Fourth Industrial Revolution

History of Industrial Revolutions (I.R)

The First IR flourished mechanization, a process that shifted agrarian society to industrial one .Massive mining of coals along with the new innovation of steam engine formulated a new type of energy that boosted all the processes .

The Second IR started with creation of new technological advancements that formed the base for creation of new energy :Electricity, gas and oil .Communication methods were changed dramatically and this era saw the invention of telegraph, telephone and transportation methods .

The Third IR started with emergence of Nuclear Energy . Electronics (Microprocessor and Transistor) flourished in the World . With all these development new area of research opened namely Space research and bio technology .

The Fourth IR was termed by Klaus Schwab, in his book the 4th Industrial Revolution .It’s a revolution which is set to connect all the forms of productions on planet .This IR is much different than predecessors because it focused on digitization rather than evolving a new energy .

This revolution is formed on a connected base of technologies like Augmented Reality, Big Data analysis and Artificial Intelligence etc .



IOT Devices

We are living in a new era of computational technology i.e. Internet of Things, its kind of a “worldwide neural network” in t he server

which communicates and connects various things. The IOT is a smart connected devices and systems which is made up of smart

machines interacting communication with each other. As a by -product a lot amount of data is processed for useful actions that ca n

control and give instructions which in implied sense can make our lives much easier and safer.

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Technologies that enable IOT

  1. Near -Field communication and Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) -Earlier RFID used to be the major dominant player but later NFS became Dominant. NFC is more popular in Smartphone devices, with uses such as reading NFC tags or for entry to public transportation.
  2. Bluetooth and low energy -It is one of the latest evolved technology. All recent smartphone have BLE hardware in them. Tags which developed on BLE signal their presence at a power budget that enable them to operate for up to one year on a lithium coin cel l battery.
  3. Quick response codes and optical tags -This platform is based on low cost tagging. Phone camera uses QR code to using picture processing technique .

Applications of IOT

  • Augmented Reality can be used to display the information and notification in various organizations like educational notice board systems or at Railway station, Bus stand, airport and malls. E -display system may be used to display urgent notification in Hospitals.
  • Some areas where IoT frequently used
  1. Smart Cities -A.R can be used to make cities smarter by monitoring many things like the parking area available in the city, management of energy radiated by cell stations and wi -fi routers etc.
  2. Security and Emergencies -A.R can be used for detection and control of peoples in non authorized area, liquid detection in data centre.
  3. Smart Agriculture -Wine quality enhancing, green house control, study of weather in meteorological centres, controlling humidity and temperature level in compost.
  4. Domestic and Home Automation -A.R can remotely manage our home appliances and cut down electricity bill and resource usage.
  5. Medical Field -It can provide assistance for disable or elderly peoples living independently, giving warning for high levels of ultraviolet radiation so that people stay at homes in certain hours.
  6. Industrial Control -with the use of A.R machine can auto diagnose the problem and control. And monitor the temperature inside the industry.

Impacts of IOT

The IoT promises to deliver a step change in people “quality of existence and enterprises productiveness”. Through a widely distributed, domestically sensible community of smart gadgets, the IoT has the capacity to enable extensions and enhancements to essential services in transportation, logistics, protection, utilities, education, healthcare and other areas, even as pro vid ing a brand new ecosystem for pplication development.

Smart Power Grid -IOT can help us move away from traditional fossil fuels. Society will ought to transition to renewable energy and to match supply with demand is important to making them financially feasible that where IOT will come to use ? E-learning -IOT can help us by giving education and training to million of peoples living in faraway places.

Building Automation -with the help of IOT buildings can be made smarter that can optimize energy and prevent people from fire.

Healthcare -Its a area in which the IoT is already making a completely beneficial contribution to society. With populations getting older around the world, the capacity to monitor and guard people of their houses lowers expenses and increases quality of existence.

3D – Printing

3D Printing is a very innovative technology, it was discovered in 1984 by the hands of Chuck Hull who developed a process called as Stereolithography, in which layers are added by curing photopolymers with UV lasers.

In 2005 3D printing converted to open source>2006 the first SLS(Selective Laser Sintering)> 2008 Self replicating Printers became main stream>2009 atom by atom printing was done which allowed bio 3d printing>2011 first 3D printed robotic aircraft and world’s first 3D printed car became available and from day afterwards 3D -Printing became commercially available.

