Observe and record aspects of the development of a child or young person-
All early years setting observe children everyday. There are many different ways of doing this. Knowing what to look for is important most settings will observe children’s development to see how they are doing in the following areas: PHYSICAL-
Children’s physical development is about the way that they use their hands, move and balance and also manage skills such as kicking a ball. Most play involves physical development; you may be able to observe a child’s physical development as they are playing e.
g. a child pushing a pushchair or a child playing football. COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE-
Most children will talk as they play if they are using speech. Babies and toddlers might use body language or gestures to communicate with us. Children’s speech and language is important to their overall development. PERSONAL, SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL-
Quite a lot of information can be learnt about these aspects of development while children are playing.
Observing children’s personal social and emotional development means looking at whether they have strong relationships and whether they enjoy being with others. Being with others is important for children. Even young babies show their happy while being with others and make eye contact.
Identify different observation methods and know why they are used-
We observe children because we use the information we record to plan activities that are relevant for the child or change your setting in some
way to reflect what you have learned about the children as a group to help them develop.
There are different ways of observing a child for example: with yours eyes, your ears, or through planned activities. We also record the observation in different ways, i.e.-
A focused observation is where you observe what a child is doing recording every detail, this helps record the development of the child and when linked with the EYFS we can identify what stage the child is at. Snapshot observation-
A snapshot observation is where you witness a child’s development with your own eyes or hear it with your ears that was not adult led but child initiated. You will then record it and link it with the EYFS and then you could plan an activity that would help their development in that particular area. Daily diary-
In my setting a daily diary record is kept of what a child has done through the day if the child was a baby it would include what time their feed was, what they ate and what time they slept and for how long. It would also include what the child has shown interest in that day and what activity the child was encouraged to be involved in. This is shared with the parent on a daily or weekly basis so the parents can see how the child is doing in the nursery.
Support assessments of the development needs of a child or young person-
Once I have observed a child, I will then think about what I have learnt about the child’s development, interests or needs. This is done so that setting’s can plan activities and resources. I will think about what a child is doing in relation to the early year’s foundation stage. Confidentiality is very important, I must make sure that any information about the child cannot be seen by people that are not working with the child or do not have
reason to see it. When I observe a child it is important that I stay as objective as possible, This means really focussing on what the child is doing at the time I am watching them and trying to forget what I may already know about them.
Suggest ways the identified development needs of a child or young person can be met in the work setting-
There are many ways a work setting can be meet indentified development needs in children. They can reflect on the child’s interest and views, it is important to base our ideas around what we have seen the child doing and enjoying, activities to support a child’s development do not work if the child does not like them or are not interested. Providing a challenge will help the child to make progress, this means any ideas for activities must be exciting. Play is an important way of helping children to develop skills without realising it. They can also make sure that in the work setting all planning is flexible as a child may come in and not feel like playing or might have other ideas about what they would like to do, Also working with parents so they have consistency by doing the same at home as they do in nursery.
Carry out activities with a child or young person to support their holistic development-
I have carried out an activity with three children ages 8 months-1year. I first planned the activity of what I would need and do, as you can see blow, while doing the activity I done observations on all three children but focused on my key child, this observation has also been included for you to see. After doing my activity I then sat down and looked at my plan and observation, I evaluated it and wrote down next step.
Type of activity: Holistic / Sensory.
Activity: Exploring the treasure basket.
Number of children: 3 focused on one child.
Material needed: Treasure basket, Holistic objects.
I will take three children; one would be my focused child. I will then sit them in a circle with the reassure basket and holistic objects in the middle. I will then encourage the children to explore and feel the different objects. I will also observe how they react and record it.
Record observations of the child or young person’s participation in the activities-
Child A has pulled a sponge out of the treasure basket, she starts to pull it with both hands, child A then holds the sponge in her right hand and starts to wave it about. Child A then reaches into the treasure basket with her left hand and starts to pull out the material, a staff member says “what’s this” and child A watches the staff and copies them with the material pulling it with both hands.
