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Social learning theory- social learning theory is the theory that peoples characteristics change constantly depending on the situations you are in this can be brought on by the people we are around and socialize with. Modelling is when you have someone to look up too this normally comes from someone in a sport if someone is in the same gender and the same sport. It is idolizing so when people look up to good idols they will try to mimic them and act like them while people who idolize bad people tend to act differently and be worse to others to try to be like their role models.
Reinforcement is when an individual's behavior is reinforced or even at times rewarded and with this positive reinforcement they will more than likely repeat this behavior to be rewarded and avoid punishment. The difference between trait theory and social learning theory is that trait theory cannot be changed, and it is who you are all the time and cannot be changed while social learning theory is where your personality can sometimes not be stable, and it can change due to various things.
Marten's schematic view- This theory is the only theory that is widely accepted by most sport psychologists. It tells us that if we are going to accurately predict behavior in a sports setting, it's important that we consider the situation the individual is in and the individual's characteristics. This theory is basically a mix between the social learning theory and Marten's schematic view.
Marten's schematics view says there are three different levels that relate to each other: the physiological core, typical responses, and role-related behavior.The physiological core is often referred to as the real you: what you believe in, what your interests are, and your attitude towards work and play Typical responses are the usual ways you respond to any given situation and are also a good indicator of your psychological core. Role-related behavior determines the circumstances you are in. Circumstances are ever-changing, especially within a sporting environment. For example, in football you won't be the same all the way through the game because you may get frustrated at some points. Role-related behavior is seen as the changeable aspect of one's personality. Confidence, self-concept and self esteem Self-concept is best defined as a combination of self-image, self-esteem, your self-image is how you see yourself and your self-esteem is how much you value yourself. Taking all of these into account, your own self concept is formed. Self-concept does not always coincide with reality often, the way we view ourselves is distorted and unrealistic. We are often overly critical of ourselves and our abilities. Self-confidence can motivate you to attempt and accomplish the impossible. However, lacking self-confidence, an athlete or team will consistently perform way below their potential. Low self-confidence can kill an athlete's enjoyment of the sport and turn him/her to drop out. The effects and types of motivation Extrinsic motivation occurs when we are motivated to perform a behaviour or engage in an activity to earn a reward or avoid punishment. Examples of behaviours that are the result of extrinsic motivation include: Studying because you want to get a good grade Participating in a sport to win awards Competing in a contest to win a scholarship In each of these examples, the behaviour is motivated by a desire to gain a reward or avoid an adverse outcome. People are engaging in a behaviour not because they enjoy it or because they find it satisfying, but to get something in return or avoid something unpleasant.Intrinsic motivation involves engaging in a behaviour because it is personally rewarding; essentially, performing an activity for its own sake rather than the desire for some external reward. Examples of actions that are the result of intrinsic motivation include: Participating in a sport because you find the activity enjoyable Solving a word puzzle because you find the challenge fun and exciting Playing a game because you find it excitingIn each of these, the person's behaviour is motivated by an internal desire to participate in an activity for its own sake. Essentially, the behaviour itself is its own reward.The effects of stress, anxiety and arousalThere are several individualised causes of stress. It is common to have several athletes in similar situations yet for them to have entirely different stress responses to those situations. Some of the main causes are discussed below.Internal causes of stress include: illnesses like infections psychological factors such as, worrying about something not having enough sleepExternal causes of stress include: the environment you are in, such as. Too noisy, too quiet negative social interactions with other people, such as somebody being rude to you major life events, e.g. a death in the familyWhen you are in a situation you find threatening, your stress response is activated. The way you respond depends on how you view the threat, and the response is controlled by two parts of your nervous system: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the fight or flight response. It gives you the energy you need to confront the threat or run away from it.To do this, the sympathetic nervous system produces these physiological responses: blood diverted to working muscles to provide more oxygen increased heart rate increased breathing rate increased adrenaline production increased muscle tension increased metabolism a dry mouth.Once the stress has passed, the parasympathetic nervous system begins to work. The parasympathetic system helps you to relax. It achieves this by producingResponses: makes muscles relax slows metabolism increases digestion rate decreases body temperature decreases heart rate The effects of stress on performance The stage of the stress process, some form of demand is placed on the athlete in a situation. the athlete then perceives this demand either positively or negatively. It is at this stage that we start to understand how the negative perception of the demand can cause a negative mental state, a lack of self-confidence and a lack of concentration. If the demand is perceived as being too great, the athlete will feel unable to meet the demand. (negative mental state and loss of self-confidence) and will then find it difficult to concentrate on what they will need to do to meet the demand. It is this perception that increases the arousal levels of the performer. During this stage the athlete will experience heightened arousal, higher levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety and changesin their attention and concentration levels. Ultimately this determines the outcome of performance which can be increased or decreased performance Anxiety Anxiety is a negative emotional state that is either characterised by, or associated with, feelings of nervousness, apprehension or worry. There are several causes of anxiety. These are largely the same as those covered earlier under the sources of stress. There are two main types of anxiety: trait anxiety and state anxiety.Trait anxiety " a behavioural tendency to feel threatened even in situations that are not really threatening, and then to respond to this with high levels of state anxiety. State anxiety " a temporary, ever-changing mood state that is an emotional response to any situation considered to be threatening.Anxiety can affect sports performance. It is seen as a negative mental state that is stress. In skills that require a great deal of concentration such as golf, anxiety can lead to lower performance levels due to reduced concentration, attention levels, and co-ordination. These negative effects of stress can lead to lower levels of performance, and as performance levels decrease further this can lead to a decrease in self-confidence. Some symptoms of anxiety can benefit sports performance, like increased blood flow, breathing rate and respiratory rate. These are physiologically beneficial, but if the athlete believes they are happening because of their inability to meet what is required to play/win a game it is this that makes the symptoms negative.ArousalArousal is referred to as a physiological state of alertness that prepares the body for action. It is neutral because it is neither positive or negative. It involves both physiological (increased heart rate, sweating rate or respiratory rate) and psychological activity (increased attention). Individuals who are aroused are those who are mentally and physically activated to perform. Arousal does not actually have a negative effect on sports performance. It can be positive depending on the of the athlete. If the changes due to arousal are interpreted by the performer as positive, this can have a positive effect on performance or prepare the athlete for their event. But, if the changes are viewed as negative, this can negatively affect performance or preparation for performance.
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