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Education is an essential economic factor for development by eradicating illiteracy. Region, where the curriculum developed should have positive influence on education but not have any negative effect on religious beliefs, by inclusion of tenets that govern religion. The second part of the paper discuses the development of new curriculum innovations, the processes followed, how it can be implemented, and the difficulties encountered during the implementation of the program.
The analysis is centered on the implementation of the social study curriculum to students and how their teachers should use it.
Introduction The impact of the education system is important for change to be realized. The primary aim is to enable designed curriculums to offer relevance to the educational program set in place. The educational curriculum is very important, especially when it comes to the stimulation of the individuals’ personality and enabling optimal functioning of schools and education systems within governments.
The design innovation focuses on the school education which consists of primary and secondary schools (Markee, 1997).
The study of interactive languages and subjects is beneficial to students since it improves on their communicative ability and social relations (Marcos, 1998). The aim of the curriculum is to enable the students learn with a lot of ease and have the ability to comprehend and solve problems adequately. Also there are some valuable advices to the teachers on how they can handle students their students effectively based on the quality trainings that they get (Marcos, 1998).
The educational curriculum has proved to be a powerful base of knowledge for any nation to advance.
It provides effective methods to accomplish educational policies with a lot of integration, by employing the new technologies. Its innovation is highly complex and requires further research and investigation (Fullan, 1993). There has been insufficient information on the curriculum process implementation. This has allowed the situation where the innovators dictate teachers on the use of their innovations.
It is common for curriculum innovations to change with little noticeable impact on the classroom work and more so in the fieldwork practical (Morris, 1992). Case Study Protocol The rationale ensures organization of programs to cater for cultural, financial, religious and social requirements. English language was a perfect selection in case1 to determine what influence it will have on Islamic religion. Compared to TOC which guarantees that teachers get supported and trained; support in classrooms is needed for the implementation of the goal-oriented curriculum to be successful (Carless, 1997).
Descriptive Account- Case 1 structural education system is composed of kindergarten, primary school years are six, intermediate three years and high school three years as well. Language subjects play key role in curriculum structuring since language skills have a greater influence on human social character. English language is among the most advanced languages and with highest speakers all over the world as an international language (Marcos, 1998).
Purpose of studying foreign language enhances ability to communicate and even open up avenues of employment (Marcos, 1998). English language curriculum was introduced at intermediate stage with aim of enabling students write, read, and listen. At the end of the vocational study, students would have gained enough skills in English for possible advancement at secondary level in future. The main objective in Arabian casebook was driving at enabling student interact with members of English speaking community.
In contrast learning English would advance Islamic religion by facilitating students to preach its doctrines and discredit any false thoughts from Islamic religious enemies. Another aim through the book is to enable student master command of English for purposes of advanced applications in certain situations, consequently the students be find it easy to express their ideas coherently and for fun and enjoyments (Carless, 1997). Book Content It was sub-dived into 2 sections. Section one was to be covered in semester one while semester two takes the second section.
Eight units are in each section, and per unit are four lessons for reading, listening, and writing and extra one for oral and listening The main topics covered in the book are interesting ones to boost student attention like; Friendship, travel, others relates to the cultural traditions of Saudi Arabia and other diverse culture. In addition, the book has wonderful drawings, pictures and scenes that apply key striking new English words in sentences and variety of exercises (Carless, 1997).
Benefits of learning English Learning a second foreign language at intermediate school had primary optimism since the teaching process has become easier and cheaper. The textbook design is flexible to be used in classrooms in different formats for communication. This includes discussion of answers in small groups, development of individual skills through practice exercises on reading, writing and oral. The book has targeted certain learning outcomes.
In contrast to the Target Oriented Curriculum whereby the primary school is allocated seven lessons per week and is sub-divided into two sessions; the morning and the evening session though the evening session operates freely (Lynch, 1996) Learners aged between 6 and 7 years old have a problem with the new language–English which is being introduced to them as they try to put it into practice.
Practically as they try to put up with the new curriculum they seem to have their own plan that govern them on the choices they make over what they are told due to the language problem and difference in both writing and pronouncing. The pupils are also involved in the communication and inquiring with the elements of reasoning and solving the problems involved in recognition of their members of their families in pictures (Lynch, 1996). The teachers’ attitude obtained is as a result of their own past knowledge as pupils, their leadership, teaching practice, interaction with coworkers and their rates and customs of the society within which they work (Waugh and Punch, 1987) The, main aim of TOC is following the daybreak guide session rather than through a positive desire to introduce the curriculum was the goal for the implementation.
