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1.) How did the usage of red wine differ from that of beer in ancient Greece and Rome?
A.)Beer was for common folk and red wine for the 'essential' individuals. Beer was utilized as a source of barter for tradesmen and was thought about an important food source. But beer was a far more various beverage then tan it is today and is another response for another question.
2.) How was white wine utilized by the Greeks?
A.) It was their beverage of choice when the water quality couldn't be guaranteed, a social lubricant, utilized in games at parties (like kottabos, where the entrants tossed the dregs from their wine cups into the wine-mixing bowl from a range), and for making vinegar.
3.) How and why did wine establish into a type of a status symbol in Greece?
A.) In Greece, beer was thought about to be the drink of the "typical" folk. White wine ended up being the fancier, more looked for after beverage that ultimately led it to end up being a sort of status symbol for those who could pay for to consume it.
4.) How was red wine consumed? What does this inform us about the ancient Greek culture? A.) It was the primary drink in Ancient Greece as the water was typically risky to consume by itself so the addition of white wine, ("drink a little red wine for thy stomach's sake" St Paul to Timothy) helped to eliminate bacteria. Developing beer had similar advantages, however grain was limited in Greece and not to be wasted while grapes, like almonds and olives grow on otherwise useless land.
The ancient tales of the coming of white wine to Greece with Dionysus have lots of cautions of its power, specifically as females were connected with the cult. To read in between the lines the message seems to be that if you let red wine be your master you will be damaged by females.
The spouse will provide you hell. Descriptions of Greek drinking celebrations or "symposiums" tell us that somebody was designated Master of Ceremonies with the job of regulating the ratio of wine to water so that everyone got merry early on and nobody got obnoxiously drunk as the party continued. A special mixing dish was used for this function.
That this did not always work can be seen by the descriptions the drunken riots of Alcibiades and his aristocratic chums. Even at their best these gatherings were an opportunity to grope attractive young slaves and entertainers, Greek drinking vessels were sealed with pine resin which gave the wine a distinctive taste found today in Retsina. Once flavored with this it is hard to see how one distinguished between good and bad vintages, but like the iodine flavored island whiskies it is an acquired taste.
5.) How did the use of wine differ from that of beer in ancient Greece and Rome? A.)As Rome entered its golden age of winemaking and era of expansion, the "democratic" view of wine started to emerge in Roman culture with wine being viewed as a necessity for everyday life and not just a luxury meant to be enjoyed by a few as the Greeks believed. Romans believed that even slaves should have a weekly ration of over a gallon (5 liters) of wine a week.
However the reasons was more for the dietary health of the slaves and maintenance of their strength rather their personal enjoyment. Should a slave become sick and unavailable to work, doctors would advise cutting his rations in half to conserve wine for the workforce. It was this view that led to widespread planting in order to serve the need of all classes. Part of this was due to the changing Roman diet. In the 2nd century BC, Romans started moving away from a diet that consisted of the moist porridge and gruel to more bread-based meals. Wine became a necessity to help in eating the drier bread.
6.)What is the relationship between wine and empire, wine and culture, and wine and religion.
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