Fourth Industrial Revolution

History of Industrial Revolutions (I.R)

The First IR flourished mechanization, a process that shifted agrarian society to industrial one .Massive mining of coals along with the new innovation of steam engine formulated a new type of energy that boosted all the processes.

Industrial revolution describes the period between 1750 and 1850, in which tremendous changes characterized by developments in textile, iron were realized. The revolution was spearheaded by Britain. Modern historians refer to these changes as the first industrial revolution (Clark, 2007). The second revolution was characterized by steel, electronics and automobiles and was spearheaded by Germany (Clark, 2007).

The Industrial Revolution was a period filled with drastic social and economic changes. The transformation between hand-made tools and goods to machine-manufactured products changed not only the economy, but also the lives of the workers.

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The first changes began in Great Britain in the 1780’s and spread across Europe and North America by the 19th century leaving a profound effect on the entire world. The Industrial Revolution effected every aspect of human society including the nature of work, child labor, and health conditions of the workers.

Agriculture was a dominant job for workers before the Industrial Revolution. Sebastian Le Prestre Vauban listed many typical jobs including “…mowing, harvesting, threshing, woodcutting, working the soil and the vineyards, clearing land, ditching, carrying soil to vineyards or elsewhere, laboring for builders and several other tasks…” (Wiesner 152) in his tax-reform proposal. This document shows that life as farmer consisted of purely manual labor. Although these jobs were arduous and demanding, the typical agricultural worker was only employed for half the year according to Vauban.

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Agriculture was a task-based working system where the work was completed according to a completing a task by a certain deadline. As long as the tasks were completed on time, the hours spent working were not tightly regimented. With the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, workers moved from the fields to the factories.

The Industrial Revolution had a great impact on the human’s rights and conditions and it also resulted in significant technological advancements, but it can be categorically stated that the technological advancements during the Industrial Revolution were paramount when compared to the revolution’s impact upon human rights and conditions. Agriculture was the main-stay for livelihood before the era of Industrial Revolution. Most of the people owned farmlands and workers were employed to work in the farms. Although Industrial revolution brought about significant economic development throughout Europe, there were also considerable social and cultural changes seen as well (Snooks, 2002). Industrial revolution had a tremendous transformation on the middle class, which initially was comprised of industrialists and businessmen to another class of noble and gentry people. There were increased employment opportunities for the ordinary working people in the industries, but under strict working conditions. There work was monitored and controlled by machines hence long hours of work (Clark, 2007).

Industrial revolution led to the introduction of urbanization since many people relocated to the cities to look for employment in factories; such as the water power silk mill and the cotton spinning mill. This was characterized by dense, cramped housing and poor living conditions. There was the introduction of new laws guarding child labor, public health and working condition for the ordinary workers to avoid exploitation of the minority (Snooks, 2002). As much as there were positive effects of the industrial revolution such as urbanization, there was also a negative impact on industrial revolution that comprised of people who were anti technologists such as the luddites (Clark, 2007). There was a change in culture since new cities grew rapidly, affecting families and peer groups. For instance, there was an influence in drugs by peer groups and the following economic changes.

During the first industrial revolution, there was an unprecedented economic transformation; there was a tremendous increase in population growth that was sustained. This led to considerable expansions of commercial activities in Europe (Snooks, 2002). Steam power was invented that was used to provide power in the factories, used for mining, and transport. It replaced human labor and introduced machines that could do mining in depth, increase production in the industries, and fast means of transport to the markets. The textile industry was changed by new machines the spinning Jenny allowing for much higher production at lower costs and in less time (Jacob, 1997). Thanks to the industrial revolution that brought about, better transport system such as the canals and then the railway. These provided quick, better means of transporting raw materials from the mines and also finished products to the market. Trade expansion was enabled. There was also much development in metal and chemical industries due to the industrial revolution that provided better working conditions for its workers (Clark, 2007). Development of all-metal machine tools enabled the manufacture of more production machines for industries. These spread all over Western Europe and North America then to the rest of the world. The industrial revolution facilitated the manufacture of more production machines.

