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All living things on Earth need fresh water in order to survive But human beings become ill and may even die if they cannot get pure or clean and are forced to drink polluted water. Human beings can only last 3 day without fresh water. People died of thirst after the cyclone in 1999 because their supply of fresh water from irrigation channels was destroyed form tidal waves. However water is needed for many more purposes e.g. in agriculture and industries, but this water does not need to be fresh. Despite this there are still serious shortages in many countries for the purposes other than drinking.
CAUSES FOR SHORTAGE OF WATER
1 The increases in populations, industries and irrigation
The growth of population in many countries means that more water is required. The growth of population leads to the need for more goods and food. This leads to the increase in industries and in irrigated farmland. This means more water is required.
2 The pollution of fresh water supplies
Even if there is sufficient fresh water in a country it may not all be good for drinking. Many villages in Pakistan depend on wells and rivers for their fresh drinking water. However chemicals used in the fields by farmers pollute some of these drinking water supplies.
3 the problems of the supply of fresh water
Problems of the supply of fresh water in both rural and urban areas exist in the countries and in some countries.
a) Fresh Water Supplies In Rural Areas
In many rural areas in Pakistan and other countries there are no pipes o carry water to people’s homes or to their villages. Women and children may walk a long way each day to get their water.
b) Fresh Water Supplies In Urban Areas
Many villages have no piped water supply. But there are often serious problems of the supply of water even in urban areas where there are water pipes. This because of lack of distribution and transmission networks, leakages and power failures at pumping stations and because of rampant corruption in KWSB. It is also because hydrant owners continue to defy government regulations.
Possible solutions for shortage of water in Pakistan
Treatment of sewage
It has been suggested that water suitable for industry and agriculture could be provided by treating sewage. However this would require a new and separate network of pipes which would be expensive to construct.
Desalination of sea water
This suggestion was rejected up to 2004 because of the high cost of building the desalination plants. However, in 2004 plans were announced to build Pakistan’s first desalination plants at Korangi Creek in Karachi and near Port Qasim.
Disadvantage of desalination process
Even though the desalination process benefits us, it can also harm the environment on the other hand. It cost too much money to pay for the plants. It reduces oxygen levels in the air and results in an increase of the density of any discharged waste water. Its unlimited source of water make more green house gasses so there for more pollution in the atmosphere .It doubles the amount of salt in the ocean’s and impacts on the environment for animals and humans.