Paper type: Essay Pages: 16 (3858 words)
Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth- 19 years. Children develop at different rates and their progress can be measured and tracked in a variety of ways. Although every child develops at different rates the sequence will follow a pattern. This is because children will often acquire one skill before being able to move on to the next. In early years children’s sequential development can be measured against the Early Years Foundation Stage.
The different aspects of development they are measured on are Physical, Communication, Intellectual/cognitive, moral, social, emotional and behavioural.
Children’s Physical abilities usually develop very rapidly in the early days as they grow from a baby to a toddler. By six months of age a baby’s muscles will have developed enough to reach out and hold objects and begin exploring the world around them. They will enjoy responding to adult facial expressions and may still be shy with strangers. By the age of one a child will begin crawling and using furniture and adults for support in standing.
They will be able to sit independently and become more co-ordinated with their hands. A child may have developed their first teeth and solid food will be introduced to their diet. They will begin to understand more words and respond to their name when called and may become anxious when separated from parents or carers. Jealousy of others may become apparent and they enjoy imitating actions they are shown. Between the age of one and two a child will begin walking and mark making will be explored. A child may shake their head to mean ‘no’ and they will begin to understand more words that are spoken to them.
Between the ages of two and three scribbles will evolve as children start to experiment more with pencils and pens. A child will be able to throw and kick balls and build towers with blocks. Speech will have developed into longer sentences and questions will be constantly asked as they become more inquisitive. From three to four years of age children will begin to use pitch and tone in singing and their vocabulary will continue to increase. They will enjoy sorting objects into shape, colour and size and will be able to follow simple instructions.
Children’s independence will continue to increase as they enjoy running, jumping, skipping and hopping. Children will now assist in dressing and undressing. From four to five years of age children’s questions become more inquisitive and their grammar more accurate. They will be able to hold pencils and pens more correctly and copy shapes and letters and draw people. Routine is very important and they will enjoy being given increasing responsibility. At six and seven years children will be able to dress unassisted and they will be ever more confident in their abilities to run, skip and hop.
They may be able to do up buttons and remember events. A child will be able to hold a conversation as well as recognise sounds, words and letters. Beyond these years and heading into adolescence children will develop physically at varying rates. Children will go through puberty at very different rates. Children’s and Young People’s language and vocabulary through adolescence are greatly aided by the adults around them. From the age of seven and onwards children may begin to read aloud confidently and have an increasing knowledge of grammar and tenses.
During teenage years vocabulary skills and humour will be developing in a more complex way. The use of sarcasm may be introduced. The skills to argue and debate will also progress. Teenagers will become increasingly confident in their own thoughts and ideas, however may still need reassurance as they become an adult. They will develop strong friendships and discover the opposite sex. Although Children may reach these aspects at different times and stages in their life, the same sequence will be followed. This means that a pattern of development is followed.
For example, a child must learn to walk before they can develop the ability to run. 1. 2- Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important The difference in the sequence and rate of development is important as they are used to measure a child’s development. It enables Early Years providers to monitor and track a child’s development and identify any concerns. It also allows the provider to plan at the right time for specific children. The sequence of development is the order in which a child develops. This can be different in each child.
One child may begin to do things before another and skip a step in the sequence while another child may follow each step in the sequence exactly. Rate of develop is the speed in which a child develops. This can also vary from child to child as one child as one child may start doing things earlier than others. It is vital to know the difference between sequence of development and the rate of development as it helps professionals in identifying the individual needs of a child. It helps practitioners recognise where there may be special education needs and additional support required.
Outcome 2Understand the factors that influence children and young people’s development and how these affect practice 2. 1- Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors. Various factors contribute to a child or young person’s development. Personal factors can include Health Problems. A child’s development begins in the Mother’s womb and can be hindered by a Mother’s drug taking or excessive alcohol consumption. It can result in premature birth and a low birth weight which consequently has an ongoing effect on the Child’s development.
