Introduction to Industrial Pollution
Industrial pollution is pollution which can be directly linked with industry, in contrast to other pollution sources. This form of pollution is one of the leading causes of pollution worldwide; in the United States, for example, the Environmental Protective Agency estimates that up to 50% of the nation’s pollution is caused by industry. Because of its size and scope, industrial pollution is a serious problem for the entire planet, especially in nations which are rapidly industrializing, like India. This form of pollution dates back to antiquity, but widespread industrial pollution accelerated rapidly in the 1800s, with the start of the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution mechanized means of production, allowing for a much greater volume of production, and generating a corresponding increase in pollution. The problem was compounded by the use of fuels like coal, which is notoriously unclean, and a poor understanding of the causes and consequences of pollution. There are a number of forms of industrial pollution. Industrial pollution can also impact air quality, water, and it can enter the soil, causing widespread environmental problems. Because of the nature of the global environment, industrial pollution is never limited to industrial nations. Industrial pollution hurts the environment in a range of ways, and it has a negative impact on human lives and health. Pollutants can kill animals and plants, imbalance ecosystems, degrade air quality radically, damage buildings, and generally degrade quality of life. Factory workers in areas with uncontrolled industrial pollution are especially vulnerable.
However, industrial pollution also highlights a growing issue: the desire of developing nations to achieve first world standards of living and production. Those countries that are already industrialized want to keep their place in the World Economy, and those that aren’t want a better position in the world economy. As these countries industrialize, they add to the global burden of industrial pollution, triggering serious discussions and arguments about environmental responsibility and a desire to reach a global agreement on pollution issues. Causes of Industrial Pollution
The primary causes of industrial pollution are as follows:
Prevalence of outdated- inefficient technologies that generate a large amount of waste Large unplanned industrial conglomeration that have encroached upon and severely polluted their environs The existence of large number of small scale industries that escape land use and some time even environmental regulations Poor enforcement of Pollution control laws and
Lack of resources for implementing Pollution Control programs The Secondary causes of industrial pollution are as follows: Industries emit smoke and pollute air and water very badly.
Undesirable gases like carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide cause air pollution. Air pollution affects human health, animals, plants, materials and the atmosphere. Industrial effluents are discharged into the rivers. They include both organic and inorganic matters like coal, dyes, soaps, pesticides and fertilisers, plastic and rubber. These are the major pollutants of water, Industrial water contains toxic metals that pollute land and soil. Unwanted loud noise or sound also causes pollution. Noises cause hearing impairments. Sometimes the solid industrial wastes containing harmful substances are dumped in isolated pockets of land. This results in pollution of land and soil in the nearby regions. Effects of Industrial Pollution
Pollutants given off by various industries and factories are often considered to be one of the prime factors contributing to air, water and soil pollution. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), it has been estimated that industrial pollution is responsible for almost 50 percent of the pollution present in the United States. There are various wide-ranging effects, as well as serious consequences, of industrial pollution on the ecological balance of the atmosphere. Global Warming
I} Global Warming:
An increase in the earth’s average atmospheric temperature thatcauses corresponding changes in climate and that may result from the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse impact is a natural process. It ensures that the ground cools down not too much. Without the natural greenhouse impact it would be on ground average 18 degrees under zero. Now the average temperature on ground is 15o degrees above zero. By the greenhouse impact the warmth on ground is therefore held. Without the greenhouse impact on ground no life would be possible. In the atmosphere all greenhouse gases float. These gases let through the sun, but throw back the warmth radiation of the ground. This seems on what in a greenhouse happens there.
For this reason is called process this also the greenhouse impact. The causes of this problem are mostly the industries and cars that travel around the world. The industries are pumping daily millions of dangerous gasses into our air. The problem arises, when the natural balance is unbalanced. There are coming to may greenhouse gases the in air, as a result of which more warmth is held and the temperature on ground increases. And if carbon dioxide there more ventilate in sit, more warmth is therefore held and becomes it warmer on ground. II} Air Pollution
Air pollution is the contamination of the air by the discharge of harmful substances. Air pollution may be described as contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and welfare of plants and animals, attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors. As some pollutants are released by natural sources like volcanoes, coniferous forests, and hot springs, the effect of this pollution is very small when compared to that caused by emissions from industrial sources, power and heat generation, waste disposal, and the operation of internal-combustion engines. Fuel combustion is the largest contributor to human caused air pollutant emissions, with stationary and mobile sources responsible for approximately equal amounts.
The air pollution problem is both outdoors and indoors. Indoor air pollution first came to our attention in the 1980’s, while outdoor pollution has been around for a much longer time. The major pollutants which contribute to the indoor air pollution include radon, volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, biological contaminants, and combustion by-products such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxides, and particulates. The major pollutants which contribute to outdoor air pollution are sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, total suspended particulate matter, lead, carbon dioxide, and toxic pollutants.
A substance in the air that can be adverse to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutants are directly produced from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulphur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. III} Water Pollution
A change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its uses. The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from industries or the release of human or livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water of water bodies like rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities.
Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or other nonconventional pollutants such as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems. Some of these facilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components, and then send the partially treated wastewater to the municipal system. Industries generating large volumes of wastewater typically operate their own complete on-site treatment systems. IV) Soil Pollution
Large quantity of solid wastes like unused and rejected chemicals (like calcium carbonate, magnesium sulphate, ferrous chloride, ferrous oxide, radioactive wastes, fly ashes, sludge, press mud, saw dust, bottles, plastic materials) unwanted industrial wastes generated during manufacturing processes (rejection, broken items of metal, plastic, wooden or chemical solids, powders) are dumped over on the surface of soil by almost all industries with difference in the degree.
Larger the production base, larger is the generation of wastes. Traditionally, these materials have been dumped around the factory site or around the entire city. Rarely, they are put to recycling or safe conversion. All these solid materials dumped on surface of soils are bound to change the chemical and physical nature of soil besides contributing large quantity of pollutants to underground water – whenever rain water passes through them. In most situations, solid wastes has caused problems such as foul smell (sugar and paper industry), disturbed air composition (fly ash from thermal power plants and cement industries) changed the physical nature of soil (coal and steel industrial wastes), as well as radioactive dangers (atomic power plants). Solutions of Industrial Pollution
Much of the pollution can be prevented by careful planning and sitting of industries, better sign equipment and better operation of the equipment. The major means of controlling air pollution are fuel selection and utilization. Smoke may be prevented by use of oil instead of coal in the industries. Now, there are equipments to control aerosol emissions. Some of them are inertial separators, filters, precipitators and scrubbers. Water pollution by industries can be controlled by treatment before discharging them into the rivers. Treatment of industrial liquids can be done in three phases: primary treatment by mechanical process, secondary treatment by biological process and tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes.
Primary treatment includes screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation. Secondary treatment involves use of biological methods. Tertiary treatment includes recycling of waste water. Control of soil and land pollution involves three activities: collection of wastes from different places; dumping and disposing the wastes by land filling and recycling of the wastes for further use.Global warming consequences are thus is too serious to be ignored. Remedial action is complicated by the fact that some individual scientists disagree with the consensus. According to some, the cyclical climate patterns are nothing new. Despite the controversy, governments are taking steps to protect the environment. An attempt is being made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and to penalize the emitters. Preventive measures of Global warming