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Women have the right to be involved in the work environment just as men are. In the past mothers just stayed at home and taking care of the family, rising their children and they were not allowed to work. We do care and appreciate her efforts to create a family however, being a mother is not mean losing one sense of individuality because all women have the right to represent a different aspect besides being a mother. Work helping mothers to build their identities away from their families and it gives her confidence, stability and a chance to communicate with society.
Nowadays, the percentage of working mothers is increasing very fast which has caused to them some difficulties to balance or manage their time between their career and family responsibilities. The U.S. Bureau of Labor point out that percentage of working mothers in 2012 had increased in Sweden by 76%, in Norway 73%, and in Denmark 74% (Working mother statistics, 2012).
In addition, Wladi(1998) mentioned that in 1940 the percentage of working mothers was 8.
6%, However by 1959 this figure had increased rapidly to 27.5% and by 1996 the percentage was 70%.These statistics were taken when their child under 18 years old, This essay will argue that working mothers should be supported by their families and governments by setting some laws or suggestion to support and help them to make their career and family life easier and more flexible. Working mothers are the most influential group in society, and by being employer they affect their children positively, themselves and relationships with their families.
Working mothers benefit their children
In recent years working mothers have a good effects on their children in many ways. Firstly, children of employment mothers are better in their education than children of mothers who’s stay at home. The kids whose mothers worked when they were younger than 3 were later good in school and have a few problems with depression however, the working mothers with full- time job their child between 1 or 2 years old will have an academic score problem than kids whose their mothers part time (Luscombe, 2010). Working mothers who in part time employee reflect a positive effects on children’s academic performance because they have more experience and resources to spend on their children’s education. In addition, there are beneficial effects on children. When the working mothers has five years’ experience in work, teenagers who get higher grades with working mothers will improve the mental well-being among the mothers who work (Children of working mums do better at school, 2013). Working mothers who work in part time have more space in a day to spend with children and focus on their education which led to good score in school.
Also working in part time job helps mothers to get some rest and not feel stress. According to Meikle, (2011) there are a lot of positive sides for young children if their mothers work especially girls. Daughters of working mothers are more independent than others. They represent an important example and role model for their daughters’ success, which build their confidence and that will help them in their future career and lifestyle. Meikle said there is no damaging effects on children social and emotional feelings if their mothers work during their early years. On the other hand, boys whose mother was responsible for the household had more difficulties at the age of five than those living with two working parents (Meikle, 2011). However, young children will exhibit more bad behavior if someone else taking care of them instead of their parents likes baby sitter or nanny. Working mothers benefit themselves
In addition, working mothers benefit themselves. According to Bindley, (2011) working moms are happier than home moms because working mothers are healthier and less prone to depression. In other words Larowe, (n.d.) point out that working benefit moms, and mentioned seven reasons that make mothers stop feeling guilty and hang on their career. The first one of the most two important reasons is, the job grants mothers the chance to live out their ambition because if their purpose of motherhood is unfulfilled, mothers may feel unsatisfied and even resentful. Secondly, through work mothers can have financial control which make them feel confident and gives her the right to make financial choices for her family. In addition, the job helps her to create a good social connection and less feeling lonely. Labor force mothers are more independent and confident, happier, healthier, aware and have more chance to communicate with society.
On the other hand, Ruth,(1988) also showed statistics about rapid growth in number of young working mothers, in 1950 only 12 percent of married woman with their baby under the age of six were worked outside the home and by 1987 this percentage growth to more than 50 percent. In addition, by 1976, 31 percent of mothers returns to their job and their child did not complete a year after birth and in 1985 this figure increased to 48 percent. He point out that needing self-esteem, higher living costs and lower wages and provide the education for children are the cause of this huge increase. Larowe, (n.d.) says that employed mothers are less sad and have more strength at the age of 40 than mothers who stayed at home. Staying at home for mothers led then to have more stress, pressure, unhappiness and anger. By being employee they became away from daily rotten that is because they meet different people every day and go to different places and that is helping them to change their mood. Working mothers benefits the relationship with family
Working for mothers tend to create a good relationships with family members and husband. Fathers should spend more time with their children because they spend most of time in work. For this reason, working mothers who has the same salary as their husband can share the work time with them to allow their husbands to have more time with children (Gentleman, 2009). Working mothers help to reduce the financial pressure on husbands. On the other, hand husbands can help their wives, such as taking care of the children when they are in work. This connection helps to lower burden on both because it creating cooperation which lead to solving problems and raising their children more effectively. When both of them work, it helps them to share responsibilities and understand each other.
