Principals and Importance of First Aid

About this essay

The first aid is the measures that are given immediately to the person with a minor or serious illness, injury or damage.

The form of the first aid is considered in providing the assistance as to promote recovery, preserve life and promote healing.

The first aid must be done instantly as the case is urgent at that time in a condition waiting for the ambulance. The one that can do first aid should have a feedback about how the measures are going on because if they were done wrongly, the case would be in a bad condition, to finalize the previous we can say that the first aid is done by someone with basic medical training.

Generally some measures that are considered in the first aid: (CPR) cardiopulmonary resuscitation, applying a plaster to a cut, breathing application and mental health first aid that is applied in the psychological cases.

The first care is to the care of human patients. However, first aid can be performed on nearly all animals like pets, such as first aid for pets.

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Aims and Goals of the First Aid

The main aim is to prevent death or serious injury from being more damaged or worsening, but we can divide this main goal into 3 important aims as to mention all:

  • Preserve life
  • Prevent further harm
  • Promote recovery

The kits of the first aid must be well prepared and organized, they are consisted of transparent box or durable bag with a white cross on a green background and the kits inside it.

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Before providing the first aid to the person with the trouble, the first aid provider should take the full assessment of the nature of the circumstances and conditions the case in, as the assessment is so important to provide and give the appropriate measures which will help the case as fast as the provider do and with no worries about the case after that.

The following pages touch on that topic with its details and its important notes so is it.

Definition of the first aid

First aid is the immediate care that is given to the persons had accidents and the measures of first aid are done before the trained medical workers arrive. The assistance of first aid is necessary and important for the life of the individual.

Aims of first aid

The aims of first aid represent in:

  1. Stop and reverse harm
  2. Prevent condition from becoming worse
  3. Promote recovery
  4. Prevent complications

First aid kit

The the box of first aid kit should be accessible as to be got in the emergencies and accidents everywhere the individuals exist, that is considered one of the safety conditions in the place where the person is, also the first aid kit should be out of the reach of the children as it can represent a danger for them because they aren’t old enough to understand how it’s used and the purpose of its usage.

Contents of the First Aid Box?

There are basic supplies must be always in the first aid box, they are:

  • Adhesive tape
  • Antibiotic ointment
  • Antibiotic tablets or drink
  • Antiseptic solution
  • Bandages
  • Gauzes in pad and roller forms
  • Immediate cold or hot packs and bottle compresses
  • Soup for hand washing
  • Disposable latex or synthetic gloves, at least 2 pairs
  • Sterile eyewash, such as a saline solution
  • Eye goggles
  • Pin light
  • Safety pins in assorted sizes
  • Scissors, tweezers and a needle
  • Plastic bags
  • Cotton
  • Thermometer
  • Triangular bandage
  • First aid manual

What is mentioned below is considered medications for first aid kit:

  • Activated charcoal
  • Anti-diarrhea medication
  • Oral antihistamine
  • Pain relievers including aspirin and non-aspirin
  • Lotions and creams, such as calamine and hydrocortisone
  • Drugs to treat an allergic attack, such as an auto-injector of epinephrine
  • Personal medications
  • Syringe and medicine cup or spoon
  • Candles and matches for cold climate

Emergency Care

The emergency care orders involve:

  • looking at the general and whole situation quickly as to observe the real condition and how to treat with it with the required measures.
  • assessing how the severity of the injury is, so the assistance will work perfectly.
  • giving the suitable and perfect first aid.
  • following the supervisor and transporting to the hospital.
  • giving the follow-up care during the journey.

There are emergency items should be included in the first aid kit:

  • Cell phone and recharger
  • Emergency phone numbers, such as family contacts, doctor number, emergency services number, regional poison control center number.

Principles of first aid

  • Carrying out first aid measures
  • Gathering the information from the injured person and the environment around him\her
  • Keeping the injured away from the danger sources
  • Keeping the injured calm as to conserve energy by not seeing the injury and not telling him\her about the situation
  • Transfering the injured to the nearest hospital

The emergency care is considered the basic process in the first aid, so it’s important to check its measures and put in consideration every step of it

  • Looking at the situation

Giving an assessment on the whole situation and organizing the information from the environment around the affected person by:

  • Observation

By looking accurately and quickly on the scene the person is in and as on this, the medical care provider can decide perfectly.

