The Temporal Motivation theory

Habits play important roles in our life. Aristotle, one of the greatest ancient philosophers, once said that “we are what we repeatedly do.” Hence, excellence is not a single act but a habit. Filipinos by extension are known to have acquired habits both virtue or vice. (Latumahina,2016) purported that taking decent behaviors would guide a person towards an active life. While acquiring poor behaviors will lead a person to failure. Although Filipinos are known of having desirable habits like hospitability, resiliency, resourcefulness, etc.

(Abrugar, 2014), other traits which made them economically lagging behind from other Asian countries are also undeniable (Quito, 2008). An example of an undesirable habit is the so-called, ma?ana habit or “bukas na” attitude. According to (Aguirre,2014), ma?ana habit is an attitude Filipinos learned as early as Spanish Colonial times which is used to indicate procrastination. Postponement stands distinct by way of voluntary delay of a planned sequence of exertion regardless of imagining the poor shape intended for the delay (Steel, 2007).

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It can be manifested in different facets of the Filipino’s social interactions, such as in trying to beat the deadlines for project completions, voters’ registrations and even in the filing of income tax returns (the Inquirer, 2012).

Particularly, procrastination is said to be prevalent among college students with statistics showing 80 percent to 95 percent of college students engaging in it (O’Brien, 2002 as cited in Steel, 2007) and with nearly 50% of students procrastinating regularly (Day, Mensink, & O’Sullivan, 2000 as cited in Steel, 2007). This in fact influenced psychologists to label this kind as “academic procrastination.

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” Whatever its label, procrastination among college students appear to be going up (Kachgal, Hansen, &Nutter, 2001 as cited in Steel, 2007).

Furthermore, its causes are determined to be one’s expectancy in following the given task, his/her impulsiveness and the task’s characteristics particularly on how valuable it is, and how long its rewards are achieved (Steel, 2007). As one’s expectancy and value decrease and as impulsiveness and delay increase, the tendency to procrastinate increases.

Moreover, the common mechanisms employed by undergraduate students in procrastinating include sleeping, playing, or TV watching, which have been observed to occupy 1/3 of their day-to-day events (Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, & Blunt, 2000 as cited in Steel, 2007). The consequences of delay are often detrimental and negative. This may include financial problems (Kasper, 2004 as cited at Steel, 2007, Byrne, Blake, Cairns, & Dowd, 2006; Venti, 2006 as cited at Steel, 2010), performance problems (Steel, Brothen, & Wambach, 2001 as cited at Steel, 2007) and relationships at home and at work problems (Pychyl, 2009). In the academic situation, it became connected to different contrary to academic behaviors also consequences as well as inadequate study behavior, assessment apprehension, stuffing for evaluation, delay compliance of a class task, also lower grades (Dewitte&Schouwenburg, 2002, Ferrari & Scher, 2000; Fritzsche, Young, & Hickson, 2003; Lee, 2005; Midgley & Urdan, 2001; Uzun, Ozer, Demir, & Ferrari, 2009 as cited in Chow, 2011).

Educational postponement stands a dominant event through series undesirable results. Various educations focusing on reasons and links of educational delay; though, the learning of intercessions intended for academic deferment is rare. The current training is a primary exertion towards learning an affiliation among educational postponement, operational class involvement, also accomplishment, by way of a source meant for evolving an intercession for academic delay. Results showed such learning postponement remained destructively connected through last assessment score in addition to the three operational course involvement procedures. Last assessment score was definitely connected by binary online class involvement events, also they definitely associated through one another. Moreover, outcomes showed that learning procrastination, in connection with online course involvement events, described around 50% of discrepancy in final assessment’s score. Occurrence of the task in class social site had the toughest constructive result on final assessment’s score. (Goroshit, 2018)

These results enhance the concept of learning procrastination is a hindrance to students’ academic presentation and results and explains the essential to grow and study hypothetical involvements for academic delay as a means to reduce the occurrence in academic situations.