It is often people thought that working mothers have a negative impact on their children, children who have a workers mothers are badly educated when their mothers are absent (Doughty, 2013). Children will be less successful at their school because they will have intellectual problems. These may impact on the child education and in mothers in the future (Doughty, 2013). This view seems convincing at first but, new studies have shown the opposite. Workers mothers have more knowledge and experience to help their children reach a higher level in their education. There is a survey that showed how the period of working mothers being in work can affect the academic performance of their children and the results showed that most children whose mothers worked for long periods gets better grades in schools (Children of working mums, 2013). Many people believe that mothers who work have much stress that lead to divorce, because they will face pressure to find the right balance between their family responsibilities and work requirements, which might create disputed with their husbands and that might lead to problems for the whole family.
This argument looks true. However governments should supporting working mothers to decrease their pressure by creating nursery in their work place to reduce their worry about the children. In addition, companies may reduce the hours of work for mothers which allows mothers time to get some rest at home and to care of the children. It would be easy argue that some families do not want or need the financial aid from mothers. They think that being mothers at home is more worthy than money. Also, the salary of working mothers are less than their husbands so it will not affect the family income. This argument fails to consider that life is becoming a laborious and prices of everything have increased; also the outlay of the family has increased so one income is often not. Furthermore, it does not matter if the working mothers’ salary is lower, it will assist in covering the needs of the family. In conclusion, the time has changed from past to now and the mothers position has changed. Nowadays mothers work to be part of society and to be part of developing the country economically, and most mothers choose to work to build their identity and confidence and additionally to help their family.
Governments should support working mothers to encourage them to work and join the workforce and give them a chance to achieve their individual goals. Working mothers should be supported by their families and governments for several reasons, working mothers have more knowledge and experience than mothers at home which impacts positively on their children future and their education. Aside of the benefits to children, working mothers otherwise benefit themselves because work give them more ability to have financial choice and achieve self-esteem. Governments contribute by encouraging working mothers and supporting them. They must provide organizations to prepare mothers who stay at home for job environments. This institutes it may help mothers to be influential in the community and be a part to increase the production and economy of the country. Education and work in the origins not added for damages or corruption, but for building the society and to righteousness people. Workers mothers better in the education than ignorant mothers and the reality confirms this.
References Bindley, K. (2011). Working Moms Happier Than Stay-At-Home Moms, Study Finds. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/15/study-working-moms-are-ha_n_1152202.html
Children of working mums do better at school. (2013) Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/comment/children-of-working-mums-do-better-at-school-20130928-2uktv.html
Doughty, S. (2013). Working mothers risk damaging their child's prospects. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-30342/Working-mothers-risk-damaging-childs-prospects.html
Gentleman, A. (2009). Working fathers want more time with their children too, says report. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2009/oct/20/working-fathers-report-ehrc
Luscombe, B. (2010). Working Moms’ Kids Turn Out Fine, 50 Years of Research Says. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2010/10/18/working-moms-kids-turn-out-fine-50-years-of-research-says/
Larowe, M. (n.d.). Study Says Working Full-Time Benefits Moms. Retrieved from http://www.yourtango.com/experts/michelle-larowe/7-ways-full-time-work-benefits-mothers-expert
Meikle.J. (2011). Working mothers do no harm to their young children .Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2011/jul/22/working-mothers-no-harm-children
Ruth, A. (1988, July 15). Working mothers, (pp.17). Retrieved from http://www.zu.ac.ae/main/en/
Wladis, L. (1998). The Effects of the Mother's Employment on the Family and the Child. Retrieved from http://parenthood.library.wisc.edu/Hoffman/Hoffman.html
Working Mother Statistics, (2012) retrieved from http://www.statisticbrain.com/working-mother-statistics/
As more mothers are becoming employed, the concern of whether a mothers employment has a positive or negative effect on children and family is being questioned. This research paper reviews the effects of mothers' employment on a child's behaviour, education and the relationships within the family. It concludes that a mothers employment is indeed a positive aspect to families dynamic. Through research children with working mothers prove to be more smarter, and well behaved than children with mothers who are not employed. This research paper also shows that the relationships within the families are enhanced positively through a mothers employment.
As times change, families do as well. In the past 50 years Canada has seen significant changes in the family structure. The notion of motherhood as the sacred and primary role of women is no longer the norm, or ideal. The lifestyle of mothers and families today have completely changed (Hoffman, 1998). "Family sizes are smaller, modern technology has considerably diminished the amount of necessary housework and food preparation, women are more educated, marriages are less stable, life expectancy has increased and youthfulness has been extended, expectations for personal fulfilment has been expanded and traditional gender role attitudes have been modified and are less wildly held" (Hoffman, 1998) shaping the entirely of women's roles, as well as families.
In todays time, mothers no longer hold full responsibility of the household chores, and the upbringing of the children. Instead the majority of mothers are employed and are a contributing asset to the families financials. This major change has raised the question: How does a mother working affect the children and family? Although widely viewed as a negative aspect to a family's dynamic, working mothers prove to have a positive effect on a child's education, behaviour, and relationships within the family.
