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Philosophy Of Religion Essay Examples

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Summary of Church's Gaudium et Spes

Gaudium et Spes is probably the most controversial of the Vatican II documents, with the exception of Dignitus Human. It is considered as a pastoral constitution; it comments on the ever-changing cultural scene. According to Fr Robert, proponents consider Gaudium et Spes as the canon within the canon, however, he disagrees with this view because he ppppoint out that Gaudium et Spes should be read in the light of Lumen Getum. Fr Robert also pointed that for tractors Gaudium et…...

Indian Heritage The Bhagavad Gita

is perhaps the most famous, and definitely the most widely-read, ethical text of ancient India. As an episode in India's great epic, the Mahabharata, The Bhagavad Gita now ranks as one of the three principal texts that define and capture the essence of Hinduism; the other two being the Upanishads and the Brahma Sutras. Though this work contains much theology, its kernel is ethical and its teaching is set in the context of an ethical problem. The teaching of The…...

Secularisation as Philosophical Concept and as Real Thing

There is no concurred meaning of the word secularisation- depending upon how you specify it will determine whether or not it is happening/exists. Some will argue that; secularisation is taking place, it never ever occurred, it did occur, or it's a western issue. The exclusivist definition sees faith as including beliefs in some supernatural, supra-human being or forces of some kind, which would show that secularisation is evident in modern society as church attendance has decreased in the UK from…...

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Personality and Influence of John the Baptist

Jesus Christ did not arrive on this earth unannounced, nor did He start His ministry without a correct intro. His very first cousin, John the Baptist, was divinely selected to prepare the method for the Lord when He was to start His ministerial journey on the earth at age thirty, which is also around the time when John the Baptist baptized Jesus. Though one would anticipate the dedicated believer to follow Jesus both physically and spiritually to the ends of…...

Ethical Values of Matthew’s Sermon on the Mount

To what extent was The Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7) intended to be a distinctive ethical teaching for all people Matthew’s Sermon on the Mount is one of the 5 main blocks of teaching in the gospel- emulating Torah. ‘Without our noticing, faith can degenerate into religiosity...That is when the teaching of Jesus brings us up with a jerk.'[1] The sermon presents the reader with a radical teaching from Jesus, completely divergent to any preceding teaching in Judaism; it…...

The Contrast of French and Spanish Missionaries

"Ethical religion can be real only to those who are engaged in ceaseless efforts at moral improvement. By moving upward we acquire faith in an upward movement, without limit." (Felix Adler (1851-1933), American educator) Since the beginning of colonial expansion, the missionaries believed in the divine right to evangelize the natives in the new world. By converting the natives the missionaries believed that they will reach eternal salvation. However, the missionaries' methods were split into two different prospective. The Spaniards…...

Reflection Paper for Philosophy of Religion

Religion has been as part of society as far as its beginnings. All ancient human civilization had some sort of belief in a God or the transcendent. Beliefs have always been an issue within any human society. The belief of the transcendent gives humans a chance or hope for eternal happiness for people who abide their beliefs. But through out history, different religions and beliefs emerged which gives rise to the inconsistency. There are numerous differences between religions: one versus…...

God in Augustinian and Irenaean Theodicy

The problem of evil is a considerable and long-lasting philosophical and doctrinal dispute. A question is often raised and gone over: if God is both all-loving and all-powerful, then how can evils-including natural evil and moral evil-- exist in our world? In action to the charge that the evils of the world are incompatible with God's omnipotence and ideal goodness, the word"theodicy" is coined to handle the problem of evil. Normally it is an effort to reveal that it is…...

Theology and Christian Views in Dialogue with Trypho

In his work "Dialogue with Trypho" Justin Martyr in a form of a dialogue presents the views quite contrary to what it is usually taught. A well-known idea of Jews being the chosen nation favored by God is rejected. Justin Martyr is trying to find logic underneath God's wrath, and his line of argumentation, based on analysis of the Old Testament, does emphasize the idea that Jews were punished by Mosaic rules for improper behavior. Jews are the chosen nation…...

Free Will and Religion: A Nietzsche Perspective

Free will has been studied for lots of centuries and has still puzzled common individuals, lots of thinkers, scholars, theories, literary figures, and theologians worldwide. It has been puzzled with numerous aspects such as requirement or determinism from which the specific marvel whether his actions are based upon self will or driven by conditions he can not control. Other scholars connected it with ethical duty and faith in God claiming that there is truly no totally free will given that…...