For undergraduates of Benedicto College, the quantity of evidence to be studied rises gradually collected by the amount also availability of interruption like video games, surfing internet, etc. which distract them. Present activities like surfing the internet have become an obsession among students and this might be a significant aspect in their academic delay. Studies disclose undergraduates do not take a sign of a brief span and as an outcome were overcome through the shared line “scarcity of time”, and they must advise that if they intent these brief periods then, the other responsibilities will be relaxed.

As stated previously procrastination is associated with lower academic performance, the researcher is interested to study the impact in procrastination with the academic performance of the students. According to Sirois and (as cited in Pychyl, 2008), persons who procrastinate tends to have little time in doing their tasks which leads to “cramming”, accompanied by psychological manifestation of stress (e.g. upset/tensed stomach, faster heartbeat, etc.). Regular exposure to stress will lead to feelings of guilt and shame (Stosnt, 2011).

Given all the important points cited above, and spurred by desire to contribute to Philippine research on this topic, this research aims to classify the level of awareness towards one’s procrastinating behavior, kinds of activities to which one procrastinates, mechanisms or behavioral ways to procrastinate, causes and significances of procrastination, procrastinating tendency and existing state of the academic performance.

The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of procrastination of College of Teacher Education Students in Benedicto College taking up Bachelor in Elementary Education and Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English on their academic performance. In order to determine whether or not procrastination takes any potential overlooked benefits, or is rather truly detrimental to a student’s academic performance.

Theoretical Background

This research is anchored on Temporal Motivation Theory of Procrastination by Piers Steel and the theory of operant conditioning which will be supported with Batas Pambansa 232 and Commission on Higher Education Memorandum (CMO) No.9, C. 2013.

Firstly, the Temporal Motivation theory posits that procrastination is a prototypical motivation problem (Steel and Konig, 2006); it is a manifestation of a low motivation. According to the theory, motivation is directly correlated with expectancy of achievement and task value which states to the level of confidence that one can positively do the task and the level of the perceived reward of its outcome. Meanwhile, it is inversely correlated with impulsiveness and delay which refers to the sensitivity to temptations and the time consumed to wait before he can attain the reward, respectively (Steel and Konig, 2006).

In other words, a person is motivated to do a certain course of action if its outcome is perceived to be satisfying, if it is estimated achievable; the person is less sensitive to temptations and if there is shorter delay for the attainment of the reward. In this study, procrastination is predicted to arise when motivation is at low stages. This means that procrastination’s tendency increases as expectancy and values decrease and as impulsivity and delay increase (Steel & Konig, 2006).

The studies of (Pychyl, Lee, Thibdeau, & Blunt, 2000 as cited at Steel, 2007) and (Naizabekov,2012) establish the relationship of procrastination with values, expectancy, delay and impulsivity through areas most where most respondents regularly procrastinate and the mechanisms employed by people in avoiding responsibilities that needs to accomplished. According to these studies, people procrastinate through engaging in rewarding activities such as sleeping, TV watching and entering social networking sites. These activities are often perceived to be high in expectancy and value, and low in delay. Other examples of such activities are eating, hanging out with friends, playing computer games, playing sports, shopping, and texting. On the other hand, a task that is perceived to be difficult, unpleasant and in which the rewards are not directly acquired, such as studying for exams, having and maintaining good grades, doing household chores would be delayed in favor of the pleasurable ones as mentioned previously

Furthermore, this theory also explains the common perceived reasons as to why individuals would procrastinate. Individuals may procrastinate due to perceived causes that embody the following: First, it may be the effect of their low level of confidence that they can succeed in doing the tasks which is a manifestation of a low expectancy. Second, they may procrastinate because they perceived the act of doing the task and its result to have low reward and they may have low essential for achievement and discipline. Third, they may procrastinate because they are easily distracted by other enjoyable activities. Lastly, due to the temporal distance of the reward, they may feel the pressure which caused their procrastinating.

