Freud’s theory of psychopathology begins with an analysis of the development of a person. Part of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis looks at the growth and development of erogenous zones or parts of the body that are the sources of tension or excitation. These erogenous zones include the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and gential stages. Freud believed that at any of these developmental stages a person could deal with a failure in the instinct development or a fixation. Fixation occurs if an individual has a fear of going to the next stage because they receive too little or too much fulfillment in their current stage.
Moreover, there are three different personality styles that may come about due to a fixation. In oral personality, a fixation at the oral stage causes a person to be narcissistic and only interested in themselves. The anal personality shows a tendency to show orderliness and cleanliness. Finally the phallic personality has men attempting to reach masculinity complex and women to be exhibitionistic and flirtatious.
Consequently, a phenomenon associated with fixation is regression which is an individuals desire to regress back to an earlier point of development.
Stress is an optimal condition that triggers regression. On the other hand, Rogers had a different way of understanding what the causes psychopathology. Rogers believed in the self-actualizing tendency which is a move towards completion or fulfillment of potentials. He understood this to be a primary motivating drive to reach one’s full potential and come to realize actual self.
He believed that incongruence between the real self, the self “I” believe to be and the ideal self, the self “I” want to be, differ significantly. This lack of balance causes anxiety.