  • History of the accident or illness

Not all the information about the condition can be taken by the look of the case and not all the illnesses have clear symptoms to decide the assistance on it so we can gather the information of the history of the accident or illnesses by question the person himself\herself if conscious, but if he\she is unconscious we can gather the information from the people around the person or the family.

  • History of the patient

It’s by observing the condition of the case and questioning the direct questions not that questions that suggest an answer, for example we ask: how do you feel? rather than, do you feel faint?

  • Assessing what is wrong and how severe it is:

The Nature of the Emergency

It’s determining the real condition of the emergency and how severity it is, Putting in consideration the type of the emergency and the case of the affected person that needs the assistance. The danger of the emergency means how extent it threatens the life of the person, so your decision concerning what should receive attention first.

Examination of the affected person

To get the nature of the emergency, you should examine the patient in the right way and that is done by:

Check some signs first like.

  • Breath(its sound and the rise and fall of the chest)
  • Color of the skin(palms of hands,soles of feet,lips)
  • Circulation of the blood(by taking pulse)
  • Pupils of eyes(large or small and if they change in dark)

Check for severe bleeding.

Check for poisoning.

Check for shock.

Check some parts of the body.

We check: head, neck, chest, abdomen, back and the whole peripheral limbs. We check what is mentioned previously for signs on internal damage to organs such as darkening and swelling, bruises, burns, wounds, dislocation, fractures or broken bones, sstrain and sprains.

Check when the emergency isn’t due to injuries.

We can make sure of this point by checking the body systems, such as: the digestive and excretory system, the vascular system, the cardiopulmonary system, the urinary system, the reproductive system, the musculoskeletal system, skin.

So we check all the previous looking for signs or symptoms, but what is the difference between the signs and the symptoms?

Signs\ they are changes in the normal functioning of the person that can be easily observed by people, such as temperature, color of skin or breathing.

Symptoms\ they are changes in the normal functioning of the person that indicates injury or disease, such as pain, dizziness, numbness and nausea.

There are levels of state of consciousness:

  • alertness: the patient can speak, feel the pain and respond
  • lethargy: the patient is kind of confused, awake and respond slowly
  • drowsiness: the patient is sleepy and can’t concentrate
  • semi consciousness: the patient is very sleepy with difficulty in responding
  • consciousness: the patient is asleep, can’t respond or control anything

Pulse: the normal range of the pulse is between 70 and 80 beat/minute

The conditions in which the pulse increases are: effort, fever (38°c = 100 beat/minute, 39°c = 120 beat/minute), dehydration (130 beat/minute without fever may indicate dehydration), some heart diseases.

Pain indicators: ability to move, numbness, swelling, feeling sick, deformity, discharge from the openings in the body, fits (convulsions).

Giving the suitable and perfect first aid:

You have to decide what first aid measures you should choose, and that depends on your assessment on the situation of the patient and the case of him/her.

Some forms of the abnormalities and how we treat with it perfectly and accurately:

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

The function of lungs and the function of heart are so parallel, as in case the patient can’t breathe and also his heart can’t beat so he is in a real trouble that you take over circulation and ventilation as to keep oxygen for the brain.

So how can we treat with that case as first aid?

  • place the patient in supine position on a firm surface
  • check the pulse at carotid artery and signs of respiration, if there isn’t sign of pulse and breathing so we do mouth to mouth breathing and cardiac massage
  • kneel beside the patient, get the chin forward up with the index and middle fingers of one hand pressing forehead backwards with left heel of your other hand, the jaw will lift the tongue forward, and clear the airway passage
  • place the heel palm of hand over the lower half of the breastbone and next to xiphoid process
  • place the second hand over the first, and begin cardiac compression with depth about 2.5 – 5 cm for adults, give 30 compression
  • give 2 mouth to mouth lung inflations as the patient in the previous position pinching the nose closed, take a deep breath, apply your mouth to the mouth of the patient, put available barrier, then blow, till you can see the chest rise, remove your mouth
  • repeat that whole cycle by giving 30 presses followed again by 2 inflations at a rate of 80 compression per minute
  • check pulse every 3 minutes
  • stop the external heart massage as soon as the color improves, and the pulse return, but continue with mouth to mouth artificial respiration till natural breathing is restored
  • place the patient in Sim’s position if everything return naturally

If the Affected Person is a Child or Infant

So putting 2 fingers over the lower half of the sternum will give sufficient pressure, compress on rate of 100 time per minute, and give one breath after every 5 chest compressions.


