The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. The temporal lobes are involved in the retention of visual memories, processing sensory input, comprehending language, storing new memories, emotion, and deriving meaning. The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of mammals, located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere and positioned anterior to (in front of) the parietal lobe and superior and anterior to the temporal lobes.
It is separated from the parietal lobe by a space between tissues called the central sulcus, and from the temporal lobe by a deep fold called the lateral (Sylvain) sulcus. The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex. The dopamine system is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation. Dopamine tends to limit and select sensory information arriving from the thalamus to the fore-brain.
One of the main differences between the frontal lobe and temporal lobe is each section’s position within the brain.
The frontal lobe consists of two sub-sections and is located in the front of the brain just behind the forehead, while the temporal lobe is found below the frontal lobe. The remaining brain lobes, the parietal and occipital lobes, are located behind the frontal and temporal lobes. Although both the frontal lobe and temporal lobe are responsible for memory, they each provide different specific memory functions.
The frontal lobe controls short-term memory, as well as planning and concentration.
For example, this portion of the brain is at work when a person is making a schedule or recalling specific tasks that need to be completed for the day. The temporal lobe also contributes to memory, but it tends to assist a person in recalling long-term memories, particularly those memories triggered by senses, such as hearing music. Another key difference between the frontal lobe and temporal lobe is how they deal with processing language.
Each of these lobes has a subsection within it that handles language and if either of the areas become damaged, it can result in severe speech and language difficulties. An area within the temporal lobe known as Wernicke’s area is responsible for comprehending words and sounds; therefore, when this area is damaged, a person may make sounds that are not actual words but may be unaware of the mistakes since his or her brain cannot differentiate between words and other sounds.
Boca’s area is located within the left frontal lobe and its main function is producing the physical acts of speaking. Damage to Boca’s area may cause difficulties in a person being able to physically speak, but he or she generally still understands the speech of others. Because of its location in the anterior part of the head, the frontal lobe is arguably more susceptible to injuries. Following a frontal lobe injury, an individual’s abilities to make good choices and recognize consequences are often impaired.
Memory impairment is another common effect associated with frontal lobe injuries, but this effect is less documented and may or may not be the result of flawed testing. Damage to the frontal lobe can cause increased irritability, which may include a change in mood and an inability to regulate behavior. Particularly, an injury of the frontal lobe could lead to deficits in executive function, such as anticipation, goal selection, planning, initiation, sequencing, monitoring (detecting errors), and self-correction (initiating novel responses).
Researchers have found eight major symptoms associated with damage to the temporal lobe and they are problems with auditory sensation and perception, difficulty attending to auditory and visual stimuli, visual perception disorders, problems organizing and categorizing verbal materials, language comprehension problems, impaired long-term memory, changes in affective behavior and personality, and changes in sexual behavior.
The location of the damage to the temporal lobe is linked to the type of impairment the individual experiences. For example, damage to the left temporal lobe can result in difficulty recognizing words while damage to the right temporal lobe can result in a lack on inhibition when talking. In conclusion these lobes are very important to our brain and have many uses. They also have defects when damaged so we need to take care of our brain like if it were gold.
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