners has allowed users to create their own original CD copy of popular music without even acquiring a direct purchase from licensed dealers.

Such copyright infringements and piracies have threatened the stability of disc, cassettes and the small business music dealers due to the decreased market demands. Therefore, supplies of these original music albums have also declined as affected by web revolution. In addition, due to the widespread sharing of music tracks, even the local or traditional music have been affected through the reduced profit returns. According to Kalakota and Robinson (2000), despite  of  the promotion   and   wide   advertisements   experienced by world music industries, the  profit returns among   these   firms   have suffered as   well due to   massive free   sharing of tracks and open-sourcing.

2.10 Online Music Consumers’ Needs and Preferences

            Currently, internet sharewares, free downloads and open-sourcing have provided the most benefits to consumers than ever before in the history of music marketing. According to Giddens and Griffiths (2006), consumers tend to patronize online downloads despite of copyright infringements, piracy issues, and other legal concerns due to the following reasons: (1) free, (2) easily accessible, (3) downloads only take few minutes depending on connection and computer speed, and lastly, (4) can be duplicated as many times as possible through CD burning technology. However, from the sociological views of Kalakota and Robinson (2000), consumers, especially musically inclined enthusiasts, are expected to consider copyright ownership and the purchase of original albums since these provide significant psychological achievement among these individuals.

Prior to the use of internet in the music industry, the sales and profit returns of popular music industries are sufficient to maintain the survival of minor sectors and subsidiaries in the music sectors. From the time internet has been discovered, Leyshon, Matless and Revill (2005) consider this as another breakthrough for the enhancement of minor sectors’ promotion and world wide advertisements.

Although, this argument has been refuted by Sparrow (2006) and Giddens and Griffiths (2006) since according to them music enthusiasts who are concern at major labels or copyright purchasing have already declined in the past. In fact, the casual listeners and most musically inclined individuals have either downloaded their preferred music or purchased a pirated version of the preferred hit songs. Online consumers and listeners are undeniably more satisfied in the free features of online sharing than with expensive copyright purchasing.

2.11 Musicians, Artists and the Internet

            Prior to the introduction of internet, personal computers and CD burning technology, digital recording, album promotion, distribution and production of CDs, Cassettes or collection albums were all part of the recording company or overall music industry. However, due to the wide availability of internet connection, and all these gadgets, these tasks had become included to the roles of musicians and artists. According to Straubhaar and LaRose (2005), the role of music industry as the gatekeepers over who gets to record had diminished and lots of independent bands had made, published online and advertised these products to the internet to gain popularity and later on sold to the market.

Not only did internet reduce the credibility of hits being distributed in the public, shareware and open sourcing had also compromised the monetary and financial profits of those quality musicians and composers. As supported Giddens and Griffiths (2006), musicians and artists were the ones who suffer, especially in terms of the profit returns and the decline of albums sold each publishing period. In the 1990s, internet had undeniably damaged mostly international musicians than those traditional composers and singers since at that point, original copies of popular hits possess expensive copyrights and album costs than those locally published entertainment.

According to Straubhaar and LaRose (2005), even small sectors or starting bands of both western and world music had suffered in terms of profit returns, popularity investments, and CD, album or cassette sales. However, as argued by Taylor (2007), the arrival of internet advertisements had provided another source of profit to these industries due to the royalty, copyright profits, and other benefits acquired by artists and musicians; although, there are few legitimate websites offering these considerations than those shareware websites.

2.12 Impact of MP3 on the Music Industry

            Mp3, I-pod, Mp4 and other handy entertainment gadgets are now becoming popular in the public market. Prior to the discovery of these gadgets, music are usually being listened in CD players, radio or personal computers through the use of CDs or cassette tapes.

However, due to the advent of internet and the influence of freeware sharing of music tracks, especially the hit songs or free downloads, the consumers are now able to compile these free tracks and turn it to their own song compilation – a perfect alternative for music enthusiasts and casual listeners. Instead of buying expensive original copyrights of these albums, consumers tend to download and collect these, and with the availability of home efficient CD burning tools and software, the consumers are now able to compile these collections in compact disks. According to Sparrow (2006), piracy has actually originated due to the availability of these tools and free ware downloads in the internet.

            However, another concern of the public consumers is the availability or mobility of listening to music or to those collections. Hence, due to technological advancements, IPOD and MP3s have been discovered in aid to these requirement and demands of the public.

According to Straubhaar and LaRose (2005), these gadgets have contributed to the decline of the traditional music industries since most consumers and music supporters prefer these mobile storages of music collections than the original copyrighted albums since these are free and easy to use. In an effort of satisfying the crowd and promoting the traditional copyrighted albums of musicians and singers, most industries have issued another form of compact disks, which are those mini sized disks that can be played using the modern types of I-pod models. However, according the argument of Giddens and Griffiths (2006), despite the innovations music industries have made, the profit returns and the life of the industry still suffer due to the compromise dealt by these products.

