In 2008, American Psychological Association (APA), Sexual orientation is conferred as if it was wholly a characteristic of an individual, like biological sex, gender identity, or age. Sexual orientation of an individual is describe in terms of how one relate with other people and how they express their sexual orientation through behaviours with others including some easy and simple actions like holding hands, kissing or fondling. (American Psychological Association, 2008). Some scientific disciplinary in these areas suggested that sexual orientation is naturally compromising and evolving continuously over the lifespan which subjected individuals to experience transitions or changes in sexual orientation throughout their lives (Kinnish et al.
, 2005). Sexual preferences which is about self imposed choice a times overlaps with sexual orientation which is not a choice according to scientific consensus but it can be easily keyed out by self identity for instance someone who identifies him/herself as bisexual may sexually prefer one sex over the other (American Psychological Association, 2010).
Sexual orientation has been the epicenter of sexual identity explore, one’s sexual identity also includes intimacy, eroticism, sexual activities, ones communication of sexuality (e.g. sexual behaviors and self-expression), and the uniqueness one finds sexually attractive (Schaefle, Hays, & Cates, n.d.). Thus, sexual orientation is closely linked to the inner personal relationships that conform to deeply felt desires for affection, love, intimacy and closeness. In addition to sexual behaviors, these bonds include nonsexual physical affection between partners, shared goals and values, mutual support, and ongoing commitment. Sexual orientation is not only about one’s personal attribute to an individual but about one’s sexual orientation which describes the set of people in which one’s satisfaction is derived and rewarding romantic relationships that are an indispensable component of personal identity for many people.(American Psychological Association, 2008) Currently researchers are perplexed as to what they are studying when assessing sexual orientation in their research. (Sell, n.d.). Several literature reviews have found that researchers’ theoretical definitions of these populations are not often included in reports of their research and, when they are included, they often vary hypothetically (Sell, n.d.). Likewise the prepared methods used to compute sexual orientation in those studies has not always being correspond with the most common conceptualizations of sexual orientation (Shively, 1984; Sell and Petrulio, 1995) American Psychological Association (2008) stated that due to the current scientific and professional understanding of sexual orientation, a typical sexual orientation that emerges between middle childhood and early adolescence are the core attraction s that forms the basis for adulthood sexual orientation. These models of emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction may arise without any prior sexual experience. People can be single or unmarried and still know their sexual orientation be it lesbian, gay, bisexual, or heterosexual.(American Psychological Association, 2008)In a study carried out by Harris in order to explore patterns of sexual orientation in a representative sample of Minnesota junior and senior high school students. The sample included students of grades 7 through 12 from various ethnic, geographic, and socioeconomic strata. Various items pertaining to sexual attraction, fantasy, behavior, and affiliation were embedded in a self-administered survey of adolescent health (Harris, n.d.). Harris reported that 10.7% of respondents were uncertain about their sexual orientation; 88.2% were mainly heterosexual and 1.1% was bisexual or mainly homosexual. The reported prevalence of homosexual attractions (4.5%) exceeded homosexual fantasies (2.6%), sexual behavior (1%), or affiliation (0.4%). Sexual orientation uncertainty diminished in consecutively older age groups with equivalent increases in heterosexual and homosexual affiliation. The findings suggest an unfolding of sexual identity during adolescence, influenced by sexual experience and demographic factors The results put forward that sexual identity during adolescence is influenced by sexual experience and demographic factors (Harris, n.d.). The situation that sexual orientation is stable across the lifespan is supported by findings from several areas of research (Kinnish et al., 2005). These include (1) conversion therapy outcome studies which, with very few exceptions (e.g., Spitzer, 2003), document a very low success rates in treatment attempts to change sexual orientation (e.g., Haldeman, 1991, 1994); (2) study suggesting a developmental stability between gender-atypical behavior in childhood and later adult homosexuality (Bailey & Zucker, 1995; Bell et al., 1981; Green, 1974, 1987); and (3) studies of the biological etiology of sexual orientation, an underlying assumption of which is that evidence of such a contribution to etiology implies a probabilistic relationship between the identified biological condition and sexual orientation outcome (e.g., Dorner, 1968; Dorner & Hintz, 1968; Meyer-Bahlburg et al., 1995; Money, Schwartz, &Lewis, 1984; Mustanski, Chivers, & Bailey, 2002; Ricketts, 1984).
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