Also TOC is aiming at seeing the learners communicate through sharing and receiving significance , inquiring through curiosity , testing theory, blueprint identification and thoughts through organizing knowledge, reasoning through reasonable argument and pretentious or intrusive conclusions, solving problems including ,recognizing, assessing solutions and explaining. Also teachers should take to account the learners’ needs and interests (Clark et al. , 1994, p. 15) Another objective is that attention should be paid more to individual learning requirements of different learners for variations , in their learning styles, abilities and speed be looked into. Also there should be insightful capacity and desire for self development, positive orientation and good understanding towards the implemented curriculum.
Proficiency and high standard of the English language, wide range of pupil-centered teaching techniques and also the ability for facilitation of effective learning outcomes Carless (1998). Teachers in Hong Kong insist on the communication of information and acquaintance therefore, they use the informative mode which is believed to be bigger because of all the limitations of communal examinations and reluctance of teachers to change. Therefore the Target Oriented Curriculum represents a fundamental change of the teachers in Hong Kong accustomed to carrying out traditional approaches since the focus is on task –based learning and more individualized learning styles (Carless, 1997).
The limitations encountered during the process of implementation imply that there is lack of information on the curriculum implementation process and this is observed in response from the learners, the strategies used during the process, how the teachers go about putting in place the innovation to their own circumstance and also the speed and interest of the learners in adjusting to the new learning curriculum (Morris, 1992, 1995). Principles According to case 1, the main reason for acquiring the secondary language is for morale boosting and desire to excel. Subsequently, the language improves the students’ cognitive abilities and adds knowledge of socio-cultural lifestyles of the foreign community. In contrast to the Target Oriented Curriculum, English language teaching can be compared to a weak form of the based task approach where by the tasks tend to be attuned with the stage of production of creation sequence , performance, management, which are the regularly used in expansive methods (Wong,1996, p. 92). PART 2
Designing an innovative curriculum from a familiar context: An overview of how the principles from the case studies reviewed might be applied to my curriculum innovation. The good training is of prime importance since this is required for the deep understanding of the curriculum in place. Their understanding of both the theoretical underpinnings and classroom applications will ensure that the appropriate knowledge is delivered to the students. The dissemination of this innovation must contain sufficient information in order to simplify its understanding amongst the teachers. This will be achieved through generation of classroom teaching procedures for the innovation inform of syllabuses.
Criterion-referenced assessment is to be used for assessing the pupil’s progress in class towards the targets and this will enable information to be recorded and reported to the schools administration as well as the parents. This will provide an integrated curriculum framework link between teaching, learning and assessment (Elsevier Science, 1998).. The learning of the subject through different text books will help in providing the students with diversified knowledge on the very subject. The pupils are encouraged to undertake educational trips as this will enable them to socialize with people of diversified origins hence improving on their social nature and this may make it easier for them to interact freely during their later years and also in every part of the world as a whole(Elsevier Science, 1998).. Description of the context
The curriculum provides sufficient information on the culture of social studies, both practical and theoretical aspects that are necessary for the better understanding of the students. The strategies that are used during the implementation of new topics and the student’s reactions described. This paper will give a thorough review on the factors necessary for the implementation of social sciences as a subject in the schools. A number of key elements that helps in the process of innovation are discussed in relation to the social studies. The study sought to explore the importance realised in the implementation of new innovative curriculum within the schools. This is done through the multiple case study research design based on the social sciences impacts.
The discussions will mostly focuses on the students reactions and how well and fast they can adjust to the changes available (Elsevier Science, 1998). Rationale for the innovation This innovation will aim at providing a better understanding for the students at an early age to the environment and how they should interact and associate with other components without much coercion. It will be aimed at how the attitudes of most of the learners can be captured and changed to accept some form of social changes that takes place within there localities. When students’ attitudes agree with this innovation the much success is likely to be realised, especially when it comes to the reduction of the human conflicts within most of the societies (Waugh and Punch, 1987).
It will also ensure that much organization is realised especially in the public settings where educative functions are held, because the population will have known prior how to carry themselves responsibly, hence no much resistance to change. This approach will enable the development of understanding of the phenomenon from the students’ point of view (Waugh and Punch, 1987). A description and justification of the content, materials and methodology to be adopted The training and thorough teachings will therefore be stressed and much emphasis placed upon it in order to ensure effective transfer of knowledge. The content will involve a lot of textbooks reading and practical interactions with different social backgrounds to promote diversified knowledge and thinking. This also ensures easy dissemination of the innovation.