2.13 P2P Networks and the Music Industry

2.13.1 Impact of P2P Networks on the Growth of Music Industry

            One of the many characteristics of the internet is that every computer linked to its networks or webs is also connected to every computer and other device capable of being online. There is no actual central switching office as with telephone or other message transmission systems. In fact, some of the computers on the internet are considered as servers, which actually provide huge contents of information and transaction data; however, most computer systems are home and office personal computers being operated by certain individuals.

Each time a user connects to the internet, this single connection further branch to reaching different local hosts and personal computers of other users – this is considered as the peer-to-peer connection or P2P connections. According to Schmidt, Dolfsma and Keuvelaar (2007), “the advent of P2P networking has even revolutionized the transferring of information, transmission of data and provided a certain form of web space storage system (197).”

            Such technology has been considered by different advances of modern internet users due to the functionality of information wiring. The development of P2P sharing has extended from local hosts availability to the possibility of having global access in terms of data sharing or information gathering. According to Taylor (2007), the advent of these networking tools has caused a certain diversion of simple online marketing, promotion or E-marketing to massive forms of online file sharing and data transmission.

Figure 3:    P2P Sharing and Impacts on Music Industry

LOW PROFIT

RETURNS

Demands
DOWNLOAD S
File UPLOADS
File UPLOADS

Due to the massive widening of P2P systems, files or free tracks are easily being uploaded to the web servers. These files are compressed forms of music files in form of either mpegs or MP3 in order to facilitate quick uploading and downloading. After the file uploads, the music files are being stored to the web databases. Websites providing open-source file sharing advertise these tracks via internet affiliations or other forms of internet promotions. When potential music enthusiasts see these free downloads, surfers tend to browse their preferred tracks for downloads and compile these as their collections.

As supported by Schmidt, Dolfsma and Keuvelaar (2007), these surfers or music enthusiasts are potential market for music industries selling copyrighted albums; however, due to P2P networking and file sharing, the population of potential market and the demands decrease causing the low profit returns to these music industries. In addition, since most P2P networks possess light security measures, the chances of being hacked and electronically stealing the copyrights of these tracks are possible. According to Straubhaar and LaRose (2005), P2P networks actually make these potential products of musicians vulnerable to piracy and stealing of rightful profits.

2.13.2 Responses from the Industry for Piracy

            Due to the massive availability of free file sharing in the internet, music industries are gaining lesser and lesser profit returns. In addition to the internet copyright violations, piracy issues are another concerns confronted by these music industries. According to Straubhaar and LaRose (2005), CDs and file sharing are the most controversial types of music piracy, and these issues have been assaulted with several arguments coming from various music industries and economic analysts.

The first issue is the scale and commerciality of unauthorized copying that can range from the individual, non-commercial copying of one product all the way to large counterfeiting operations producing massive copies of the pirated product for commercial marketing (e.g. street markets, computer fairs, etc.).

According to the International Federation of Phonogram and Videogram Products (IFPI), almost twenty-five percent of the music products sold throughout the world are pirate copies, especially in areas such as Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America, which actually estimated to over 75 percent (Schmidt, Dolfsma and Keuvelaar 2007). The first convention done by music industries in their effort of fighting the conditions of piracy occurred in 1886 under the Berne Convention.

The Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988 has been promulgated even with the absence of internet’s file sharing and CD burning technology (Broughton et al 2000). However, the policy was still not enough to monitor and fight the corruption of copyright and infringements of intellectual rights (Straubhaar and LaRose 2005). Hence, in 1976 a new act was established under the policy, No Electronic Theft Act (NET Act), “which further updated the piracy inclusion of possible electronic piracy and technological innovations of piracy and technological infringements (Schmidt, Dolfsma and Keuvelaar 2007 133).”

Piracy issues are now being dealt with absolute legal control and screening. Distribution of unauthorized copies according to U.S federal law is punishable by both intellectual rights policies and monetary fines. Fortunately, international organizations and first-world countries, such as the United States and European nations are already acting to solve the issues of piracy.

However, due to innovative technologies available, such as P2P sharing, file open-sourcing and CD burning or copying, the fight to piracy is still gradually progressing. According to Straubhaar and LaRose (2005), piracy crimes are being dealt with high seriousness in Western countries, especially high-class European nations; however, most parts of the third world countries, such as India, Pakistan, Philippines, etc., are being plagued by the concerns of piracy copying. The massive issues on piracy have created societal stereotypes that somehow contributed to the fight against this issue.

