Urbanization refers to the development of cities and towns in a particular location. Urban development is a continuous procedure which is required by the growth of population and expansion of trade. Different theories have been created to describe the origin and advancement of metropolitan centers. These theories include the hydraulic theories, financial theories, the military theories, the spiritual theories amongst others. For any city center to establish, there are different conditions which need to be fulfilled which consists of population, technology, environment and social organization (Pacione, 2005).
For efficient civilization to happen, planning is essential and an essential part in ensuring growth and development of urban centers in an area. Prerequisites of city advancement and theories of metropolitan origin in relation to growth and development of cities Prior to a city center could be established, there must be a specific size of population completely residing because area. The size of the metropolitan center is likewise affected by the environment surrounding that particular place.
This includes the topography, the climatic conditions and natural deposits readily available in an area.
The environment must be able to support the population in that location. Innovation and social company are other prerequisites to urban development. These 2 conditions set the limitations of population growth in the future. The social organization requirement includes organizational structures like infrastructure, management, politics and financial infrastructures. For an area to be thought about suitable for an urban center advancement, technology utilized should be adequate to make sure that the requirements of the population are totally met (Pacione, 2005).
Different theories were developed to explain the development of metropolitan centers. Hydraulic theory specified that the existence of water for irrigation functions resulted in advancement of some of the urban centers. As farming revolution was happening, there was requirement to handle large scale water for irrigation. This management required central organization, division of labor and coordination therefore the introduction of metropolitan centers like was the case of Mesopotamia (Pacione, 2005).
Agriculture in Mesopotamia necessitated formulation of a central form of governance to ensure that the large scale water which was being used for irrigation was profitably used and technology was being updated. This led to urbanization in Mesopotamia. Military theorists argue that the need for a centralized protection from external threat and also the initial agglomeration led to urban expansion. Economic theory is also another theory which has been formulated to explain the origin of urban centers.
Massive trading necessitated for a common meeting place to be established which led to the emergence of urban areas. Religious theory explaining the origin of urban areas argues that the religion had well and developed structures of power which were governed by religious elites. Religious was vital in civilizations and thus urban formation. Existence of religious places like temples in most urban areas serves as evidence of religious contribution to urban growth and development (Pacione, 2005).
Urbanization is made possible by the coming together of people with a common need which requires a central and organized form of administration. People living in a particular location have different needs which necessitate interaction and exchange of goods as well as ideas. This thus leads to the development of an urban center. Increased needs as population increases and technological advancement demands better administration and division of labor in the urban centers leading to their expansion and growth.
Pacione, M. (2005): Urban Geography: A Global Perspective. ISBN 0415343062 Published by Routledge