Causes of Industrial Revolution

Industrial revolution came about due to several inventions and the scientific revolution allowing for new discoveries such as technology. Resources required for the industrial revolutions were readily available hence boost industrialization to occur. There was a culture of hard work, developing ideas and risk taking that initiated for the industrial revolution in Europe. Availability of large amount of capital that Europe was ready to use for investment also led to the industrial revolution (Clark, 2007). There was the end of feudalism that changed the economic relationship among the Europe continent, this encouraged industrial revolution. A large population that allowed for industrial workforce was available.

Outcomes of the First IR

As much as Western Europe tried to do away with capitalism, industrial revolution contributed to the creation of a true capitalist system. There was wide spread of investments, stock markets, and business corporations. Britain was the main advocator for the industrial revolution due to the agricultural revolution. The British kings lost power and the land holders gained power (Clark, 2007). There is no doubt that the Industrial Revolution was one of the most influential time periods of human history. It was almost solely responsible for propelling society into the modern economies that we still have in place today. The technological advances of this time are what allowed for the mass production of goods and services for society, which allowed for trade to be conducted on a much larger scale. Additionally, the average family saw in increase in the amount of income that they received because an unskilled worker could find work in one of the many new factories that were opened to produce the goods needed for the business world.

Unfortunately the workers of the time were usually taken advantage of because of their apparent lack of skill and the abundance of workers available for the same jobs. This created a work environment especially negative for women who would be treated unfairly in the workplace and would receive less pay for the work that they did. Prompted by the oppression that many in the working class felt, literary works were put out to inspire the workers to take back their freedoms. Karl Marx advocated for a revolution of the working class over the management that held them back. Bakunin advocated for the overthrow of the government to get society to a natural state of harmony, and the Pope pushed for a united workers front where the government protected its citizens from being oppressed in the workplace. Over the course of the Industrial Revolution the worker saw vast changes, which ultimately lead to the economic times we have now that are improved from the days of the past.

The Second IR started with creation of new technological advancements that formed the base for creation of new energy :Electricity, gas and oil .Communication methods were changed dramatically and this era saw the invention of telegraph, telephone and transportation methods .

The Third IR started with emergence of Nuclear Energy . Electronics (Microprocessor and Transistor) flourished in the World . With all these development new area of research opened namely Space research and bio technology.

The Fourth IR was termed by Klaus Schwab, in his book the 4th Industrial Revolution .It’s a revolution which is set to connect all the forms of productions on planet .This IR is much different than predecessors because it focused on digitization rather than evolving a new energy .This revolution is formed on a connected base of technologies like Augmented Reality, Big Data analysis and Artificial Intelligence etc.

CURRENT TRENDS IN FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The Fourth Industrial Revolution announces a movement of social, political, social, and money related changes that will spread out over the 21st century. Developing the wide openness of cutting edge progresses that were the delayed consequence of the Third Industrial, or Digital, Revolution, the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be headed, as it were, by the intermixing of electronic, regular, and physical advancements. As occurred in the past changes, this will essentially change foundations, organizations, and individuals.

Even more fundamentally, this change will be guided by the choices that people make today: the world in 50 to a long time from now will owe a lot of its character to how we consider, put assets into, and send these mind-blowing new advances. For certain, affiliations, abusing the rising advances of the Fourth Industrial Revolution has transformed into a key need. Various associations are blending things, organizations and undertakings with cutting edge assets and advances, upsetting old strategies and making new ones. Rather than fearsome circumstances about robots replacing individuals, the point of convergence of this will be on the most ideal approach to set up our understudies in our schools for this future.