The information will collected from at least twenty schools from different ethnic regions and both student and teachers sampled according to the classes they represent. This will enable information to be obtained from a number of sources and over a period of time. The students are the key elements of focus in this study and how they interact. The methods adopted comprised of practical, observations, measurement of attitude scales and interviews. The communicative methodologies are well incorporated to emphasise on the transmission of information and knowledge. An indication of the resources (people, facilities, equipment, and materials) required to implement the curriculum.
For the purposes of implementation it requires well trained teachers, well equipped schools and diversity in the student’s background. The students’ differences are catered for by the involving language interpreters so as to eliminate the issue of language barrier. A number of issues have been developed to facilitate new language development (Ellis, 1998). The learning units within the set curriculum will serve as good facilitators in the learning process. The development and progress will mainly be based on how the schools invest in their pupils and this will form the basis under which the potential for the future generation will be uprooted from.
The supportiveness of the government in providing the finances and the leaning aides is an added advantage to the initiative (Ellis, 1998). The proactive involvement of the college and university students is encouraged to facilitate the fruitful implementation of this innovation since it provides enriched base of knowledgeable people. Anticipated difficulties that may be encountered in implementing it and how these might be addressed. One of the stumbling issues is the possibility of changing the attitudes and the traditional beliefs of most of the students and the teachers (Kennedy & Kennedy, 1996). For the efficient implementation of the innovation, crucial training and support which requires modern equipments might be a challenge.
Those without the modern training may loose enthusiasm towards the implementation of the curriculum, since they become frustrated by the problems posed and hence revert to older implementation methods which might not work (Gross et al. , 1971). The implementation will require both classroom and off classroom work which requires psychological and academic support from the innovation trainers. This will require a lot of finances and time. The students and teachers understanding of the innovation may pose some problems on the start of the program. This may require thorough information on the issues that concerns the particular innovation. The training needs to be more developmental and informative (Brindley and Hood, 1990).
Insufficient support and training on the teachers, their enthusiasm about the innovation may be frustrated by implementing the problems which will turn against the project and hence go back to the old ways of teaching (Gross et al. , 1971) another difficulty will be the approach of the teachers towards the TOC and also teaching the language. Also the teachers’ familiarity with the TOC principles, to the extent that they believe that they are performing whether they are implementing the TOC principles and the strategies used . Also the nature of change and development in the teachers during the study period (Lynch 1996). The unwillingness of teachers to change from the didactic mode in Hong Kong is hard due; to the familiarization of teachers to the traditional approach (Carless, 1997). Difference in both writing and pronouncing is another challenge.
In order for the curriculum to succeed, their must be implementation therefore teachers require adjusting to the content of the training to their own levels of knowledge and experience. Teachers also need to get access to the local and lasting operation training probably through the cascading material, an establishment of effective supervision and support system for the teachers. Teachers’ encouragement on commitment and motivation for instance through professional development opportunities and improved working conditions Verspoor (1989). For the second language development, participation should be rich in instructions because the language will serve as the intermediate as well as the center of instructions.
Also the here and now principle need to be adhered to meaning that there will be a lot of concentration needed therefore in the action stage; pupils will have independent management over the content comparative meaning that they will have a choice over what is said even though there is a big information gap between the listener and the speaker. Students also have to adapt participation into intake Ellis (1988). Attention to different learners for learning styles, abilities and speed variations as well as their learning requirements of different learners. Also there should be insightful capacity and desire for self to develop, positive orientation and good understanding towards the implementation Carless (1998).
A detailed plan for evaluating both the curriculum and its outcomes. For the evaluation of the curriculum and its principal outcomes the study is conducted within different schools. This is very necessary in order to reap maximum results, and also ascertain the desired effects on the students. Very valuable concepts on the learning environment of the students will be ascertained and the programme accountability identified. This will be based on different types of evaluation which include; formative evaluation, Summative evaluation and illuminative evaluation (Hitti, 2004). Formative evaluation concerns with the process of developing and designing of the social science curriculum.
This is so as to ascertain on its effectiveness to deliver the core principles (Hitti, 2004). Illuminative evaluation looks into the assessment, functioning and implementation of the different sections and units of the program and this ensures competent learning processes is employed. Summative evaluation is mostly used by those who are involved in planning process identifying the significance of every bit of the curriculum implemented. This evaluation is done by the use of qualitative and quantitative analysis (Hitti, 2004). The three main conceptual elements making up the curriculum will be followed to the latter. These elements are targets, tasks and task-based assessment.