While doing my activity I done an observation on my focused child. Looking at my observation and what the child did during the activity I can see that child A likes to feel objects with her hands. Child A also learns by watching others and then copies them. My next steps for child A is to introduce sensory activities e.g. exploring mash potato as she could feel and taste at the same time.
3.1 & 3.2
Describe the different transitions children and young people may experience- Explain how to give adult support for each of these transitions-
Children and young people may experience different transitions such as: 3.1
When a child or young person’s parent’s have a new baby it could leave the older child feeling like they are not the baby anymore, they may feel jealous or even upset because they may not be getting as much attention as before, this could make the child start attention seeking, they may start acting up e.g. lying or not listening. 3.2
I can support a child if they are feeling this; I could try explaining to the child about the positive side to having a sibling, and would also empathise with the child explaining why they feel the way the feel. 3.1
This could make a child feel frustrated because he/she might not be able to tell you they need the toilet on time, or they may not recognise the signs. This will cause the child to have an accident and may then feel embarrassed. 3.2
I can support them by encouraging them to use their words to communicate to an adult. I could also use flash cards to learn the child what a toilet looks like and how to say toilet. I would praise the child when they go to the toilet e.g. verbally or using stickers, this will encourage the child to want to do it again to receive more praise. 3.1
This could make the child frustrated because they are being torn away from either their favourite place or even their friends. When a child moves away they may feel lost or scared, lonely or even anxious this could possibly end in depression and make the child’s behaviour worse in nursery or school. 3.2
I would support a child or young person moving away by making the transition a happy experience, I would explain what is going to happen and when, then try and make them understand why it is happening. 3.1
STARTING A NEW SCHOOL-
When a child moves school they may start to feel sad, upset or lost that they are leaving all their friends behind and may not see them everyday anymore, they might not understand why they are leaving. Moving school could make the child feel nervous because they do not know anyone and will have to make new friends, the child could feel anxious because they don’t know what to expect. This could make them feel shy and not want to go to school. 3.2
I can support the family in advance preparing them for the change. I can explain to the child what is going to happen so it’s not a big shock for them. I could suggest to the parent to take them to visit the new school setting so they know and recognise the surroundings they are going to.
Explain how a work setting can encourage children and young people’s positive behaviour-
A work setting can encourage children and young people’s positive behaviour by: • Following behaviour policy.
• Providing a simulating and challenging environment.
• Positive behaviour reinforced through praise and rewards. • Having clear boundaries.
• Developing positive relationships.
• Meeting individual needs.
• Giving children choices.
• Having adult role model.
• Listening to children and valuing their opinions.
• Encouraging children to resolve conflict.
• Following plans for individual behaviour.
Demonstrate how children and young people are encouraged to engage in positive behaviour-
As we are role models, we must always express positive body and verbal language and support rules. We should be confident and professional so that children will become self confident and express positive behaviour. Giving verbal praise and rewards such as stickers to a child’s positive behaviour will encourage them to continue this way. Rewards also go a long way in promoting positive behaviour in a child. We should always lead by example. We should use encouraging words, be approachable, understanding and show empathy in order to encourage positive behaviour. When there is a good relationship between the adult and child, and the child is behaving positively, the child receives lots of good attention. This encourages them to repeat the same behaviour. In the same way, if a child is behaving in a way where they will get negative attention, they normally want to change their behaviour so they can receive positive attention again.
Reflect on own role in promoting positive behaviour in children or young people-
My setting has clear rules and boundaries that I will meet at all times. I will follow the behaviour policy within my setting, this will encourage positive behaviour. I would encourage the children to be kind with other people by maintaining a good environment. I will also meet the children’s needs and plan activities to meet those needs. I will set an example in myself and will always have and use positive behaviour, as I am a role model to them. I will reward the children that have showed positive behaviour through verbal or stickers to praise them. I would use encouraging words and make sure I provide a simulating environment. Also I will make them feel safe and secure when being left by parents.