Anglo-Saxon poem "The Wanderer"

The wanderer asks the Lord for pity and understanding, however sometimes he should take to the sea and become an exile. This is fate, and it can not be avoided. The wanderer kept in mind hardship, death, and the mess up of kinsmen, and stated that he knew that he would have to believe upon these things in his loneliness and seclusion. He will not talk to anybody about what is in his heart. He understands that it is dignified…...

Seven Deadly Sins

The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, are classifications of objectionable vices that have been used since early Christian times to educate and instruct Christians how to avoid committing any sins. These sins are actually recognized as wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony. One of the 7 deadly sins that man can commit but should not commit is the lust. Lust comes with the things about human sexuality. It has something to…...

Jeremy Bentham and Immanuel Kant

Jeremy Bentham was an English philosopher and political radical. He is highly known and respected today for his moral philosophy, primarily his principle of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism evaluates actions based upon their consequences. Bentham is most famously known for his pursuit of motivation and value. Bentham was a strong believer in individual and economic freedom, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce and the decriminalizing of homosexual acts. During his time…...

The Daodejing of Laozi

The Daodejing of Laozi is a book of poetry pertaining to Chinese philosophy. The Daodejing is most often translated into meaning “the Classic of the Way and its Virtue.” Its text is full of religious verses that are often compared to the Bible. Throughout the text, the Daodejing encounters a variety of topics including: dao, earth, peace, rulers, society, and humility. Upon reading the text, I discovered that chapters seventeen and sixty-six are connected because they are both associated with…...

Father of Modern Philosophy

Rene Descartes is often credited with being the “Father of Modern Philosophy. ” This title is justified due both to his break with the traditional Scholastic-Aristotelian philosophy prevalent at his time and to his development and promotion of the new, mechanistic sciences. His fundamental break with Scholastic philosophy was twofold. First, Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all knowledge. Second, he wanted to replace their final causal…...

Descartes Methods Of Doubt

In this paper, I will be examining Rene Descartes’ reasons for doubting all of his beliefs. I will begin with Descartes’ first meditation, showing how he argues his reasons of doubt. Followed with Descartes’ second meditation, presenting the one piece of knowledge that Descartes finds irrefutable and explaining why he believes it to be so. Descartes formulates three different skepticisms while reflecting on a number of falsehoods he was led to believe throughout his life. Upon reflection, Descartes decides that…...

The Role of God

For years Christians have argued about what role God has in humans attaining salvation. The most popular belief in American culture is the concept of free will. Free will is the belief that coming to Christ and being saved is a freewill choice of the person. Most churches believe this concept to be true at least to some degree. The other belief is the concept of Predestination. Predestination is the belief that God chooses who to save and who to…...

The Debate Between Freewill And Determinism

Discuss the claim that we humans have no real freedom of choice. Throughout history, the problem of freewill vs. determinism has sparked major debates between philosophers. The debate between freewill and determinism stems from the apparent conflict between the universal rule of causality that is deeply rooted in nature, and between the apparent ability of human beings to choose between multiple courses of action in order to lead to the most desirable outcome. The universal rule of causality simply claims…...

St Athanasius On the Incarnation Book Review

The purpose of this article is to provide a review of “St Athanasius On the Incarnation” highlighting important themes with respect to his Christology. This is a very nice and easy to read book. I believe that this book would be beneficial for all Christian to read. St Athanasius' does a great job of presenting theology in an unadulterated and so clear that it easily outmaneuvers the many contemporary theological books. The book is divided into nine chapters. There are…...

Descartes’ Discourse on the Method

None of the proposed philosophical theories is exact, not even a combination of two or more theories (Sayre, 2011). However, Descartes has unique way of metaphysical argument concerning existence of God. Descartes’ Discourse on the Method (Part IV) ends surprisingly with a claim of God’s existence, which can be deduced from the interrelationship between mind, soul and our existence. Descartes began the fourth section by discussing about himself. The reading up to the point where he gives credit to a…...

Absolute Idea

Hegel’s concept of the “Absolute Idea” claims that there is a universal and ideal standard that is continuously being revealed throughout history, in various forms of human expression. The Absolute Idea can be interpreted as God, nature, spirit, or reality. With art, there is no such thing as “Art for Art’s sake” because art is a manifestation of the unfolding of the Absolute Idea. In Hegel’s Art History, the progression of art is always moving closer to ultimate reality, because…...