According to the sociological critiques of Taylor (2007), piracy has been linked to the lower class of society since most file sharing, free downloading, and open-sourcing are mostly patronized by these class of society. Despite of the government warnings and the massive campaigns against piracy in the 21st century, majority of the consumers are still patronizing the file sharing and pirated copies of popular music singers and composers.

In fact, due to the consumer demands on freeware sharing and file open-sourcing, various software are developed in order to suit the needs of the computer users. Some of the examples are limewire (using its Gnutella access and wide internet file sharing database), Utorrent (using compressed link sites that facilitate file sharing and seeding processes), and various download managers (e.g. Download accelerator, Flashget, etc.).

As a result of this phenomenon, music industries are at the verge of declining market returns and profit reduction. Both locals and international singers are now experiencing this dilemma, and some early founded entertainment industries have already closed due to these compromising issue.

2.14 Impact of Internet on the Indian Punjabi Music Industry

In the past, prior to the introduction of internet in the public, Punjabi music was considered as a famous local music at Punjab, India. Most of its audiences were high-ranking officials or royal members of their monarchy. Due to the progress and popularity of the music, it spread continually but within the consorts of its national boundaries. However, by the time internet had opened to the public and E-commerce or marketing was introduced, Punjabi music was able to utilized this opportunity to expand and popularize their music to other countries. Since western fad was on its peak, and European was greatly considering a new alternative, Punjabi music was able to penetrate the international music demands.

According to Bhachu (2003), modernized Bhangra of the 1980s filled a demand amongst Asians, enabling them to enjoy a musical genre that was at once modern yet different from mainstreet pop in such a way to express their transmuted identity in innovative ways.

However, although initially Bhangra scene permitted for a British-Asian identification particular to Britain, by the end of the decade the emphasis of Bhangra to this formation began to decline. During the time of internet introduction, Bhangra songs and Punjabi masterpieces had become available in the World Wide Web. At first, the motive of Punjabi music was the promotion and world wide advertisements of their commodity; however, by the time P2P sharewares and file open sourcing were introduced, Punjabi music took the opportunity of placing their tracks online and even made it available for free.

During the initial phase of its internet marketing, Punjabi songs were able to obtain massive support from the crowd and music enthusiasts. Leyshon, Matless and Revill (2005) even mentioned that the sales and profit returns of Music industries offering Punjabi songs rose to 36% annually in 1998. This was not until file sharing and free downloads were implemented.

According to the utility of consumption (see figure 2), right after the surge of increased market demands on Punjabi music, the sales of these industries dropped again due to the free file sharing opened to the public. Such issue became the major set back of the industry since the popularity of Bhangra music in 1998 onwards was still intense; hence, the demand to their songs was also affected. However, since the public was able to obtain these tracks via file sharing, the consumers of the Punjabi music album began to decline until the new trends of music influence coming from the Western coasts set in during the 21st century.

According to Bhachu (2003), Punjabi music was able to stand still in the industry due to its innovative forms and adaptive flexibility to the arriving trends in the public’s music preference. In one example, Bhangra was able to blend in during the eruption of disco music fad, then hip-hop, street music, and was still able to maintain the characteristic of primitive Punjabi origins and character.

Currently, massive free outsourcing and file downloads are available in the internet. Taylor (2007) considers this as a sign of dwindling market for Punjabi musicians since these are not anymore means of pulling customers but pushing their music again as free advertisements in hopes of further expanding the Bhangra or Punjabi culture.  In fact, this idea has been supported by Straubhaar and LaRose (2005), since the market of world music is now being replaced again by the Western music trends, world music are doing these free publishing of their tracks as means of acquiring potential or interested clients.

2.15 Relevance of the Research to the World Music Industry

            World music industries today are facing a tremendous threat by tolerating the websites offering free outsourcing, sharewares and free downloads, especially considering the dwindling demand of the market towards their products. According to Laughey (2006) and Taylor (2007), the public’s demand on these types of music has become diverse and multi-faceted.

Unlike in the 1990s, world music was a perfect alternative to the loud noises of heavy metal bands and rock and roll fad; however, as with the current generation, the trendy music has already adopted to the tastes of the many, RNB, Hip hop, light disco songs, etc. By researching the history of world music and their entry to the market towards the pedestals of popularity, the chances of actually understanding their means to stardom are indeed present. Furthermore, the research on this topic might explain the music fall, setting of another trends and the key to the success of their music’s popularity.

            As far as Punjabi music is concerned, its entrance to the market and its current trends of promotion are completely compromise. According to the history of its discovery in the public trends of Europe, Bhangra was able to adapt to the current settings and trends of the 1980’s disco fusions, hip hop songs, traditional and classical compositions; however, the adjustments of Punjabi music with the fad had dwindled. The Western music craze has spread all throughout the European continents as well as the Asian nations, while World Music has remained in its traditional 1980 forms.