Review effectiveness of own contribution to the assessment of the developmental needs of a child or young person-
By observing a child, I can see how the child is progressing. When I’m observing a child I will be looking for development in the seven different areas covered in the EYFS which are: P.S.E.D- Personal, Social and Emotional development.
C.L- Communication and Language.
P.D- Physical Development.
E.A.D- Expressive Art and Design.
U.W- Understanding the World.
Once the observation is linked with one of these areas I can then write my next steps and plan activities around that area that will aid the child’s development further.
Review effectiveness of own role in supporting the child or young person’s development-
When supporting the child’s development, I will have observed the child looking at all the areas of the EYFS. I would have then linked it. After I would have wrote my next steps. This was effective because I can see what stage and in what area within the EYFS the child is at. I then planned an activity that would be challenging. This helped me to know what recourses I needed for the activity and also helped the child further their development in a fun and happy way.
Identify changes that can be made to own practice in supporting child and young person development-
The changes that can be made in my setting are communication skills, time keeping and working with parents. This will help support the child’s development because these will help the child become more confident and have structure and routine while in the nursery this is important as a child will be unhappy and will not be able to learn if they don’t have these.
Describe the common types of fractures-
A fracture is simply a broken bone.
When a bone is broken, the nerves, blood vessels and muscles around the brake will be damaged as well. Often a fracture may not break the full bone in young children as their bones are more flexible than adults. This sort of fracture is sometimes referred to as a greenstick fracture. Fractures can be one of two main types closed or open.
Closed fractures- This is the most common type of fracture, this is where the skin around the fracture does not break. Open fracture- This is where there is an open wound at the site of the fracture. Sometimes the bone sticks out of the wound; this creates a big risk of infection. Dislocation- A dislocation is where the bone separates from a joint, this can occur easily in children. Never tug or pull on a child’s arm or hand, and never pick them up by their hands or arms.
1.2 & 1.3
Describe how to manage a fracture or dislocation-
You will usually be able to tell quite easily if a child has a fracture or dislocation. In children that are older they are likely to tell you that their arm or leg hurts. Alternatively, look for- • Swelling around the injured area.
• Unnatural position.
• Open wounds or breaks around the skin.
• Loss of power / Ability to move.
My role is to make sure I maintain the injured part in the most comfortable position while waiting for the ambulance.
Describe how to recognise and manage head injuries-
A head injury can result in Concussion, skull fracture or cerebral compression. I would be able to recognise a head injury by the following signs: • Swelling.
• Vomiting- on more then one occasion.
• A bump.
• Severe drowsiness.
• Blurred vision.
• Bleeding from any part of the head.
• Change in the type of cry of a baby.
• Difficulty in walking or talking.
• Being pale and sweaty.
• Pupils of the eyes uneven in size.
• Aggression and irritability.
• Clear or blood-stained fluid from the ears or nose.
• Changes in behaviour.
• Swollen soft spots on a baby’s skull.
Often after a child has had a bang to the head they might just have a bump and feel dazed and will not need to go to the hospital. It is still important I monitor the child closely for about six hours after the accident, and be alert for any changes for a few days. I will inform and give clear instructions to the parents about what to look for after a bang to the head and encourage them to seek medical help if they are worried. Bleeding can happen straight after the injury or a few days later, or blood
can build up slowly. If any of the signs of a head injury occur I would call for an ambulance and the child’s parents immediately. While waiting for the ambulance I would control any external bleeding by applying pressure with a pad, lay the child down, if the child is unconscious act as if there is also an injury to the neck, I will also make note of the symptoms e.g. vomiting, pupil size, how long the child has been or was unconscious for. Etc.
Demonstrate how to manage a suspected spinal injury-
Spinal injuries are unusual in young children
But can happen if a child falls from a height.