If a child is born with impairment such as hearing loss then this will affect their social skills and their ability to communicate. Socialising is a very important contributing factor to a child and young person’s development as children learn from each other. Learning difficulties can affect a child’s development of social skills. Children with learning difficulties will need extra support in certain areas of learning as they may become frustrated and lose confidence. A disability develops through genes. Therefore this can be a personal factor in a child and young person’s development.
Physical impairments because of a disability can present social issues and different aspects of the disability can physically restrict and impair a person. 2. 2-Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors. As well as personal factors, there are a number of external factors which contribute to a child and young person’s development. Poverty and deprivation can mean that a child’s life chances can often be reduced. This is especially true in other, less affluent countries where children may not have access to an education or healthcare.
Family environment and background can strongly influence a child’s development. Children may not receive much support from their parents or carers and the Family may have different priorities than education for example. Personal choices can go on to affect a child and young person’s development throughout their life. If a child chooses to leave school early then this will affect their career prospects and life chances. If a young person chooses to do drugs then this will go on to affect them socially and in regards to their health.
If an individual has been a ‘looked after’ Child or in care then this may be a factor in their development. Many ‘looked after’ children are moved around frequently and this can have a negative effect on their education and may cause attachment issues in childhood and throughout life. Education itself can be an external influence in an individual’s development. If a child has not attended Nursery in their Early Years then they may be held back once they begin school. The child may have learning difficulties which have not yet been identified.
Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice. Theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice in various ways. Cognitive development, a theory developed by Jean Piagent, suggests that children prior to seven years of age judge their good and bad actions on the consequences of them. Children after the age of seven then begin to judge their actions on their intentions. Piagent’s theory also suggests that children’s development is sequential and that a child cannot run before they can walk, so to speak.
This theory heavily influences current practice as the development of children less than five years is measured against the Early Years Foundation Stage, which recognises that the milestones which children reach may be at different times in their life but will follow the familiar pattern. Psychoanalytical Development is a theory formulated by Sigmund Freud. The theory proposes that unconscious thoughts, feelings, emotions and experiences can influence a person’s actions and that past experiences can influence and shape an individual’s future. This underlines a child’s impulses and actions.
This theory influences every day practice and is demonstrated by having patience and encouraging children to share and take turns. A child must be supported in reasonable risk taking and motivation. A child must learn the skills to negotiate. This can be achieved through conflict resolution and by challenging the child’s behaviour. Abraham Maslow explained through his Humanist theory of development that individuals choices are influenced by their own perception of their experiences and that a person is able to choose their behaviour, it is not an instinctual reaction to your environment.
Self-esteem, self-fulfilment and an individual’s needs are of primary importance and a person’s basic needs must be met in order to attain these. Maslow developed the ‘Hierarchy of Need’ which is utilised in current practice to measure a child’s personal development. Maslow put forward that a person’s basic needs must be met before they can achieve self-actualisation and realise their own personal potential. Albert Bandura’s theory of Social Learning advocates that children learn from others through observation and imitation.
There are three aspects to this theory and these are that children learn through observation, that a child’s internal mental state is a factor and that even if a child learns something it does not mean that a child will use that learned behaviour. Bandura’s theory has had an influence on current practice as it put forward the idea that learning does not change behaviour and in order to do so both Families and Professionals need to be part of the process. It is widely understood that Parents and Teachers should be positive role models in a child and young person’s life.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner’s theory of Operant Conditioning supports the concept of ‘the mind’ and that it is more productive to learn from observed behaviour than to develop from your own internal mental experience. Skinner believed that the best way to understand an individual’s behaviour is to consider the cause and effect. B. F. Skinner’s theory of Operant Conditioning was largely based on Edward Lee Thorndike’s ‘Law of Effect’ theory. Thorndike’s theory was founded through studying learned behaviour in animals.
Skinner believed that reinforcement was the key to repeated behaviour and that behaviour that is encouraged will be replicated as opposed to behaviour which is not reinforced being extinguished. Operant conditioning is a theory which supports the fact that behaviour may be changed through reinforcement. This theory is demonstrated in current practice by the use of reward charts. By negatively reinforcing behaviour a child may not repeat the action so as to remove the unpleasant experience. Behaviourist theory was formulated by John B.
