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140626193 | SOC135890000Ahmad Alshamsi
140626193 | SOC1351000077724015000150876079500left150001508760Annotaded Bibliiography
BIBLIOGRAPHY Arcimaviciene, L., & Baglama, S. H. (2018, May 9). Migration, Metaphor and Myth in Media Representations: The Ideological Dichotomy of “Them” and “Us”. Sage OPEN, 8(2), 1-13.
“Migration, Metaphor and Myth in Media Representations: The Ideological Dichotomy of “Them” and “Us”” CITATION Arc181 l 1033 (Arcimaviciene & Baglama, 2018) is an article that discusses the effect of metaphors used while representing refugees in the media on the readers attitude towards them.
Through the analysis of 57 news articles, the authors have found that metaphors that originate from objects, commodities, natural disasters, animals, crime, and terrorism have been used as a way to describe refugees. According to the article, this combination of metaphors resulted in dehumanizing refugees, increasing safety concerns, and justifying any action taken towards them by local governments. It seems that the main goal of this article is to educate the reader on how to detect these metaphors and and provide an in depth explanation of the effects they have on representation refugees cognitively.
There are several key points about how media portrays migrants, or in this case, refugees. The first point is made by illustrating how negative connotations of refugees is a result of their objectification through metaphors used. Metaphors such as “masses” and “shared” suppress the readers’ emotion towards the refugees, thus creating an emotional block towards them CITATION Arc181 l 1033 (Arcimaviciene & Baglama, 2018). Furthermore, the commodification of refugees contributes to the dehumanizing effect created by the media.
The authors have provided examples where words such as “exchange” and “bargain on migration” CITATION Arc181 l 1033 (Arcimaviciene & Baglama, 2018)have been used in the articles, which leads the reader to perceive refugees in an emotionless way. This results in people tapping into a capitalistic ideology where their self interest dominates over their ability to empathize for another. The article also highlights how news media can represent refugees negatively by enhancing the audiences’ fear and cause insecurity by using metaphors that relate to “natural phenomena, crime, and terrorism” CITATION Arc181 l 1033 (Arcimaviciene & Baglama, 2018) . This association with fearful topics increases the resistance towards refugees by instigating racist thoughts in minds of the media audience. Finally, the authors suggest that by eliminating empathy and increasing fear about refugees, government actions towards will be justified as people just view refugees as objects, commodities or criminals. Overall, this article provides great explanations on how media affects the perception of migration, as it provides significant amounts of examples, and explains clearly concisely on how viewers of media process the information processed from a cognitive stand point.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Kosho, J. (2016, May). Media Influence On Public Opinion Attitudes Toward The Migration Crisis. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH, 5(5), 86-91.
“Media Influence On Public Opinion Attitudes Toward The Migration Crisis ” CITATION Kos161 l 1033 (Kosho, 2016) by Joana Kosho, is a journal article that analyzes the effect of media coverage on perceptions and attitudes towards migrants. Through an extensive list of examples and reports, this article how the media pushes a narrative to viewers through a range of different ways such as, word association, inflation of news, and providing dehumanizing information. The author goes further on to show how the media has an affect on policymakers that affect migrants directly. The main idea portrayed by the author is to show and warn readers about how they could could be led on to feel a certain way about migration and how the reader’s attitude affects the lives of migrants in an implicit fashion.
When looking at the different techniques described by the author, it is clear to see how important and effective these methods are in shaping a negative picture. First, the use of negative terminology, such as illegal and criminal, with migrants leads to great resistance by locals CITATION Kos161 l 1033 (Kosho, 2016). The article comes to this conclusion by relating words in news titles to the percentage of people who are opposed to migration collected by surveys. According to the article, the opposition has increased significantly after the inclusion of such words. This proves there is a strong correlation between how media presents news and the perception of migrants. Another point by the author is inflation of news is another way of how media affects how migrants are looked at. The article shows that the media likes to inflate an event in order to create a sense of crisis to their viewers by manipulating their sense of uncertainty as a result of migrants coming in CITATION Kos161 l 1033 (Kosho, 2016). This leads to pressure from citizens to their governments to come up with immigration policies that would help put their anxiety at ease. This correlation between government action and media coverage is a crucial point as it makes it more difficult for migrants to find a new place to settle in. Furthermore, the article shows how the media coverage chooses to display information that dehumanizes migrants. In one example, the media focused on just reporting what the issue was but not what led to it. By neglecting the reasons behind migration, the readers will fail to empathize with migrants because they are not aware of the political or social circumstances that led to them migrating in the first place. This results in readers perceiving migrants as a statistic, rather than human. The author has shown great analysis of this situation and supported the arguments made using wide range of examples and statistics, resulting in a clear picture of how the mechanisms of the media can shape an overall idea and attitude towards migration.
Risam, R. (2019, July 4). Beyond the Migrant “Problem”: Visualizing Global Migration. Television & New Media, 20(6), 566-580.
The journal article “Beyond the Migrant “Problem”: Visualizing Global Migration” CITATION Ris19 l 1033 (Risam, 2019), by Roopika Risam, is an examination of how different methods of data representations can result in subjective perceptions of migration. The author compares and contrasts two different techniques of data visualizations, participatory and non-participatory. Factors such as the text provided, the images composed, and the use of space, are used to shed light on how such data reports can lead a reader to a certain perspective on migrants. The main point that the author is trying to get across with this article is that readers should be cautious while absorbing different data about migrants, as they can be misleading and result in an acceptance of a particular narrative.
The key points to be taken away from the article can be found when looking at the comparison of participatory models and non-participatory data models. In participatory models of migration, the data presented has been complimented by migrants’ participation, which emphasizes on the humanity of migrants and what factors led them to leave their countries, whether it be political or economic, allowing the reader to empathize with them. On the other hand, the author provided an example of a non-participatory data model that do not include any data input from migrants themselves, but rather display information about migrants in a singular fashion. The author argues this type of data presentation is prone to dehumanizing migrants, which leads the reader to negative perceptions about them. These conclusions made by the author are supported effectively by dissecting techniques used by two case studies, by evaluating the structure of the text displayed and images presented, and how they are harmonized to form a subjective narrative about this topic. Moreover, another crucial point made by the author is found in a series of questions raised about the future of data collection and how it can be changed to reflect the complexity of migration in an effective way. However, the author did not suggest any possible changes, but rather just ask the questions. This article provides an in depth evaluation of how media affects the perception of migration, however, it did not provide any quantitative information on how much it does affects readers’ perception of migration.
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