It is very important you do not move or attempt to move the child as any slight movement can cause serious damage, including paralysis. I will steady and support the neck and head, and dial 999 for an ambulance.
Describe how to manage and infant and a child with foreign bodies in their eyes, ears and nose-
There as many things that can get stuck in these places e.g. crayons, glitter and beads. Beads fit into these places incredibly well. When something is stuck up a child’s nose or ear, if there is enough sticking out to get a firm grip on e.g. a crayon, I will gently try to ease it out I will not touch it as the result will be it becoming further stuck in. If it is not possible to ease out I would simply call for the first aider to take the child to the nearest NHS walk-in centre or minor injuries unit.
Describe how to recognise and manage common eye injuries-
Most children will manage to get foreign bodies in their eyes such as: Paint
These sorts of things can easily be removed.
I would sit the child down and put on a pair of disposable gloves. I will then Gently pull down the lower eyelid and any remove any visible foreign bodies with either a clean wet piece of tissue or a small piece of wet gauze swab. Yet if this fails to works I will pull the upper eyelid over the lower lid ad try to flush it out with tears. If it still remains in the eye I will then try to wash the eye with water by: Positioning the child’s head over the sink or bowl with their eye open, facing the bottom of the sink or bowl. Using a plastic cup try to pour water on the eye from the tear duct outwards.
If none of this works and the eye is still red and the child still says it is painful I will seek professional help.
Describe how to recognise and manage chronic medical conditions including: sickle cell anaemia, diabetes and asthma-
The most common chronic health conditions you may come into contact with are asthma, sickle cell anaemia and diabetes. Sickle Cell Anaemia is a genetically inherited condition and is common in children of an African-Caribbean heritage. Sickle cell anaemia is a blood disorder that red blood cells become distorted and can block vessels in the body. The signs and symptoms are lack of energy and being breathless also they would look yellow in colour due to jaundice and they would be in severe pain. Straight away I would consult a doctor and my line manager I would recode these symptoms and everything else in my accident book. I would also inform the parents. Diabetes is a lifelong medical condition. Most children who have diabetes will need insulin injections. If a child has too much or not enough insulin, they are at risk of getting hypoglycaemia (hypo attack) or hyperglycaemia (hyper attack). A child going into ‘hypo’ may be: drowsy,
pale, sweating, confused, trembling or irritable. The child needs to balance the insulin by having sugar I can give this to the child directly in the mouth or a drink of orange juice for example. Usually the child will not need any more treatment and will respond quickly to sugars that are easily absorbed. A ‘hyper’ attack is caused by lack of insulin medical help is needed, I will call for an ambulance. A child going into ‘hyper’ attack may shows signs of the following: Very thirsty, drowsy, passing urine very often, have a fruity-smelling breath, vomiting, eventually become unconscious. Asthma attacks can be brought on by: exercise, stress, very cold air and pollen or dust. Asthma is caused by the airways in the lungs closing up. This makes it difficult for the child to take breaths. I would recognise this as the child wheezes and breathing in/out becomes more difficult. A child with asthma will usually use one or more inhalers to control it. They should always have their inhaler available at all times to help them deal with an attack. Often a child will use their inhaler before exercise. If an asthma attack is left untreated, a child can die. If a child is having an asthma attack I would make them comfortable. Sit them in a quiet area away from other children and seat the child in the position most comfortable to them. I will also help them to use their inhaler – usually a blue reliever. I will encourage the child to breath slowly, if the attack does not subside, then I’ll call for medical help.
Describe how to recognise and manage serious sudden illnesses including: Meningitis and Febrile convulsions-
In most settings children may become ill during the day. Some cases the development of a high temperature, vomiting and a rash are just parts of mild illness. However, in a few cases they can be the start to a life threatening illness. If I was worried bout the child’s symptoms, I would seek medical help. Babies and young children can deteriorate very quickly. I would be able to recognise a child with meningitis by these common symptoms: • Stiff neck.