Additionally, adequate punishment for poor school performance contributes to academic achievement (Pasternak, 2012). Ultimately, all of these things that parents do to improve their child’s academic performance can be encapsulated as motivation.

Motivation involves factors that arouse and direct behavior (Merriam-Webster, 2013). Educators have increasingly worried the role of motivation in developing student’s performance in schools. Motivation from parents supports students to follow and continue to academically perform well. However, parents are not the only basis of motivation. Some students accomplish scholastically because of the grades they receive the recognition conferred to them or themselves. (Lepper, 1988) as cited in Motivation, Students. With this, one can somehow question if parents’ motivation still has an impact on how students perform in school. However, not all students are eager achieve just because of how greatly involved their parents are. Some are motivated by rewards and punishments.

Secondly, B. F. Skinner’s theory of reinforcement emphasizes on the significance of reward and punishment. This has impacted, to a large range on the promotion of teaching and learning. In result, Skinner’s theory has been useful often in most educational institutions. Students’ educational results can be enhanced upon on the basis of positive reinforcements. The theory that explains how rewards and punishments are being used as motivation to student’s academic performance is the theory on operant conditioning by Burrhus Frederick Skinner. In concentrates on the likelihood of the behavior happening again based on its effects or consequences (Skinner, n.d. as cited in Engler, 2012). In order to acquire or modify a behavior, reinforcements and punishments are utilized. For a behavior to be repetitive, reinforcement is given. On the other hand, punishment is executed for a behavior to occur with less frequency.

Reinforcements maybe positive or negative. Positive reinforcement refers to adding something pleasant to increase the frequency of a behavior while negative reinforcement indicates the removal of something which is considered unpleasant to strengthen the frequency of a behavior (Cherry, n.d.). Some positive reinforcements that parents use is praising the student for good exertion in school, giving tangible objects such as any material, money as well as granting extra time with friends, watching TV or using the internet. Also, negative reinforcements practiced by parents include exclusion in doing the household tasks and reducing pressure by lessening the nagging and reprimand.

Reinforcement is meant for behavior to be improved, while discipline must be used efficiently. This revenue that the accurate procedures for discipline must be pursue (Behavioral Concept, 2011). The learning method in the institution can be definitely improved if the performers (in this setting, the students, commissioners, heads and instructors) are effectively inspired over rewards.

Studies have shown that reinforcements are actual in motivating students to achieve academically. When give rewards for good curricular performance, there is a positive impact on student’s performance (Nye, Turner and Schwartz, n.d.). According to (Cotton,1988), reinforcement is positively related to achievement. When children are given incentives, they tend to strive to do better at school (Yau, 2013). Students perform better when they are given tangible reinforcements than verbal reinforcement or with no reinforcement at all (Cotton, 1988). Moreover, students respond more positively with reinforcement such as praise than punishment (Kelly, 2013). Furthermore, negative reinforcements are used more frequently amongst students (Ruiz, 2011); however, research shows that using negative reinforcements is unrelated to academic achievement (Cotton, 1988).

Moreover, the third points emphasize on the legal basis as stipulated in Batas Pambansa 232, CMO No.9. s. 2013, Enhanced Policies and Guidelines on Student Affairs and Services for students enrolled in Higher Education Institutions. Section 6 specifically, emphasizes on the rights of students to “self-management” with the exercise of right to self-organize on matters that will advance their welfare and maximize their potential. Thus, section 14.1 on guidance service says that a traditional facility by a united method to the progress of well-functioning entities mainly by serving them to apply their capacities. Subsequently, section 14.2 on counseling posits that there shall be different or set involvement intended to simplify helpful change in pupils behavior, feelings and belief.

Therefore, with these points mentioned, this research studies about the perceived causes and consequences and if whether there an impact in procrastination with the academic performance of the College of Teacher Education Students of Benedicto College taking up Bachelor in Elementary Education and Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English.

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The Temporal Motivation theory. (2019, Nov 23). Retrieved from

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