Workstations, iPads and other tablet PCs incited continuously littler than regular changes, anyway the edges of likelihood are up ’til now being mapped out with extensively greater changes apparently inside simple reach. In fact, even with these possible results, EdTech still has its skeptics, and which is fine and dandy. In the snappy moving universe of advancement, where every so often it feels like there is another groundbreaking piece of development each other week, school authority gatherings should address how a ton of huge worth another piece of unit will really incorporate. Everything considered, money spent on guidance advancement could by and large keep getting ready or enrolling educators instead of what happens to be noticeable at the time.

During a period where advancement has made a huge difference from hailing a taxi (Uber) to conveying (Twitter and Facebook), we ought to truly deliver to what degree our present preparing structure can continue working comparatively as it did in Victorian events. The seeds for preparing’s most cutting-edge development change have quite recently been planted. Colossal Open Online Courses (MOOCs) address another course for youths to learn. They are open source learning programs that are uninhibitedly available to understudies wherever all through the world.

Various masters acknowledge that we are by and by in the first place times of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, a period combining progressed, physical and regular structures in a way never watched. Its impact on preparing is that understudies will do a huge amount of helpful work. This is in light of the fact that many acknowledge that work experience should be embedded into courses to help make capacities and make understudies continuously employable. This change conveys with its empowering possible results, new responses for overall troubles, and work open entryways for occupations that by and by can’t be envisioned.

At the same time, it goes with the potential for inventive joblessness that drives sliding load on compensation security and social office while society acclimates to the new average. Gotten together with natural change and fast overall people advancement this century is the most testing that our species has ever defied. Governments, instructors and watchmen the equivalent must represent the request about how they can prepare present and future ages to prosper in this evolving world. Plan briefings from over the overall political range similarly as affiliations including OECD, McKinsey, Bank of England and MIT have had the alternative to recognize the broadness of occupations that are most likely going to be undermined by mechanical improvement seeing, for example, that “speedy advancement in AI demonstrates a significantly more broad extent of livelihoods than as of late suspected should be possible by machines” (OECD, Future of Work, 2013).

Effect of forefront preparing far and wide. Penprase surveys new STEM bearing that makes explicit most extreme in rising degrees of progress in ground-breaking and experience based settings. The social changes from the 4IR will require impelled preparing to make logically indisputable most distant point concerning great and intercultural understanding, setting a premium on human sciences type direction with acclimations to comply with the specific issues raised by 4IR advances and their disrupting impacts on society.

Penprase fights that a quick contrast in on-grounds enlightening plan is required by building up its ability to oblige the getting of new information by understudies, workforce and graduated class, with new modalities of heading that effect the automated advances from the Third Industrial Revolution. As appeared by a 2018 report by The Economist: Intelligence Unit, generally couple of nations have started to address the effect of computerization through enlightening approach. “Sharp robotization is relied on to help the centrality of both directions identified with STEM (science, progression, building and calculating) and of expected delicate aptitudes, which enable experts to exchange on their inquisitively human points of confinement.

Educational issues will no ifs, ands or buts rise because of the nonattendance of advantages in some frustrated schools. A couple of countries have quite recently advanced to progressively raised levels the extent that guidance since they have all the significant resources required. This also suggests the understudies in those countries are starting at now getting a glance at what is to come later on. What I should know, are your points of view on the most capable technique to all the more promptly prepare understudies for the imaginative impelled inevitable destiny of the fourth mechanical bombshell and its impact in the guidance structure. In any case, in everything aside from the most critical scoring countries, little has been done to design future experts through school instructive projects or, likewise as essentially, educator planning. All the while, a couple of masters alert that a consideration on fragile capacities would be a break in countries where fundamental guidance is up ’til now unsatisfactory.

IOT DEVICES & 3D -PRINTING

IOT Devices

We are living in a new era of computational technology i.e. Internet of Things, its kind of a “worldwide neural network” in the server which communicates and connects various things. The IOT is a smart connected devices and systems which is made up of smart machines interacting communication with each other. As a by -product a lot amount of data is processed for useful actions that can control and give instructions which in implied sense can make our lives much easier and safer.