• Reaction to light.
• High temperature.
• Bulging fontanelles in babies.
One sign of meningitis is a rash that does not fade under pressure, I would perform the glass test to detect whether the rash fades or not. A fever with a rash that does not fade under pressure is a medical emergency. If I suspect a child has meningitis I will call an ambulance immediately and inform the parents, while waiting for the ambulance I will stay with the child and make them feel comfortable. Febrile convulsions-
I would be able to recognise a child with febrile convulsions as the child may be experiencing, loss of consciousness, a short spell of not breathing, heavy dribbling, neck and back arching, body rigid and shaking and heavy dribbling. I will perform the following to prevent the child from choking or injuring themselves: I will put the child on their side making sure the airway is open, I will clear any surroundings objects, if the child is hot I would help to cool them by opening a window or putting a fan on or I will remove some clothing, I would place the child in recovery position, also sponge the child down and if this is their first convulsion or does not stop after three minutes then I will dial 999 for an ambulance.
Describe how to recognise and treat the effects of extreme cold for an infant and a child-
If body temperature drops to below 35 degrees, hypothermia will cause a slowdown in the working of the body and can lead to tissue damage and death. I will look for: – Low body temperature.
– If the child is being sluggish or unconscious.
I will treat the child who is suffering the effects of extreme cold by bringing tem into a warm room or close to a warm body, I will wrap the child
in a blanket or coat, I would call for an ambulance and encourage them to drink warm drinks.
Describe how to recognise and treat the effects of extreme heat for an infant and a child-
It is easy to recognise when a child is too hot, they may show signs of: heavy sweating, tiredness, feeling sick and generally ill, high temperature, rapid breathing, febrile convulsions in babies and small children. When the body temperature is over 40 degrees this can cause heatstroke and can result in brain damage or death. Heat exhaustion is more common in children, especially if they have been playing out in hot weather. It can be life-threatening if a baby or young child overheats. If this happens I would move the child out of the heat and give them plenty of water to drink, I would cool them by applying cool water or cool cloths, I would remove excess clothing then if there is no improvement, or if I suspect heatstroke I will call for an ambulance.
Describe how to safely manage an incident involving electricity-
If there is an incident where a child has been in contact with electricity, the priority is to isolate the source. If possible I will switch the power off at the mains or master switch. If this is not possible I could get a wooden broom or chair and push the child well away from the electric source. I do not want to rush in to get hold of the child; this will result in me also being injured.
Describe first aid treatments or electric shock incidents-
Exposure to electricity can stop the heat. If this is the case then I will start ABC: Airway. Breathing.
Circulation, and call for an ambulance.
The places where the electricity has entered and left the body may have burns that need first aid treatment of lots of cool water. But I will only give this after the power source has been switched off or the child has been safely removed.
Describe how to recognise the severity of burns and scalds to an infant and a child and respond accordingly-
There are three factors that affect the severity of a burn or scald: – Size, witch it usually described as a percentage. The palm of the hand is about 1% of the body skin. – Location, a burn to the face, feet, hands or genitals are more serious. – Depth.
Burns occur when the skin is exposed to heat or chemicals, for example fire, sunburn, friction, acid, bleach or garden chemicals. Scalds happen when the skin is exposed to hot fluids, for example boiling water, steam or hot fat. Burns and scalds are usually divided into three categories depending on how much damage they cause to the skin and underlying tissues. First-degree or minor burns are superficial and affect only the outer layer of the skin, making it red and sore. Second-degree or partial thickness burns extend below the surface of the skin. The skin looks raw and blisters form. Third-degree or full thickness burns damage the entire layer of the skin and underlying tissues to affect nerves, muscle and fat. The skin looks pale and waxy. First-degree burns can be recognized by slight swelling and redness. In second-degree burns, the skin looks red raw and blisters will appear. Black or waxy skin indicates a third-degree burn and that the burn is serious. Serious burns can cause shock. A scald in the mouth or throat, may cause swelling and make breathing difficult. Scalds are caused by liquids e.g. water or hot drinks. Burns can be caused by fire, electricity, the sun, chemicals or very hot materials such as metals.
