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It allows one to a look into the future with the ability to be encouraged (Barclay, 2016). Hope is an indispensable factor in psychoanalysis. It's tenure rather by client or psychotherapist alike is essential for encouraging ambition in therapy. Within this paper the research surrounding hope will be enlightened. The meaning of hope will be described, defined and examined. A brief discussion of hope; its major tenets and process of change and its aspect within Adlerian theory will be deliberated. All 4 of the common factors of the HCAP model have demonstrated to be healing factors that produce a mentality of healthy-beings.
A person who can tap into any of the common factors, especially hope; will have an increased chance of an infinite positive outcome within self and within their life journey. Being able to adjust to the negative circumstances through agility and being able to see past existing circumstances is hope (Barclay, 2016). Even though Adlerian theory incorporates numerous concepts concerning the common factors which uphold the element that relationships and socialness are at the epicenter of mental health and the superiority of change; this paper will focus more on Adler and the Common Factor Hope.
Hope initially established attention from the arenas of medicine and psychology in the 1950's and 1960's when Karl Menninger (1959) and others demarcated it as constructive prospects for goal fulfillment. In his 1959 address to the American Psychiatric Association, Karl Menninger insisted his colleges to identify the supremacy of hope; he asked that they look at it from a personal perspective as well as from a patients’ perspective in understanding and treating mental illness.
Horowtiz (2008) suggest that hope and its anticipation in the psychotherapy pertaining to the long-term mentally ill can be looked at as somewhat a type of nurture and encouragement that grows out of the transformation of faintly imagined possibilities into realisms (p. 238). Hope is the one common factor that spreads transversely demographically. All ages, genders, religions, sexual orientations, cultures and ethnicities desires hope. Even within the clinical arena difficulties such as substance abuse, domestic violence, relationship issues, anxiety, depression to developmental concerns. While many pursue psychotherapy and counseling for a numeral of different reasons, respectively all individuals seek support for one reason only; and that is regaining their hope. The existence of hope at any measure, embraces the longing and belief that things can be different. Hope holds the assurance that by pursuing some type of support, help, or external influence, change is possible. This paper will recognize hope and examine its fundamentals as a common factor in the area of therapeutic change. This paper will also recognize hope through Adlerian perspective, as related to encouragement.
The bible defines faith as the substance of things hoped for and the evidence of things not seen (Hebrew 11:1). Therefore, things hoped for are things desired to be manifested. Regardless if one is hoping for something today, tomorrow or next year; hope gives all things a psychological existence. Hope personally can be defined in different ways. Some may say that hope is more substantial and detailed than just the impression of a brighter tomorrow. Being able to adjust to the negative circumstances through agility and being able to see past existing circumstances is hope (Barclay, 2016). Writing on the reputation of hope, Yalom (2005) implied that hope is one of the first and foremost common factors that is required in order to keep the client in therapy; without hope it will be hard for other therapeutic factors to become effective. Yalom, also believe that faith in a treatment method can be strongly effective (p. 4). While the precise root of the efficiency in psychotherapy is unidentified, it is known that 80% of individuals who receive psychotherapy treatment are healthier and better off than those who choose not to receive psychotherapy treatment (Snyder, Michael, and Cheavens, 2006).
Research constantly demonstrations that a significant percentage of client improvement transpires within the first 3-4 weeks of treatment (Fennell & Teasdale 1987; Ilardi & Craighead 1994; Howard, Kopta, Krause, and Orlinsky, 1986). It is also unidentified as to what the beneficial effects of psychotherapy can be accredited to; however, it is presumed that they mostly result from methods shared by the innumerable models and their related techniques (Snyder et al., 2006). Study also shows that most psychotherapy methods affect change in clients with less differences in effectiveness. Even though individually the common factors have resolution in the basis for change, the overall purpose is to improve the quality of the client’s life through changes. Nevertheless, the attitude of the client will need to undertake changes before any lasting positive outcomes take place.
The common factors are not affiliated with any system or theoretical orientation as they are humanistic interpersonal factors (Lambert, 2005). One key awareness behind common factors is that the healing development that takes place within the therapeutic setting can be accredited to the relationship amongst the client and the counselor and not due to any precise theories or techniques that may be imposed (Wampold, 2012). Snyder and contemporaries believe that the positive properties of psychotherapy mainly result from methods shared by the numerous models and their associated techniques. Snyder (1994) proclaims a new model of hope as a conceptual framework for reaching a better understanding of common factors, early progress in therapy and placebo and expectancy.
Nevertheless, the psychology of hope, scrutinizes the way that individuals think about their goals and recommends that these aims are thought about in two components. The primary component holds the thoughts that individuals have about their capability to create one or more effective routes to their goals. The second component contains the thoughts that individuals have concerning their capability to carry out continual drive on designated pathways toward those goals (Snyder, 1994). Both components are identified respectively as pathways thinking and agency thinking. Snyder deems that both forms of thinking must be current before an individual experience hope. Simultaneously, research also demonstrations that individuals are likely to experience positive emotive responses and sustain hopefulness when they are able to pursue their goals as well as produce alternative pathways when needed (Snyder et al, 2006). Excluding the other common factors within this review, hope and the prospect of change is incorporated within the impression of the therapeutic relationship and set apart as an independent common factor. The therapeutic relationship is significant to the perception of hope since due to it benefit stems mostly through an emotionally charge or connection of the client accepting the counselor’s belief that positive change is probable (Larsen & Stege, 2010, p. 288). Adlerian theory incorporates numerous concepts concerning the common factors which uphold that relationships and socialness are at the epicenter of mental health and the superiority of change. However, the focus within this paper will be on Adler and the common factor hope.
