DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATIONIntroductionThe objective of this chapter is to report the results of the data collected during the study. The chapter describes the outcomes of the questionnaires that were used to conduct the study. It shows the response rate, demographic information of respondents and findings on the influence of classroom management on the academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Sialkot District.Table 1 shows the findings of the research. Table presents the views of students about classroom management by teacher.
It is clear from the data that 96.8% respondents agreed that their teachers manage class in the way which creates encouraging environment in the classroom for productive learning. 82.7% respondents acclaimed that their teachers motivate students in the class for learning. On encouragement of equal participation by teacher 90.7% respondents agreed that their teachers encourage equal participation of all students in classroom. Majority of students 86% agreed that their teachers lead disciplined and organized class that enhances studentlearning positively. Teachers equipped classroom well that motivates students 92.
1% agreed about this statement. On gender biasness by the teachers 47% students agreed that their teachers try to eliminate gender bias amongst the students that lead to a positive change in the attitude of the students towards studies. The respondents’ majority 54.6% agreed that their teachers give theamount of work to students that do not demotivate them. As far physical environment of classroom is concerned 57.7% respondents agreed that their teachers try to make classroom physical environment conducive for learning. On the effectiveness of physical appearance of classroom 69.
7% were of the view that their teachers try to make classroom physical environment effective. Item no.10 deals with the proper seating arrangement in classroom for effective learning. Majority of the students 58.3% agreed that their teachers make proper seating arrangement in classroom for effective learning. It is clear from the data that 93.4% respondents agreed that their teachers make sure that white board is visible to all students in the classroom. On question about appropriate lightening in the classroom 75.7% respondents agreed that their teachers take notice of appropriate lighting in classroom. 73.7% respondents gave opinion that their teachers use audio visual aids to make classroom environment effective. Moreover, 70.7% respondents acclaimed that their teachers change classroom seating arrangement for group work. The data revealed that teachers use understandable language in class which positively influences the academic achievement of the students on which majority 78.3% of respondents were agreed. And the results showed that 61.5% respondents agreed that teachers have friendly and approachable behavior in classroom for students’ better learning. Question seventeen deals with the teachers relate the topic with real life through different examples. It is clear from the data that 67.4% respondents agreed that their teachers relate the topic with real life through different examples. On asking about reward 58.2% respondents agreed that their teachers reward to students for good behavior in the classroom. 57.9% respondents had opinion that teachers engage students’ active discussion about issues related to topic. The data revealed that 45.5% respondents agreed that their teachers use teaching approaches that encouraged interaction among students. Majority (47.5%) were disagreeing with the above statement. It is evident from the data that 73% respondents agreed that their teachers give students’ opportunities to ask questions in the classroom. 63.3% respondents believed their teachers closely monitor the off-task behavior during class. It is evident from the data that majority of 63.5% respondents agreed that their teachers answer students’ questions for promoting positive interaction in the classroom.Defining the class rules and regulations 68.6% students agreed that teachers define class rules and regulations that improve their academic achievements. It is clear from the data that 89% respondents agreed that their teachers do not tolerate indiscipline behavior from students in class. Majority 94.5% respondents agreed that teachers intervene when students talk at inappropriate times during class. Teachers firmly redirect students back to the topic when they get off task was quite evident on this issue as majority 51.2% of respondents agreed with this issue. 74% respondents agreed with the issue that their teachers become strict when it comes to student’s compliance in classroom. Item 29 deals with that whether teachers insist that students in classroom follow the rules always and 90.4% respondents agreed with the statement. The statement that teachers check students’ assignments on time was agreed by the majority 48.2% respondents. It is revealed from the data that 89.4% respondents agreed that their teachers appreciate with good words, when students perform well in the class. Little feedback was given to students and it was evident from the data as majority 41.4% of respondents disagreed that their teachers give individual attention to problematic students and give them proper feedback. Students develop learning behavior among them through constructive criticism when given by teacher and this clear as 50.8% respondents agreed with the issue. Majority 87.5% respondents agreed that their teachers conduct tests in classroom which promotes the students’ academic achievements. In university, students are