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Rome’s area added to its success in unifying Italy and all the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Farming was necessary to Rome and was the source of the majority of wealth. Social status, political opportunity, and essential worths were related to land ownership. The heads of families who had the ability to acquire a big revenue of land were members of the Senate–“Council of Elders” that played a central function in Roman politics. The Republic was not a democracy in the modern sense.
In Rome, the votes of the rich classes counted for more than the votes of poor citizens. Individuals of separate classes came together in ties of responsibility, such as the patron/client relationship.
Rome’s success in developing a huge empire released forces that ultimately ruined the Republican system of federal government. Octavian gotten rid of all enemies and rebuilded the Roman system of government. This duration following the Republic is called the Principate. Augustus, one of the many names offered to Octavian, ended up being the name by which he is best known.
Augustus’s understanding of humanity enabled him to control Roman society. Throughout his reign Egypt, parts of the Middle East, and Central Europe were contributed to the empire. Augustus had allied himself with the equites; Italian merchants and landowners second in wealth and social status. They assisted run the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire of the very first three centuries was an “urban” empire. Trade was considerably boosted by the pax romana ensured by the Romans.
Romanization– the spread of the Latin language and Roman lifestyle– was greatest in the western provinces.
Throughout this period of tranquility and success, lots of awaited the arrival of “the Messiah,” or Jesus, a young Jew. Paul, a Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in southeast Anatolia, threw his talent and energy into spreading the word of Jesus. Enduring pieces of roadways, walls, aqueducts and buildings are evidence of the engineering competence of the ancient Romans. The 3rd century crisis, or political, military, and financial mayhem that afflicted the Roman Empire throughout much of the 3rd century C.E. consisted of frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, invasions, decline of urban centers, and near- destruction of far away trade and economy.
Diocletian restored order by making fundamental changes. When he resigned, men battled for the throne, coming to the conclusion of Constantine, who reunited the entire empire entirely by himself. The Shang and Zhou dynasties ruled over a small zone in northeastern China. The Warring States Period saw hostilities among small groups of states with differing languages and cultures. The Qin quickly conquered its rivals and created China’s first empire, however, it barely survived the death of Shi Huangdi. Power then passed to a new dynasty, the Han.
Thus began the long history of imperial China. The threat to their way of life created by the Chinese invasion caused the creation of the Xiongnu Confederacy. Gaozu, the new emperor of the Han courted popularity and consolidated their rule by bringing back many Qin laws. We know much about the personality and policies of Wu because of Sima Qian, chief astrologer. Chang’an City became the capital of the Qin and early Han Empires. China had many gentry who shared a common Confucian culture and ideology. With the fall of the Han, China entered a period of political fragmentation that lasted until the rise of the Sui and Tang dynasties in the late sixth and early seventh centuries c.e. Many Chinese migrated south into the Yangzi Valley, and the center of gravity of both the population and Chinese culture shifted to the south.
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