The shock occurs when the blood flow to the tissues is inadequate, and the causes of that are: increase in the capacity of the blood circulation, reduction in the pumped action of the heart muscle, reducing circulating blood volume and circulatory failure because of hemorrhage, infection, burns or the failure of the muscular action of the heart in the coronary thrombosis.

Forms of shock

Hypovolaemic shock: loss of body fluids results a reduced circulating blood volume. Degree of shock caused by hemorrhage:

1 pint: normal color, normal skin, normal pulse and normal breathing

2-3 pints: pale color, cold skin, increased pulse and increased breathing

Over 4 pints: deathly pale color, cold and clammy skin, very fast pulse and increased and sighing breathing

Carcinogenic shock: the heart becomes an ineffective pump for the circulation and that maybe because of damage to the cardiac muscle from interfering with its own blood supply

Neurogenic shock: there is a loss of muscle tone in blood vessels although the cardiac output of blood and the volume of blood remain the same, which increases the diameter, and therefore the capacity of the blood vessels

Anaphylactic shock: a severe and hard reaction of the person occurs when that person has previously sensitized by a substance is exposed again to the same substance, it happens in a few minutes of the action. The symptoms may involve: red eyes, swelling around the eyes, vomiting, increasing in pulse rate, wheezy breathing, generalized rash

So how to treat with shock?

  • make sure that the attacked person’s airway is open, using head tilt chin lift to open airway
  • have the attacked person lied down on his back with the feet are lift above the head or keep the attacked person flat whether raising the legs causes pain
  • loosen tight clothes and cover the person with a blanket
  • don’t give the person any fluids, even if the patient has thirst

If the patient vomits, keep the patient on one side and clean out patient’s mouth

  • provide the medical assistance immediately and stay with the person till the help arrives, and while it’s happening, check blood circulation, pulse, breathing and airway and check the breathing every 5 minutes
  • check the injuries and bleeding
  • the unresponsive patient must be in the recovery position
  • the patient with a spinal injury shouldn’t move or be moved
  • provide the appropriate first aid measures


The origin of burns is 75% domestic causes and 25% industrial causes, the domestic burns can be avoided.

There are complications of burns, such as: infection, shock, contractures and sepsis. The people that are endangered to the risk of burn are: handicapped persons, elderly and children.

Depth of burns: partial thickness(superficial or deep) and full thickness.

Types of burns: burns to head, burns to hand, electrical burns, chemical burns, burns from lightening and friction burns.

So how can we treat burns?

Remove the source of damage in the skin by flooding the burned area at least for 10 minutes in cold water, usually the pain from the burn wound eases gradually and that is an indication of improvement, but if not so you have to flood in cold water again, put in consideration as to disinfect the burned wound with a sterile, non fluffy and large enough to cover all the area. The burn sufferer may have thirst and that’s a sign of loss of plasma, give the sufferer frequent sips of water as one glass per hour, that’s to replace body fluid, but don’t give over the amount that the sufferer would vomit.


First aid is considered some appropriate and immediate measures are provided in order to help the person that had an accident to save his/her life.

First aid should be done by a medical trained person as to give the appropriate first aid in the right way because there are some first aid measures which would be dangerous to the affected person’s life if they were done wrongly.

To do first aid measures, you have to get necessary supplies, these supplies must be in the first aid container whether it’s a box or it’s a bag as to be available and accessible all the time.

Emergency care is a state of the first aid as to get the difference between the first aid in general and the emergency care as a special state.

There are so many of accidents that can be happened to the person, some of them are because internal factors like diseases or attacks, and the others are external factors like accidents in the environment the person is in.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a case of accidents that can attack the person, and that case requires immediate interference to save the life of this person. That case relates to the respiratory system and the circulatory system that they are so important for the life of the person, so the interference must be quick and immediate to save the life and not to forget it must be accurate.

Shock is a state in which the most of the blood body is consumed that can affect the heart pump, and definitely leads to death, so it’s so important to provide the assistance that will save the life of the affected person.

Burns result from accidents from the external factors of environment like fire, electricity or anything that can cause burning effect to the person. It’s important to deal with it as the burns lead to loss of body fluid, and that’s so dangerous.

First aid is very important as the people must be aware of, you can be in any situation or circumstance that you are forced to deal with the problem there, then the problem would be that someone is about to die and in a need of help, there is no person but you in this. So it’s very important to learn about.

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Principals and Importance of First Aid. (2021, Dec 15). Retrieved from

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