Technologies that enable IOT

  1. Near -Field communication and Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) -Earlier RFID used to be the major dominant player but later NFS became Dominant. NFC is more popular in Smartphone devices, with uses such as reading NFC tags or for entry to public transportation.
  2. Bluetooth and low energy -It is one of the latest evolved technology. All recent smartphone have BLE hardware in them. Tags which developed on BLE signal their presence at a power budget that enable them to operate for up to one year on a lithium coin cel l battery.
  3. Quick response codes and optical tags -This platform is based on low cost tagging. Phone camera uses QR code to using picture processing technique .

Applications of IOT

  • Augmented Reality can be used to display the information and notification in various organizations like educational notice board systems or at Railway station, Bus stand, airport and malls. E -display system may be used to display urgent notification in Hospitals.
  • Some areas where IoT frequently used
  1. Smart Cities -A.R can be used to make cities smarter by monitoring many things like the parking area available in the city, management of energy radiated by cell stations and wi -fi routers etc.
  2. Security and Emergencies -A.R can be used for detection and control of peoples in non authorized area, liquid detection in data centre.
  3. Smart Agriculture -Wine quality enhancing, green house control, study of weather in meteorological centres, controlling humidity and temperature level in compost.
  4. Domestic and Home Automation -A.R can remotely manage our home appliances and cut down electricity bill and resource usage.
  5. Medical Field -It can provide assistance for disable or elderly peoples living independently, giving warning for high levels of ultraviolet radiation so that people stay at homes in certain hours.
  6. Industrial Control -with the use of A.R machine can auto diagnose the problem and control. And monitor the temperature inside the industry.

Impacts of IOT

The IoT promises to deliver a step change in people “quality of existence and enterprises productiveness”. Through a widely distributed, domestically sensible community of smart gadgets, the IoT has the capacity to enable extensions and enhancements to essential services in transportation, logistics, protection, utilities, education, healthcare and other areas, even as pro vid ing a brand new ecosystem for pplication development.

Smart Power Grid -IOT can help us move away from traditional fossil fuels. Society will ought to transition to renewable energy and to match supply with demand is important to making them financially feasible that where IOT will come to use ? E-learning -IOT can help us by giving education and training to million of peoples living in faraway places.

Building Automation -with the help of IOT buildings can be made smarter that can optimize energy and prevent people from fire.

Healthcare -Its a area in which the IoT is already making a completely beneficial contribution to society. With populations getting older around the world, the capacity to monitor and guard people of their houses lowers expenses and increases quality of existence.

3D – Printing

3D Printing is a very innovative technology, it was discovered in 1984 by the hands of Chuck Hull who developed a process called as Stereolithography, in which layers are added by curing photopolymers with UV lasers.

In 2005 3D printing converted to open source>2006 the first SLS(Selective Laser Sintering)> 2008 Self replicating Printers became main stream>2009 atom by atom printing was done which allowed bio 3d printing>2011 first 3D printed robotic aircraft and world’s first 3D printed car became available and from day afterwards 3D -Printing became commercially available.

So what is this technology

3D printing: is a method by which 3 -d solid objects of any shape or geometry can be created from a virtual record. The introduction is performed by way of laying down successive layers of a particular material till the whole item is created. ea ch of these layers represents a thinly sliced horizontal cross -section (similar to the output of an ordinary printer, that is why it’s far referred to as printing) of the eventual item, in contrast to standard subtractive manufacturing methods which is based upon the elimination of cloth to create something

CURRENT 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES

There are Four Types of 3D Printing Technologies available

Stereo Lithography(SLA) -position a perforated platform just underneath the surface of a vat of liquid photo curable polymer. A UV (extremely Violate) laser beam then traces the primary slice of an item at the surface of this liquid, causing a completely thin layer of photopolymer to harden. The perforated platform is then lowered very slightly and another slice is traced out and hardened by way of the laser. another slice is then created, a nd then another, till a entire object has been published and may be eliminated from the vat of photopolymer, drained of excess liquid, and cured.