2.16 Punjabi Music vs World’s Music

            Arguing on the two trends of music, both sets of trends were able to exist dramatically during the 1980s. The public’s support on both Punjabi music with its Bhangra and the world or traditional music had actually caused massive influence and contribution to the 1980s music trends. However, despite of their popularity and the song’s relevance to the history of European cultural songs, there are still qualities and characteristics that made either Punjabi music or World music as the most popularly selected songs from the 1980s up to the present. According to Emadi (2005), Punjabi music has been further enhanced as it penetrated the European music industry. Westerner’s remixes, digital sounds, and other forms of music modifications have also influenced the modern Bhangra and punjabi music.

However, even with the vast modifications of Punjabi music, it is still able to preserve the traditional characteristics of its music and style. World music, as discussed above, has also encountered the influence of both western traditions and the modified most of its style according to the Western trends of hip hop, disco, and the the early pop versions. However, according to Laughey (2006), world music is a general broad mixture and combinations of different forms of music from various cultures worldwide. In comparison of both presentations, Punjabi music, despite of the influence of Western music, is still able to maintain the primitive qualities of its style. Meanwhile, world music has evolved continuously through its exposure to various forms of cultures.

2.17 Punjabi Music and Youtube

Youtube is considered as the most popular stream open-source media advertisement present in the internet. The massive outreaching technology and features of youtube have significantly affected the media industry, especially the multimedia advertisement, which includes movie industry (e.g. trailer scenes, music video advertisements – MTv, Channel V, etc.), and music advertising. The advantages of Youtube to Punjabi music industry are the (1) free music advertisements in forms of video streaming, trailer, etc, (2) open sourced music videos catering free viewing for potential music clients, and (3) lastly, the worldwide expansion and viewing facilitated by the globalize network reaching.

The essence of Youtube’s functionality in advantage of Punjabi music industry is the advertisements; although, according to Taylor (2007) media advertisements have becoming another source of indirect intellectual piracy due to the free outsourcing. The customers are able to download and obtain their own copy by free means and without supporting the original copyright of the album; hence, music industries, such as Punjabi music singers and composers, are experiencing vast decline in their music supporters.

Conclusion: Synthesis Literature Review

            Punjabi music originated from the Punjab community and adapted the core cultures, values and traditions of these people. In the past, Punjabi music was performed in front of royalties and high officials until it obtained its wide course of popularity in the national perspective. In the 1980s, Punjabi music was able to enter the music industries of Europe due to various factors: (1) Punjabi music became the alternative of European music enthusiasts for Western loud music, (2) the influence of disco fusion had set a new trends of dance songs in Europe, and (3) high flexibility of Punjabi songs to various Western songs.

During the start of 1990s, Punjabi music was able to extend it popularity to city of London to the various areas of Europe. Prior to the entry of internet, various forms of media were being utilized by the Punjabi music industries in order to promote their music. Some of these methods were television, radio and letter advertisements, which actually did not contribute much to the promotion of world and Punjabi music. Although, the industry of Punjabi music was gaining adequate profit returns despite of its European limits.

            During the entry of 1997, internet advertisements and E-marketing were able to penetrate the music industries. Internet marketing provided efficient, easy, controlled and international means of advertising Punjabi music. In 1998, Punjabi music formally utilized these media promotion as a way to reach out other countries. Through this effort, Punjabi music was able to reach various countries and even began its expansion in terms of style and music character, while at the same time, preserving the primitive and cultural qualities of the song. Various producers and music artists of traditional music were able to gain significant positions in the field of music due to the massive online advertising. However, even with the advancing forms of Punjabi and world music, internet marketing became a tool of decreasing the profit gains of this industries.

            Internet marketing had also provided vast disadvantages to the industries of music. First, the western popular hits had encountered the issues of piracy and intellectual infringements through the following methods: (1) free download services, (2) peer-to-peer file sharing, (3) open sourcing, and (4) development of software and tools that aid in piracy such as CD burners.

Western music industries began to feel the reduction of consumer demands. Consumers were able to obtain the hit music tracks through the above methods, then compiles it through CD burning or compilations. These self-made music compilations had tremendously decreased the demands of the consumers. Meanwhile, Punjabi music industries were not able to avoid this problem, and in fact, due to their massive free downloads advertisements, the demands to these types of music also declined, especially during the entry of the twenty-first century.

 

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Virinder, Kalra S. “Vilayeti Rhythms: Beyond Bhangra’s Emblematic Status to a Translation of Lyrical Texts.” Theory, Culture & Society   17.3 (2002): 80-102.

Volk, Terese M. Music, Education, and Multiculturalism: Foundations and Principles. Oxfordshire, England: Oxford University Press, 1998.

 

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