Watson who believed that children have three main motives being fear, rage and love and the theory deals only with observable behaviour. Development is considered a reaction to given rewards and punishments. Behaviourist theory is set apart from other theories in the fact that it does not deal with internal thoughts or theories. Because of this many critics argue that Behaviourism is one dimensional and does not account for other types of learning. However, it is an effective tool in measuring a child’s behaviour and tracking their development.
Although Behaviourism is widely criticised it is still a widely used notion in teaching and encouraging positive behaviour and discouraging negative behaviour. Social Pedagogy is a framework in place to support development and enforce humanistic behaviour such as respect for others, trust and equality. It promotes the development of children in areas such as emotions and feelings, intellect, and physical capability. It encourages sustained wellbeing and health, self-empowerment, to take responsibility for one’s own actions and to promote human welfare and ease social problems.
This Framework supports development of children and is increasingly associated with Community and Social Work. It upholds Equality, Diversity and Inclusive practice and is enforced by looking at the child as a whole and supporting their overall development. Outcome 3Understand how to monitor children and young people’s development and interventions that should take place if this is not following the expected pattern 3. 1- Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods. There are various methods and ways of monitoring and tracking children and young people’s development.
A key system is session planning and evaluation which enables practitioners to reflect on a session and introduce scaffolded learning to meet a child’s developmental needs. Assessment Frameworks within education are in the form of SATS and GCSE exams. These exams measure a child’s ability to retain information. If a child is believed to have additional needs then a Common Assessment Framework can be completed to identify a child or young person’s educational, emotional and developmental needs. In their Early Years, children undergo regular health checks to ensure their physical development is progressing at the expected rate.
The Early Years Foundation Stage is used to measure children’s milestones. Through observation it can be discerned if a child is not meeting the expected pattern of development. This should be relayed to the parent or carer and discussed to ascertain if there are any concerns at home. It is best practice to share information with other professionals, colleagues and parents and carers to ensure that all information and facts are collated and everyone is concerned with the overall development of a child or young person. 3.
Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern There are a range of reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern. Factors such as disability can affect various areas of development but early intervention and support can aid in a child’s development. Positive emotional development occurs when a child receives routine and structure and feels settled. Attachment issues can cause low self-esteem and motivation in children and young people and so this may hinder them in trying new things and risk taking.
Physical development can be effected due to genetics. A child may be a slow learner or have problems with physical growth. This can also affect social development. Socially a child or young person’s development may not follow an expected pattern if parents and carers do not make time or prioritise interactive play with their children. An environment can result in a child’s development being affected. If a person is born into poverty then they may not have access to opportunities and education and so life chances are reduced.
Culture can also play a part as the ways in which a child is brought up differs around the world. Other cultures may have different expectations or restrictions on a child. Learning difficulties may shape a person’s development pattern as they may not be identified early on in a child’s life. This may therefore hold them back. Children who have speech problems or find it difficult to read and write will find it arduous and frustrating to communicate with others. 3. 3-Explain how disability may affect development Disability can affect development in a number of ways.
Learning and social development can be affected by a number of disabilities and a child may be faced with prejudice and discrimination. Learning disabilities which can affect development can include Autism, which affects an individual’s communication and interaction with others and the world around them. Autism can lead a person to feel isolated and alone and an individual may find it hard to read facial expressions and tone of voice. Dyslexia can create development issues in relation to reading and writing. If Dyslexia is undetected in childhood then this can affect a child’s self fulfilment.
Children may become angry and detached and may have difficulty attending school. This in turn will affect their education and learning development. Physical disabilities such as Cerebral Palsy affect movement and posture and co-ordination. Some individuals who suffer from this particular disability can suffer from seizures and difficulty in reading and writing. 3. 4-Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern.
Different types of intervention can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern. Social Workers are in place to help and safeguard vulnerable children and their families through Child In Need and Child Protection Plans. Speech and Language Therapists can assess and work with children and young people who have speech difficulties. The earlier the difficulty is identified the less the impact on the child’s life. Children who have behaviour and learning difficulties may be supported by a Psychologist.