Fused Deposition Modelling(FDM) -here a warm thermoplastic is extruded from a Temperature -controlled print head to supply fairly sturdy gadgets to a high degree of accuracy.

Selective Laser Sintering(SLS) -This builds objects by the use of a laser to selectively use together successive layers of a cocktail of powdered wax, cerami c, steel, nylon or one of a range of other materials.

Multi Jet Modelling(MJM) -This builds up items from successive layers of powder, with an inkjet -like print head used to spray on a binder solution that gl ues only the specified granules collectively.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence

The applications for artificial intelligence are endless .The technology can be implemented to many exclusive sectors and industries:

  1. AI is being tested and used inside the healthcare industry for dosing tablets and distinctive remedy in sufferers, and for surgical strategies inside the running room .
  2. Artificial intelligence additionally has applications in the economic industry, in which it’s far used to locate and flag activity in banking and finance which includes unusual debit card utilization and huge account deposits all of which assist abank’s fraud department .
  3. Applications for AI also are being used to assist streamline and make buying and selling easier .that is achieved with the aid of making supply, demand, and pricing of securities less complicated to estimate .

Expert System in A.I

Expert Systems constitute one of the maximum essential studies areas of artificial intelligence . The fundamental undertaking of the expert gadget is to enable the use of the expertise and experience of top specialist, which can be built -in the professional systems .Edward Feigenbaum states that the expert gadget is an intelligent computer program that makes use of information and inference tactics to resolve problems that require considerable intellectual effort .

The knowledge required to work at that level, and approaches applied to make conclusions, can be considered as aversion of wondering taken from the quality professionals of certain the area .

The concept expert comes from the potential of the system that behave as top specialists in their place .the premise of this system is particularly designed software program that models the factors of issues solving and they are considered to represent human intelligence :reasoning, judgment, decision -making primarily based on unreliable or incomplete facts and interpretation of their very own conduct

Structure of Expert Systems

Knowledge Base

Represents knowledge composed of information and popular facts in addition to heuristics inside the area of hassle solving.

Inference Mechanism

Which interprets the knowledge within the understanding base and execute certain changes within the information base.

User Interface

Serves for communique between the consumer and the device.

Industry 4.0 is the result of a tipping point in technology innovation .The groundwork for the revolution was laid decades ago .

The IoT, cloud, big data, and more are pushing industry 4.0 forward .This industry promises to change the way business is done .

Business models will be redefined, more processes will become automated, and organization will optimize their value chain even further .

Industry 4.0 is absolutely a revolutionary technique to manufacturing strategies. The idea will push worldwide manufacturers to a new stage of optimization and productiveness. There are nevertheless many demanding situations that need to be tackled systematically to ensure a clean transition. This desires to be the focus of big companies and governments alike.

Pushing studies and experimentation in such fields are critical, while speculations regarding privacy, security, and employment need extra study, the general picture is promising. Such approach to manufacturing industries is truly revolutionary.

References

  1. Peter, E. (2019). [online] Research Gate. Available at:nternet_of_Nano_Things_IoNT .
  2. Brown, C. (2019). The Industrial Revolution. Retrieved from -content/big -history -project/acceleration/bhp -acceleration/a/the -industrial -revolution .
  3. Schwab, K. (2019). The Fourth Industrial Revolution, by Klaus Schwab. Retrieved from fourth -industrial -revolution -by -klaus -schwab
  4. McClelland, C. (2019). IoT Explained -How Does an IoT System Actually Work?. Retrieved from explained -how -does -an -iot -system -actually -work
  5. Cephas, M. (2019). Retrieved from ? Tapscott, D. (2019). How blockchains could change the world. Retrieved from media -and -telecommunications/our -insights/how -blockchains -could -change -the -world
  6. Copeland, B. (2019). Artificial intelligence -Expert systems. Retrieved from – intelligence/Expert -systems

Cite this page

Fourth Industrial Revolution. (2019, Dec 15). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/fourth-industrial-revolution-essay

Fourth Industrial Revolution

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