Wireless network refers to any style of network that’s not connected with the assistance of cables Wireless communication has become terribly pervasive with tremendous growth in technology day-by-day. Significant analysis efforts are created within the previous years that intend to develop new wireless capability through the implementation of abundant more intelligence in wireless networks. Even once the onset of wireless technology, the issues and obstacles in the efficient communication are still encountered.
With no wireless networks, high speed web, wireless networking on cellphones that square measure of larger importance on a routine wouldn’t are doable.
Wireless communication has started in early Seventies and within the next four decades, mobile wireless technology has underwent a huge transformation from 1G to 5G and every generation has created its own progression.5G technology provides variety of notable edges compared to the earlier generations to produce utterly wireless net within the real sense of the word.
These papers provide associate inclusive and comprehensive analysis of recent organic process endeavors toward 5G It highlights salient options, i.
e., flexibility, accessibility, high resolution, low latency and cloud-based service offerings; those area unit aiming to make sure the futurist mobile communication technology because the dominant protocol for international communication.
1G (first generation):
1G emerged in 1980’s and used technique like FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) and it contained Analog system. FDMA is a technique in which frequency allocated for wireless communication is divided in many channels and each channel is capable of carrying a data signal.
New technologies like Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS), and Push to Talk (PTT) etc. were introduced in 1G. With channel capacity of 30 KHz it provided speed up to 2.4kbps. Users could only manage to call only in one country. It had no security and poor voice quality with very low spectrum efficiency. Further the size of mobile phone was big and it was a hectic job to carry them all the time. There was something to be done by the network operators and soon they came up with 2G in the market.
2G (second generation)
Emerging in late 1980’s based on GSM used digital signal over Analog signal as in 1G, thus making it more secure by enabling digital encryption. It used the Bandwidth of 30 to 200 KHz with data rate of 64kbps. Users were still not satisfied with the provided data rate by operators as downloading was an issue and browsing speed was low as well. Later 2.5G and 2.75 were introduced so data rate could be increased in which techniques like GPRS, CDMA, EDGE were used. Data rates were increased from 64kbps in 2G to 144kpbs and 180kbps in 2.5G and 2.75G respectively, hence providing users with more browsing speed and allowing downloading of mp3 songs.
3G (third generation)
3G was launched in around 2000 and it mainly targeted for increase in the data rate speed. It is three times better than GSM i.e. 3GSM. It uses packet switching technique and Wide Band Wireless Network which provided Global access and more clarity. It is called UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) in Europe and CDMA2000 in America. It Operates at the range of 2100MHz and has bandwidth of 15-20MHz for high speed internet. It provides speed of around 125kbps to 2Mbps for faster downloading, thus also enabling clear and continuous voice and video calling. It also supported 3D gaming, Mobile TV, MMS, Live streaming, sending/receiving large e-mails etc. Further new techniques were developed and 3.5G was also introduced which was six times faster than UMTS. It was having data rate in-between 5-30Mbps and techniques like W-CDMA, WLAN, and HSDPA were used. 3G consumed more power than 2G and also network plans were expensive compared to 2G. Also, 3G mobile phones were costly and it was having higher bandwidth requirement which gave an edge for bringing 4G into the play [2, 3].
4G (fourth generation)
LTE (Long Term Evolution) is considered as 4G. It offers downloading speed up to 100Mbps. Launched in 2012, 4G provides additional service over 3G like Multi-Media Newspaper, TV programming with more clarity, High Quality live streaming, HDTV, location based services, video chatting, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), expanded multimedia services and seamless browsing with high speed. Apart from this, battery efficiency is increased and it has low cost per bit. 4G has been developed to accommodate the QoS (Quality of Service). It has ultra-low latency compared to 3G, about 50 milliseconds latency rate. It takes only 6 minutes to download High Definition movie. 4G has complicated hardware and expensive equipment’s are required to implement next generation network .
No. Problem Method Dataset Future Direction Experiment parameters Similarity with previous papers Publication Organization
01. The number of mobile phones and internet users has increased significantly in recent years and this has led to over crowing of network, low connectivity speed and low bandwidth. The key technologies used or heterogeneous networks (HetNet), MIMO and RAT.
Router and switching technology for high connectivity. Overcrowded network For future modification, its characteristics or been properly analyzed.
In future, we will put light on new emerging ideas about 6G and 7G In MIMO technology an array of antennas is setup having hundreds of antenna units.
Response of each terminal is estimated by the base station Working on improvements in latency rate
Energy efficiency performances is done as in previous paper.
02 To reach 5G to unprecedented levels of flexibility and intelligence. Dense heterogeneous network, massive MIMO, Millimeter wave communication technology (mmWave)
Cloud based radio access network (c-RAN) Level of intelligence in 5G Future 5G will be a combination of different enabling technologies, however the biggest challenge will be to integrate all these technologies Software defined networking (SDN) is an architectural framework for creating intelligent networks.
SDN is an open interface between the entities in the control and data planes. Massive MIMO technology discussion working on flexibility and intelligence improvements. IJSRCSEIT
03 Key provision of 5G technology of mobile, communication, which is seen as consumer oriented Evolved packet core (EPC) network is used with LTE and other access technologies.
Use of wax-adopters is make sure Level of wireless communication In future, mobile will have access to different wireless technologies at the identical time and terminals should be able to marge different flows from different technologies Enhancement is seen towards the consumer terminals as a focus on 5G mobile network.
5G terminal will make the ultimate selection among different mobile access network provider for a specified service.
Working for less energy hungry, more reliable mobile network
Improvement in wireless technologies IEEE
Comparison of different communication technology
Technology/Features 1G 2G/2.5G 3/3.5G 4G 5G
Started/Evolved 1970-80 19901999 20002010 2010now Soon proba bly from 2020
Data Rate 2Kbps 64180 Kbps Up to 3.6Mbp s 100Mb psHigher than 1Gbps
Technology Analo g cellul ar techn ology Digita l cellul ar techn ology WCD MA, CDMA -2000 LAN/ WAN/ PAN/ WLAN LAN/ WAN/ PAN/ WLA N, WW WW, BDMA
Multiplexing FDMA TDMA, CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA
Frequency Band 800M Hz 850/9 00/1800/1900 MHz 850/900/1800/ 1900/
2100MHz 1.8GHz ,2.3GHz, 2.6GHz , 3.5GHz 1.8, 2.6GH z, and expected 30300GHz
Primary Features Analog Phone calls Digital phone calls and messaging Digital phone calls, e-mails, Messaging, Downloading All IP service, Faster downloading High speed, High capacity, Live streaming with more clarity
Weaknesses No Security, poor voice quality Limited data rate, poor downloading Failure of WAP for Internet access, Expensive Battery use is more, complicated hardware Infrastructure, Common Platform, Security etc.
Moving from FDMA/TDMA to CDMA, data rates were improved, variety of features evolved, number of applications were also developed with evolving generation as shown in Table I
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