Alderian’s Theory Adlerian therapy, named for its creator; Alfred Adler, is in the psychodynamic field of therapy. Adlerian psychotherapy was formed by Alfred Adler using a method of learning and dedicating his life to the improvement of humanity and their individual needs. He was concerned about his individual clients and their need for acceptance and belonging, as well as their direction in life. Adler’s theory is recognized as Individual Psychology and was sometimes misinterpreted and misunderstood. Nevertheless, Adler’s psychology is focused solely on the individual. It is also a holistic and social psychology that look at a person as whole including their surroundings and interactions with others as relevant to understanding the individual. Adler alleged that every individual had the authority to heal or to experience change. He believed that seeing people as disorders and not as imaginative human beings capable of change was a waste of time and did very little for the health of individuals nor for the improvement of psychology. Through this assessment, it became apparent that Adler’s perceptions were well affiliated with the common factors and the awareness that psychology should not be about disorders, but about hope and ability for change. Adler’s perceptions are linked to many of today’s psychotherapeutic theories who followed his perception within this area.
Concerning the influence of Adler’s extraordinary work in psychology, Adler’s theory can and has been thought of as a harbinger for countless psychological concepts. Reviewing all of Adler’s notions would not be possible to discuss within the span of this paper. Adlerian therapy assumes that beings are socially driven and that their conduct is purposeful and focused toward a goal. Adler supposed that feelings of lowliness frequently stimulate individuals to strive for triumph, therefore, he emphasized the conscious over the unconscious. Adlerian therapy initiates by examining a client's lifestyle and identifying confusions and misallocated goals. Clients are then re-educated with the hope they will have an improved logic of belonging and a higher level of societal interest. Adlerian therapy identifies the character of internal features, such as observation of reality, morals, beliefs, and goals. It has a holistic perception of persons, viewing both the influence of humanity on the client and the client's influence on humanity. Adler supposed societal interest is a sign of mental health.
Meaning when individuals have a sense of connecting and actively engage with others in a healthy way their sense of inferiority declines. Adler also spoke of life responsibilities: friendship (societal), closeness (love-marriage), and social participation (professional). All these responsibilities involve a capacity for friendship, self-worth, and alliance. In short, an Adlerian therapist inspires self-alertness, challenges negative perceptions, and reprimands the client to act to adhere to life responsibilities and engage in societal events. Psychotherapists impart, guide, and inspire. Yet Adler died in 1937, his labor has been passed on and well-kept-up by numerous of his devoted supporters. Adlerian theory has revealed accomplishments case-by-case as well as empirically concerning assessment methods such as the BASIS-A Inventory that complies data on an individual’s lifestyle (Peluso et al., 2004).
When the HCAP model is equated to the Adlerian theory, we can see there is much in common. The theory’s objectives and highlighting philosophies are complex thought-out that focuses on “nurturing social interest, overcoming discouragement and lowliness, shifting lifestyle, increasing enthusiasm, identifying likeness amongst individuals, and motivation to become socially intricate with helping others (Barclay, 2016). The Adlerian theory also corresponds to the HCAP model in placing extreme importance on the growth of relationships and societal interests (Barclay, 2016). The components of optimism, hopefulness, obligation and passion are also key elements in the Adlerian therapeutic process (Barclay, 2016). Furthermore, they both embrace hope and encouragement by concentrating on individual strength (Barclay, 2016). In the Adlerian theory, this is molded throughout the preliminary years of life and is constructed on relations during those years in how an individual respond to and is responded to by their family and societal structure.
Adlerian therapy climaxes prevention, hopefulness and courage, resilience and development, capability, ingenuity and inventiveness, societal perception, and discovering meaning and a logic of communal in relations. Hope and prospects of change have various diverse facets and conceptualizations, such as implicit and explicit hope: as well as the inborn hope and positive anticipation that come from a sincere and caring relationship with an authentic counselor of therapy. The objective of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology is forever to increase an individual's bravery to meet the difficulties of life (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956). Encouragement (hope) methods used to increase an individual’s courageousness are so foundational in Individual Psychology Alder stated, Thoroughly, in each footstep of the treatment, we must not stray from the pathway of encouragement (hope). (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956, p. 342). Just to name a few, the following are encouraging techniques of Adlerian: demonstrating kindheartedness towards the client, imparting hope, and displaying to the client that there are answers to each problem by highlighting the positive. Nevertheless, Adler frowns against implanting a false amount of hope within the client. He warns therapist against promises or even strong indications that complete recovery will transform by the end of therapy (Adler, 1968).
Frankl (1984) reasoned that if illness is allied with a lack of hope, then successful treatment must implicate its restoration. With that in mind, this paper has deliberated the significance of hope in therapy and the requirements of its tenure by the psychotherapist and client. It is imperative to recollect that while hope is vital for change, the simple ingenuity or instillation of hope will not guarantee therapeutic success or even change. Hope can be viewed as a wood in a fireplace; without the wood a flame or fire cannot start. It is the profession of the therapist to impart hope into hopeless clients so that change may begin to take place. Also, at that time other therapeutic aspects must be well-thought-out and taken into reason when desiring therapeutic and client success for transformation. And let’s not forget the chief hope of all is biblical hope. Hope is a truth and not a sensation. Biblical hope transports no doubt. Biblical hope is a undisputable substance upon which life is based in believing that God continually keeps His promises through faith. God’s Word, the wholeness of God’s charisma, and the complete work of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ is hope.
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