Once the child’s needs have been ascertained support plans can be put in place at home and within education. Psychiatrists is specialised in treating people with Mental Health issues and works alongside other professionals in supporting individuals with such issues. Youth Justice and Youth Workers work alongside Social Care in supporting young people with behavioural problems. Physiotherapists aid children in their physical development where they have restricted or little movement capability. They facilitate them in gaining the maximum movement possible.
Specialist Nurses provide support to families of children with disabilities and in need of specialist medical care. Additional learning support is available to children who have specialist educational needs. Assistive technology can further aid those with learning and physical development issues. This technology can play to a child or young person’s strengths and can encourage and motivate them within their capabilities. Health Visitors are often the earliest intervention in a child’s life and the first to ascertain if development is not following the expected pattern.
Regular visits from Health will ensure that the child’s development is monitored closely and any concerns are raised early on. Outcome 4Understand the importance of early intervention to support the speech, language and communication needs of children and young people. 4. 1- Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition. Our speech, language and communication capabilities relate to how we interact and relate to others. It allows us to socialise and educate ourselves.
If a child is identified as having speech, language and communication needs then it is often referred to as SLCN in short. If a child’s SLCN’s are not identified during their early years it may affect their early education and relationships in school. A child may be bullied or their own confidence issues may hold them back from interacting with others. If a child has a hearing or speech impediment then other forms of communication must be evolved and access to the appropriate support must be provided. There are many risks of late recognition regarding speech, language and communication needs.
If they are not recognised early on then it can continue to result in problems with self-esteem, learning difficulties, a person feeling isolated and becoming withdrawn, anti social behaviour and an inability to express themselves effectively and a child or young person not fulfilling their full potential. 4. 2-Explain how multi agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication. Practitioners have an obligation to identify children’s needs and refer them into the right support to aid in their development.
Multi agency teams work together to support SLCNs by meeting and discussing available support for the child. By multi agencies meeting together it allows all channels of support to be identified at once and discuss what each agency can provide. Minutes are taken at these meetings which allow all agencies to have up to date information and work together to achieve a common goal. 4. 3-Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication. Children learn through play and different activities can support the development of speech, language and communication.
This allows different language to be used within a context the child can enjoy. The activity should be themed on something a child enjoys doing to encourage interest and engagement. Instruments and shapes can lead into describing words and sensory experiences. Puppets can encourage children to talk and interact in dramatic play which allows children to express emotions and develop language. Outcome 5Understand the potential effects of transitions on children and young people’s development 5.
Explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development. A child and young person may go through several types of transition during their development. Emotional transitions occur when a person’s emotional state is altered for some reason. It can occur when a child experiences bereavement, misses a parent/carer or begins or leaves care. A child experiencing an emotional transition may have angry outbursts if they are too young or incapable of expressing themselves in words.
A child may experience physical transition when beginning or leaving a school or moving home and perhaps when shifting from one activity to another. It may result in a child becoming anxious and unable to interact with others. Physiological transition takes place when a child goes through puberty or develops a long-term medical condition. A young person may lose confidence and feel uncomfortable meeting new people or experiencing new situations as they develop physically and become an adult. Intellectual transition is when a child progresses from pre-school to primary school, for example.
New faces and environments can impact on a child’s ability to feel comfortable and may make the child feel anxious and lose confidence. 5. 2-Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition. Positive relationships are highly important to a person’s development and wellbeing. Positive relationships promote consistency and resilience in a child and young person. Good support can come from Parents, Carers, Siblings and extended family, Social Workers, Health Professionals, teachers and tutors.
These affiliations will mean that a child or young person is more likely to achieve academic targets and build strong social links. A child will feel more loved and valued and be more prepared for future transitions. Positive relationships also mean that a child or young person’s needs and requirements are more liable to be identified and provided for. A child’s welfare can be monitored more effectively and plans for children’s development and education can be more effective in their outcomes.
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Childhood. (2018, Oct 12). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/childhood-4-essay