Clarke's Cosmological Argument

Clarke begins his argument by asserting the obvious--that based on experience, all of the beings that surround us today do exist. These beings, encountered based on one’s experience, are dependent on a prior cause. In other words, everything that exists must have been caused by something else that also exists or has existed; and for something finite to exist today, such as any being in this world, it would mean that there must have been something that has existed since…...

Trademark Argument

Descartes argues that our idea of God is innate, meaning it is something inside us from birth, something that has always been there and will always be there. He believed that everybody has an idea of God being a supremely perfect being, and comes to the conclusion in his argument, that God himself put this idea there, he even said that our idea of God is like “the mark of the craftsman stamped on his work” – us being the…...

Anselm's Cosmological Argument

Anselm seeks to explain the existence of a greatest being, i. e. God. He approaches this task not via our experience of the universe, but rather attempts to explain it solely based upon reason. Anselm attempts to prove the existence of God by providing us with a logical explanation, based upon our understanding, definition, and necessity of God. It is inconceivable for God not to exist. There is a certain nature through which everything that is exists, Anselm explains, is…...

Religion and Morality

(i)Examine the views of scholars concerning the idea that religion and morality are linked. In this essay I am going to be looking at all the different view points on why some people may think religion and morality are linked. I will talk about a few things that link them such as conscience, divine command ethics, Kant's view and Aquinas' view. Many people believe that morality is based upon religion and the rules written in the Bible and other holy…...

The Probability Of God

H. J. McCloskey, a renowned philosopher in the mid 20th century, wrote a provocative article in 1968 titled, “On Being an Atheist”. McCloskey argues for atheism as the preferred and better belief system based upon his refutation of the theistic arguments. He argues against the existence of God by attempting to refute the cosmological and teleological arguments; as well he endeavours to discredit a God based upon the presence of evil. In doing this, he extends the boundaries for arguing…...

Anselm and Aquinas about The Existence of God

Anselm of Canterbury and Thomas Aquinas had conceptualized their own justification for the existence of God. For Anselm, he chiefly indicated his strong defense of intellectual foundations of Christianity under the concept of “ontological argument” for the existence of God. Anselm argued that the existence of God is not only in human minds but rather in reality. The idea of Proslogion had become the main argument of Anselm, which he used in order to defend his idea of God’s existence.…...

Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy

According to philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, religion is a “falsehood. ” The implications of the “death of God” addressed by Nietzsche are portrayed through the characters and the plot itself of the novel Jude the Obscure written by Thomas Hardy. Nietzsche believes that religion has influenced and distorted the value of truth, the influence of morality, and the need for worship, leading people down a path of wandering. The main character in the novel, Jude, experiences many troubles throughout his life,…...

Chapter Guide for "Twilight of Atheism"

The classical version of atheism is vastly different than the atheism that is known today. - Some consider “modern atheism” as one of the greatest achievements of human intellect. Immortalization in Greek myths meant “infinite extension of existence, not the infinite projection of moral qualities” - Classical Greek atheism denied “traditional religion of the Athenian establishment” - Protestant reformers wrote against church’s corruption and straying from “authentic models of the New Testament” - Protestantism eventually gained popularity in Western Europe…...

God's Essence According to Ghazali and Augustine

Ghazali studied various branches of the traditional Islamic religious sciences in his hometown of Tus, Gurgan and Nishapur in the northern part of Iran. He was also involved in Sufi practices from an early age. Being recognized by Nizam al-Mulk, the Vizir of the Seljuq Sultans, he was appointed Head of the Nizamiyyah College in Baghdad in 484 AH (1091 AD).Aurelius Augustinus (Augustine, 354-430 AD) was one of the greatest and most influential of Christian philosophers (Pojman, 2003, p. 407;…...

Edwards and Occom Comparative Analysis

Samson Occom and Johnathan Edwards discussed the significance of the philosophical movement of the Great Awakening and the Enlightenment Era. During the Great Awakening and the Enlightenment Era, philosophers Johnathan Edwards and Samson Occom informed others publicly about their beliefs. Edwards and Occom were two distinctive men from different upbringing and identity who sermonized religious principles. These preachers who discussed the importance of Christian philosophy, which originated from teachings of puritanism, had focused on principles of religion throughout their preaching…...

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