The targets provide a common direction for the learning processes for all the institutions. It also helps in the facilitation of the planning and evaluation processes. Tasks provide the purpose for which the curriculum is meant and the context of the learning activities to wards the targets. The assessments are used to asses the progress of the students and enable report to be written and recorded to the relevant parties. The comparison to be done with other case studies which will enable information collected from the other sources be correlated to the quality of the innovation. This will enable development of understanding from the trainers’ point of view.
More attention to be paid on the individual learning needs of students so as to be able to cater for the variety of needs of the pupils and their abilities. The classroom data will be collected in order to evaluate on the students improvement after the introduction of the new innovation. The fieldwork data is also availed to determine how well the students have adjusted to their social life-style. The students will actively be involved in their own learning and in the development of new knowledge and ideas. This is done through the interactive ways of learning, communication by sharing meaning, inquiring of clarifications through questions and tests of the hypotheses.
Conceptualizing through organizing knowledge and identifying important groups. Critical reasoning and coming up with conclusions and ability to identify problems solve them and justify the inferences (Fullan, 1991). The quantity of the comprehension to which the students are being exposed together with the techniques used to facilitate students understanding, is of prime importance. It has been identified that acquisition is the most favourable way to better a students understanding. The understanding of the principles and practise of the curriculum innovation evolves over time as the teachers continue to gain further experiences through it (Fullan, 1991).
Having a strong staff who are well equipped with instructional leadership skills, will help in building of collaborative cultures, academic, administrative and resource support means of facilitating the change required (Hall&Hord, 1987). Conclusion The study of the social sciences enables the government to develop an understanding, informative and knowledgeable population. This will in turn be very critical especially in the implementation of projects in the various parts of the country. The understanding of different ethnic backgrounds promotes free interactions and peaceful environments. It also facilitates in building good international society.
The job environments especially companies will have easy time in dealing with their employees since they have the ability to understand one another. This study will enable various groups to remove the prejudices that certain people from common background are bad and not worth staying with. It will also equip the people with good learning skills necessary to earn living within any locality in the whole world. This paper has finally tried to show that good trainings are beneficial especially when it comes to the implementation of new curriculum to learning institutions. Despite the many challenges associated with the implementation of the new innovation, both students and teachers gave positive responses based on their understanding of the importance of the innovation.
The gradual change indicated in the curriculum framework offers some flexibility and development of teachers and students in most regions. This is because the implementation comes with the changes in the teaching format and timing for each lesson taught. It also offers the teachers the opportunity of countering inertia and legitimising attempts to improve on how they handle the students. Reference A Sociological Analysis of Planned Educational Change (1996). Harper Row, New York. Carless, D. ,(1997). Managing systematic curriculum change: a critical analysis of Hong Kong’s target-oriented curriculum initiative. International Review of Education 43 (4), 349-396. Carless, D. , (1998). Quality teaching: an expert primary practitioner’s classroom behaviors and attitudes.
Paper presented at a conference on Quality Education, Chinese University of Hong Kong. Clark, J. ,Scarino, A. , Brownell, J. , (1994). Improving the quality of learning: a framework For target –oriented curriculum renewal in Hong Kong. Institute of Language in Education, Hong Kong. Ellis, R. , (1988). Classroom Second Language Development. Prentice Hall, London. Gross,N. , Giacquinta,J. Bernstein, M. , 1971. Implementation Organizational Innovations: Hitti, M. , (2004). Being Bilingual Boosts Brain Power. Retrieved on 15th Augest 2008, from. http://www. webmd. com/parenting/news/20041013/being-bilingual-boosts-brain- power Lynch, B. , (1996).
Language Program Evaluation: Theory and Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Marcos, K. M. (1998) Second language learning: Everyone can benefit. The ERIC Review, 6 (1), 2-5. Morris, P. , (1992). Curriculum development in Hong Kong. Education Papers 7, Faculty of Education, Hong Kong University, Hong Kong. Morris, P. , (1995). The Hong Kong school Curriculum. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. Verspoor,A. , (1989). Pathways to change: Improving the Quality of Education in Developing Countries. World Bank, Washington DC. Waugh, R. , Punch, K. , (1987). Teacher receptivity to system wide change in the Implementation stage. Review of Education Research 57 (3), 237-254.
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