grown up and they seem to like teachers’ immediate feedback when they answered their questions. Feedback seems to have impact on students’ academic achievements as 89.4% respondents agreed with the said statement.Table 2 shows students’ opinions about class room management. It is clear from the data that 70.42% respondents agreed with the statements given in the scale. However, 21.13% respondents disagreed and 8.44% respondents were undecided. The mean score (3.70) indicates that students gave positive opinions about this aspect. It means that mean range was fall in highly classroom management effectiveness.Table 3Comparison of male and female Students’ opinions about classroom managementTable 3 shows comparison of male and female students’ opinion about classroom management. It is clear that p-value (0.460) is higher than 0.05 i-e level of significance. It means we have insignificant difference in the opinions if male and female students about classroom management.Table 4Problems that affect classroom management at school levelTable 4 shows problems that affect classroom management in schools. It is clear from the data that 22.8% students told lack of physical facilities was major a problem in classroom management. However, 2.83% students gave opinion that use of mobile phone was a minor problem in classroom management. Classroom management creates encouraging environment in the classroom for productive learning. Moreover, immediate feedback to the students when they answer their questions and feedback to the students in classroom with constructive criticism, promotes the students’ academic achievements and impact of classroom management on students’ academic achievements.Table 7 shows problems that affect classroom management in university level. It is clear from the data that 22.8% students told lack of physical facilities was major a problem in classroom management. However, 2.83% students gave opinion that use of mobile phone was a minor problem in classroom management. Classroom management creates encouraging environment in the classroom for productive learning. Moreover, motivation students in the class for learning, immediate feedback to the students when they answer their questions and feedback to the students in classroom with constructive criticism, promotes the students’ academic achievements and impact of classroom management on students’ academic achievements.The present study was to investigate the impact of classroom management on students’ academic achievements at secondary school level. For this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed. Students were selected as respondents and this questionnaire was filled by them. Finding revealed that classroom management had no impact on students’ academic achievement. The results show that two third of respondents agreed that their teachers become strict when it comes to student compliance in classroom, their teachers insist that students in classroom follow the rules at all times, teachers check assignments of students in time in classroom, their teachers appreciate with good words, when students perform well in the class and one third of respondents disagreed that their teachers give individual attention to problematic students and gives them proper feedback.According to Evertson and Weinstein (2006) classroom management to the actions teachers take to create a supportive environment for the academic and social emotional learning of students. In the past teachers did not give any importance to manage the class room. Problems in classroom management are a principle source of stress and burnout for both new and experienced teachers (Edwards & Watts, 2010). Whilst inattention, calling out, disturbing others and non-compliance are the most commonly reported classroom behavior problems (Anderson & Kincaid, 2005). Today, the classroom management is a major concern in schools. Students in classrooms with frequent disruptive behavior experience less academic engagement and lower academic outcomes (Allday & Pakurar, 2007). Lack of effective classroom management may also worsen the progression of aggressive behavior for children in classrooms with higher levels of disruption (Gregory & Ripski, 2008).Effective approaches to managing the classroom environment are necessary to establish environments that support student behavior and the learning process as well as to reduce teacher stress and burnout (Friedman, 2006). Teachers who use effective classroom management can expect to experience improvements in student behavior and improvements that establish the context for effective instructional practices to occur. In this study the authors also found that social-studies classroom management had a significant positive influence on student learning motivation. The finding is consistent with those gained in previous investigations (Chafouleas et al., 2012; Cornelius, 2007). Freiberg (2009) indicated that classroom management is directly correlated with student learning and academic achievements. Students were more responsive to the classrooms with management systems because students feel individually more responsibility for their learning and develop a sense of university connectedness (Freiberg, 2013). Similar studies on impact of classroom management in Asia also showed that classroom management increased students’ learning ability and their ability to become more participatory inside the classroom (Chionh & Fraser, 2009; Nishioka, 2006). Finally, the results of this study indicated that classroom management could effectively predict student learning motivation and that learning atmosphere exerted the most influence.