Brazil is a country situated in the North–Eastern part of the South American continent. Brazil has a population of 193 million which therefore makes it the largest country in South American and in the Latin American Region. It is the fifth largest and one of the most densely populated countries in the world. One of the largest cities in Brazil will be hosting the next Olympics which will take place in the summer of 2016.
Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, has a rapidly increasing rate of urban growth which is one of the many reasons as to why Brazil is so densely populated.
There are many reasons why people to choose to move from rural places to towns and cities. This is known as rural to urban migration. An example of rural to urban migration could be of people moving from the rural village of Caatinga to the city of Rio de Janeiro. Pull factors are the good things that encourage one to move to a specific area.
Push factors are the bad things that force people away from a certain area. The push factors, which cause people to move away from places such as Caatinga to places like Rio de Janeiro are things such a drought in the land which would lead to soil becoming decreasingly fertile and therefore making farming difficult. Drought is because of the unreliable rain fall in certain areas like Caatinga. Farmers attempting to grow crops in these areas would have a bad harvest, due to the uncertainty of the rain fall, which could then result to people suffering from diseases due to their weakened immune systems from the lack of food, then again making it easier for them to contract diseases or just suffer from malnutrition or starvation.
In the rural village Pau Ferro, due to a lack of rainwater, wells become dry which makes it near enough impossible from local residents to have access to clean water. Their only other supply is from stagnant lakes. Drinking water from these lakes could lead to more health issues such as Cholera, Yellow Fever and other water-borne diseases. Another push factor is the health facilities in a rural area. Due to the lack of basic health facilities such as doctors surgeries, hospitals etc., it makes difficult for locals of places like Pau Ferro to learn basic hygiene and also having access to basic medicines such as penicillin. In Caatinga, 1 in 3 children die because of illnesses related to the lack of clean water sources, many of these illnesses could be treated with a simple course of antibiotics which would save a significant amount of children from death. One of the many reasons as to why this statistic is so high is due to there being very few doctors within the rural parts of the country, there are many reasons as to why this is.maybe because the wage would be a lot lower whilst working in a rural hospital rather than a specialist hospital where they would have a much higher wage. In places such as Rio de Janeiro, the average wage for a doctor can range from R$72, 302 to R$256, 636.
The salary of a doctor in rural areas would be at a significantly lower number, meaning it would make more sense to work in more economically developed part of the country. Due to the lack of education in rural places, people are less likely to be employed by people to work, this would then lead to low income, poor quality of life and living and people not being able to afford health care when needed. Many families have moved to Rio de Janeiro because of the higher rates of education, giving the younger generation of their families to have a better chance of finding a job when they are older. Another push factor from the rural areas to urban is flooding. For example in Sabradinho, 75,000 people had to rebuild settlements and move due to the flooding. This is a push factor as it would mean crops have too much water, causing them to be ruined and making food scarce, diseases such as Cholera could be spread a lot easier at times of flooding as water spreads a lot quicker and taking with it, the diseases.
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