So what is this technology

3D printing: is a method by which 3 -d solid objects of any shape or geometry can be created from a virtual record. The introduction is performed by way of laying down successive layers of a particular material till the whole item is created. ea ch of these layers represents a thinly sliced horizontal cross -section (similar to the output of an ordinary printer, that is why it’s far referred to as printing) of the eventual item, in contrast to standard subtractive manufacturing methods which is based upon the elimination of cloth to create something


There are Four Types of 3D Printing Technologies available

Stereo Lithography(SLA) -position a perforated platform just underneath the surface of a vat of liquid photo curable polymer. A UV (extremely Violate) laser beam then traces the primary slice of an item at the surface of this liquid, causing a completely thin layer of photopolymer to harden. The perforated platform is then lowered very slightly and another slice is traced out and hardened by way of the laser. another slice is then created, a nd then another, till a entire object has been published and may be eliminated from the vat of photopolymer, drained of excess liquid, and cured.

Fused Deposition Modelling(FDM) -here a warm thermoplastic is extruded from a Temperature -controlled print head to supply fairly sturdy gadgets to a high degree of accuracy.

Selective Laser Sintering(SLS) -This builds objects by the use of a laser to selectively use together successive layers of a cocktail of powdered wax, cerami c, steel, nylon or one of a range of other materials.

Multi Jet Modelling(MJM) -This builds up items from successive layers of powder, with an inkjet -like print head used to spray on a binder solution that gl ues only the specified granules collectively.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence

The applications for artificial intelligence are endless .The technology can be implemented to many exclusive sectors and industries:

  1. AI is being tested and used inside the healthcare industry for dosing tablets and distinctive remedy in sufferers, and for surgical strategies inside the running room .
  2. Artificial intelligence additionally has applications in the economic industry, in which it’s far used to locate and flag activity in banking and finance which includes unusual debit card utilization and huge account deposits all of which assist abank’s fraud department .
  3. Applications for AI also are being used to assist streamline and make buying and selling easier .that is achieved with the aid of making supply, demand, and pricing of securities less complicated to estimate .

Expert System in A.I

Expert Systems constitute one of the maximum essential studies areas of artificial intelligence . The fundamental undertaking of the expert gadget is to enable the use of the expertise and experience of top specialist, which can be built -in the professional systems .Edward Feigenbaum states that the expert gadget is an intelligent computer program that makes use of information and inference tactics to resolve problems that require considerable intellectual effort .

The knowledge required to work at that level, and approaches applied to make conclusions, can be considered as aversion of wondering taken from the quality professionals of certain the area .

The concept expert comes from the potential of the system that behave as top specialists in their place .the premise of this system is particularly designed software program that models the factors of issues solving and they are considered to represent human intelligence :reasoning, judgment, decision -making primarily based on unreliable or incomplete facts and interpretation of their very own conduct

Structure of Expert Systems

Knowledge Base

Represents knowledge composed of information and popular facts in addition to heuristics inside the area of hassle solving.

Inference Mechanism

Which interprets the knowledge within the understanding base and execute certain changes within the information base.

User Interface

Serves for communique between the consumer and the device.

Industry 4.0 is the result of a tipping point in technology innovation .The groundwork for the revolution was laid decades ago .

The IoT, cloud, big data, and more are pushing industry 4.0 forward .This industry promises to change the way business is done .

Business models will be redefined, more processes will become automated, and organization will optimize their value chain even further .

Industry 4.0 is absolutely a revolutionary technique to manufacturing strategies. The idea will push worldwide manufacturers to a new stage of optimization and productiveness. There are nevertheless many demanding situations that need to be tackled systematically to ensure a clean transition. This desires to be the focus of big companies and governments alike.

Pushing studies and experimentation in such fields are critical, while speculations regarding privacy, security, and employment need extra study, the general picture is promising. Such approach to manufacturing industries is truly revolutionary.


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  5. Cephas, M. (2019). Retrieved from ? Tapscott, D. (2019). How blockchains could change the world. Retrieved from media -and -telecommunications/our -insights/how -blockchains -could -change -the -world
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Cite this page

Fourth Industrial Revolution. (2019, Dec 15). Retrieved from

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