Describe how to treat burns and scalds to an infant and a child-
I would seek medical attention for any child with a burn that is: • Causing serious pain.
• On the face or hands.
• A chemical or electrical burn.
• Deep or blistering.
• Accompanied by inhaling smoke or fumes.
• No larger than a postage stamp.
First-degree burns can be treated at home and usually heal in seven to ten days. Second- and third-degree burns are much more serious and require medical attention as there is a risk of infection and shock developing. I would act immediately to a child who has a burn or scald; I would cool the burn with cold water- preferably under gently running water, for at least 10 minutes. I will remove any clothing that is not stuck to the burn. I would cover the burn with a sterile or clean dressing, or even a clean plastic bag; this will keep the air out of the burn. If there is any burn or scald on a baby or young child I will call an ambulance straight away.
Describe how poisons enter the body-
Poisons can entre the body by being swallowed; for example cleaning fluids, tablets. Also be being breathed in by fumes and dust. Or it can entre the body through the skin e.g. fluids, powders. Here are some common examples of items that can be poisonous: Cleaning fluids can burn the mouth and digestive system when took if in unlocked cupboard. Sleeping tablets from unattended handbag can make a child unconsciousness and possibly result in death. Poison ivy plants can cause severe irritation and blistering to the skin.
Describe how to recognise and treat an infant and a child affected by common poisonous substances, including plants-
Each poisonous substance will have a different effect on a child’s body, depending on what the poison is and how it has entered the body. When I find a child who I suspect has been poisoned I will look around for evidence like: • Open drug containers.
• Open chemical containers.
• Unusual smells on child’s breath.
• Unusual smells, such as gas fumes.
I would recognise if a child has been poisoned as they may show signs of: • Vomiting.
• Burns around the mouth.
• Blisters or swelling.
• Drowsiness or unconsciousness.
• Severe rash or itching of the skin.
I would treat the child by dialling 999 for an ambulance, I would try to find out what the child has taken, how much and when or what they have been in contact with and I will give my evidence to medical help. If the child is unconscious, I will check the airway and put the child in the recovery position. If the child has been poisoned by a poisonous plant I will rinse the skin under running water.
Identify sources of information that provide procedures for treating those affected by poisonous substances-
Describe how to recognise the severity of bites and stings to an infant and a child and respond accordingly-
It is important I recognise when medical intervention is needed and make sure the child gets it. Most bites and stings are quite minor and just need cleaning or stings removing and reassurance. The most dangerous reaction a
child would get from a sting or bite is if they are allergic to the sting or bite. Allergic reactions can develop very quickly. I would look for: • Difficulty in breathing.
• Severe swelling at the site.
• Swelling of the face.
• Redness and raised rash.
If a child had this type of reaction I would call for an ambulance immediately and inform there parents.
Bites are usually easy to recognise. If a child has been bite I may see teeth marks or puncture wounds. Any cuts will usually be jagged. The bites also usually will have bruising with them, so I would see that the area is red and it may be slightly swollen. If I see the bite is badly bleeding or the child is seriously injured I will control the bleeding and call for an ambulance. But if the bite is not that serious I will wash the area thoroughly and apply a cold pact to the area to ease the swelling. I will also apply a dressing if there are breaks in the skin. I would recognise an Insect stings as the area would be red and may have mild swelling. Also the child would be complaining that it is painful and itchy. I would move the child away from any further risks of stings. I would check the area that has been stung and remove any sting by scrapping away from the area with my fingernail or card for example. I will wash the area well with soap and water and apply a cold pack to reduce any swelling and ease the pain.
Support the assessment of children and young people
Using the assessment framework