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During the 12th and 13th centuries the Mongols swept across Eurasia and conquered various peoples, including the Persians and Chinese. There are many slmllarltles and differences In the political and economic effects of Mongol rule on the Abbasid Empire In Persia and on the Yuan Dynasty In china. In both regions, the Mongols were relatively tolerant of all religions. However, they differed in that the Mongol’s allowed Persia to have native administrators but did not allow China to. When the Mongols ruled in Persia and China, they respected all the religions they encountered.
In Persia, the Mongols were attracted to Islam and overtime they ssimilated to it. The Mongols were intrigued by Muslim society and by the year 1295, the Persian khanate had converted to Islam. They built mosques throughout the region and returned Islam toa privileged position of Persian society. The Mongols were also tolerant of the other religions in Persia including. Nestorian Christianity, Buddhism and Judaism. In China as well, the Mongols respected all cultural and religious traditions.
They began to adopt some of Chinese culture, like ancestor worship.
Khubilai Khan even built temples for his predecessors, so he could practice ancestor worship. The Mongols tolerated religions and belief systems such as, Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism and Christianity. They allowed churches, temples and shrines to be built, because they wanted to maintain a good relationship with the people ot the region. Although the Mongols tolerated Confucianism, they did not allow It to have official support. The Mongols effects on rellglon In Persia and china were quite similar.
The Mongol’s ways of governing In Persia differed from how they governed In China. In Persia, the Mongols ruled using ideas from Persian bureaucracy. They set up many district and appointed provincial governors. The highest government positions were held by Mongols, but Persians were allowed to be government offcers at lower levels. Persians served as state officials, ministers and provincial governors. The Mongols allowed the Persians to govern the ilkhanate because they knew the Persians had a successful government and would be able to maintain order.
However, the Mongols required the Persians to deliver tax receipts as a way of limiting Persian power. The Mongols set up government in China very differently than they had in Persia. The Mongol’s pushed native Chinese people to the bottom of the hierarchy. The Mongols got rid of Civil Service Exams because they thought there was no need for them. They did not make use of Chinese administrative talent; instead they had foreign administrators govern China. The governing staff included Persians, Arabs and some Europeans.
The Mongols didnt want Chinese people to rule because all they wanted from China was to generate revenue and have the people be cultivators. The Mongols governed and treated the Chinese and Persian people very differently. The Mongols political and economic control on Persia and China were alike In some ways and unalike in others. The treatment and tolerance of religions in China ere very similar to that In Persia. Yet, the administrative control in Persia differed than the administrative control In China.
The Mongols had multiple methods of ruling conquered regions, none 0T wnlcn were very successTul. However, tnrougnout the Mongols rule, they facilitated trade and encouraged long distance communication throughout Eurasia, which led to cultural diffusion that can still be seen today. Additionally, the Mongols support of Islam helped establish its popularity and encouraged its spread, which has contributed to Islam being the fastest growing and second largest religion.
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