The effects on a child's education
Working mothers have been proved to be beneficial for a child's cognitive development after the first year of a child's life (Sailor, 2012). A study showed when mothers worked during the earlier years of a child's life, there were negative effects on a child's thinking and behaviour due to the child not developing a proper attachment to their mother during the developmental stage of attachment (Sailor, 2012). If a mother is present during the first year of life, studies show a mothers job doesn't have negative effects on her child (Sailor, 2012). Children with employed mothers are found to have higher cognitive scores (Sailor, 2012) and receive higher test score than children with nonworking mothers on language, reading and math (Hoffman, 1998). Studies also find that boys and girls are affected differently by a mothers employment. Girls are shown to be less affected by a mothers employment.
They appear to have more beneficial results through a mothers employment and to the alternate child care (Sailor, 2012). Studies also find that daughters of working mothers have an overall better achievement in academics, their career and commitment to their work (Hoffman, 1998). Boys on the other hand did better if the mothers care was replaced by a grandmother or close relative (Sailor, 2012). A mothers employment can also dictate what type of school the child goes to. Children with both parents working may have a financial advantage. Having more than one income in the household may allow the child to go to better school than children whose parents only have one source of income (Mann, 2012) Also when a mother is working, they usually send their kids to daycare. This insinuation is beneficial to a child because it builds socialization skills (Mann, 2012) Therefore a mothers employment through research proves to be a positive influence on a child's education. Children with working mothers have both a cognitive, social and financial advantage when it comes to their education.
The effects on a child's behaviour
A mothers employment is shown to have gender-based effects on a child's behaviour. The behaviour of girls is effected more positively than the behaviour of boys. A study found that daughters of employed mothers were more stable in a classroom setting than daughters of unemployed mothers, whereas boys of employed mothers showed more acting out than boys whose mothers did not work (Hoffman, 1998). The study also found that daughters of employed mothers also were more independent, social, effective workers, and had a higher capability to adjust to social matters than girls with unemployed mothers (Hoffman, 1998). Another study showed that children with parents who are either both unemployed, or one of them is unemployed, show more challenging behaviours at the age of five, than a child whose parents are both employed (McMunn, 2011). More specifically, this study showed that boys whose mother were the wage earner in the family presented more behaviour difficulties than boys living in a dual income household.
Girls, on the other hand, displayed more behavioural difficulties than girls in a dual income household if the father was the wage earner (McMunn, 2011). Although the direct influences of each gender are highly important, the most important influence a mother has on her child's behaviour, regardless of the gender, is shown to be the example she sets for her child. Through a mothers employment children are able to learn work ethic. A mothers employment is highly beneficial to a child because it allows them to look up to a mother who is a productive member of society, and strive to be the same (Mann, 2012)
Therefore through a mothers employment, the behaviour of children is influenced positively. Generally children in the classroom with employed mothers are better behaved than children with unemployed mothers. Children of employed mothers have a modern role model to follow. This influence allows them to strive to become productive members of society and diminishes some of the attitudes towards traditional gender roles (Hoffman, 1998).
The effects on family relationships
The status of a mothers working position, whether full-time or part-time, does not affect the importance she places on being there for her family and supporting their needs. Instead a mothers employment builds stronger relationships within the family. The relationship with the child and the mother is enhanced through a mothers employment. Because the mothers employment benefits the family by supporting the families needs (Reynolds, Callender, ; Edwards, 2003, p.63-67), the child is granted the needs they need to flourish physically and mentally. A mother's employment allows a child to view his mother as a role mole model improving the relationship between the mother and child (Reynolds, Callender, & Edwards, 2003, p.63-67). A study found that father with working partners express that the time their spouse shared with the children was not taken for granted.
By focussing on the quality rather than quantity, fathers stated that their spouses were able to embellish their relationship with their children (Reynolds, Callender, & Edwards, 2003, p.63-67). Because one of the main goals of a mothers employment is to fulfill their families needs, fathers of this study also expressed that their relationship with their spouse was enhanced positively through employment because them a common interest to strive for. In general, the relationships within the family are affected positively through a mothers employment because a mothers employment serves as a positive influence allowing q child's, and spouses needs to be met.
In conclusion, both working and non working mothers place high value on their families. In both cases, mothers try to do what is best for their families. Although being at home and taking care of the children had been the norm for many years, working mothers prove to be a more positive asset to a families dynamic in todays society (Mann, 2012) Studies suggest that their are cognitive, social, behavioural and financial advantages children receive when their mother is working. Children with working mothers had higher test scores, were more socially experienced, behaved better and had a better chance at receiving better education because of the extra income the family would receive from a mothers employment.
The relationships within the family were also proven to be positively influenced by a mothers employment. Working mothers are said to focus more on the quality time with their children and family rather than the quantity improving the quality of relationships. Children also are able to look up to their mother building a relationship through admiration, and appreciation. Therefore in general, the effects of a mothers employment prove to be more positive then negative. A child's education, behaviour, and the relationships within the family are all areas that are positively affected by maternal employment.
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