Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

Categories: TechnologyVehicles


Surveillance is crucial for the detection, search and rescue of individuals and spying on enemy territory. In recent days, monitoring by helicopters and other aircraft has been carried out by means of on-board controls. Recently, however, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained in popularity and are an excellent resource that can be used for surveillance tasks. With this combined use of drones, this project sought to create an autonomous or semi-autonomous UAV that is cost-effective, lightweight, and easy to manufacture.

The drone was designed as a hexacopter, housing an FPV camera with a wireless transmission system that delivers live feed from the camera to the ground station. The primary goal of aerial surveillance is the ability to detect and track the moving object within the camera area using the Python OpenCV concept, and stores the captured video for further use in the ground station.

Keywords: Surveillance, Hexa-copter, FPV Camera, Wireless Transmission System, Python OpenCVINTRODUCTION

The development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has increased significantly over the past decade.

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UAVs have expanded from military applications to civilian purposes such as aerial photography, on-site surveillance and disaster relief. Unmanned aerial vehicles are used for surveillance to capture still images and video in order to gather information about a particular target, which may be an individual, a group or an environment. UAV monitoring can also secretly record information about a target from a distance or height.

However, most are generally considered expensive and difficult to implement. To solve these problems, the project tried to implement a lightweight drone that can be monitored in real time as it communicates with users.

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[1]In this paper, the author insisted more on the importance of tracking a moving object using the Python OpenCV concept. A common requirement in aerial video surveillance is the ability to automatically detect and track moving objects. In order to reliably track and maintain the identity of objects over time, it is desirable that the object state contain representations of motion, appearance, and property or shape in the image Tracking with complete state representation is useful for applications that require the appearance of segmented objects (such as indexing and inserting / removing objects) in addition to traditional applications where only positional and geometric transformations are required.

[2]In this paper authors presented an surveillance and monitoring system using Raspberry Pi and SimpleCV. In todays world Surveillance and observing are most important for security reasons. Local locations, government associations, business space, schools and emergency clinics / hospitals, industry, banks and other requesting indoor and outside regions require high end surveillance system that are over the top expensive. The proposed system utilizes Raspberry Pi and Computer Vision with SimpleCV to identify moving items in the surveillance region, turn on the lights, take pictures, and stream the camera feed online with the MPJG Streamer, which any approved individual can view on the go.

[3]In this paper authors presented an home surveillance systems are widely used now a day. An intelligent surveillance system can offer the user various functions. Home surveillance systems focus on monitoring the home with wireless systems using the camera. The monitoring system continuously records the video using OpenCV for Python and processes it with Raspberry Pi. It also provides the user with live data. It sends a notification to the homeowner when motion is detected with the image in which the motion is detected. The surveillance system will also differentiate between the family members and the intruders.

GPS Module

A GPS (Global Positioning System) device is a helpful and commonly used sensor for a UAV. As most people know, a GPS device can be used to determine your own height, latitude and longitude. A GPS device normally receives a signal from a satellite to calculate these positions. Depending on the selected GPS device, some devices will indicate the internal time and standard deviations of the positions.

Brushless DC Motor

A brushless DC motor may be referred to as an electronically commutated motor without brushes. These types of engines are very efficient at generating high torque over a wide range of speeds. In brushless motors, permanent magnets rotate around a fixed armature and solve the problem of power connection to the armature. Commutation with electronics offers a great deal of capabilities and flexibility. They are known for quiet work and holding torque at a standstill.

Electronic Speed Controller

An electronic speed control or ESC is an electronic circuit that controls and regulates the speed of an electric motor. It can also provide a reversal of the engine and dynamic braking. Miniature electronic speed controllers are used in electrically powered radio models. Full size electric vehicles also have systems for controlling the speed of their drive motors.

FPV Camera

One of the most important sensors commonly used in UAVs is a camera. There are many different camera types that can be configured in different ways in the UAV. There are some systems that provide space for external cameras. For most UAVs, however, the cameras are built-in. Most built-in cameras are PCB cameras connected directly to a microcontroller. The board is relatively small, as it does not need all the extra features of a regular digital camera. For most commercial UAVs, the cameras have HD quality, giving the user high-quality videos. The use of high-quality cameras also affects the entire system as it offers additional requirements such as a higher transfer rate, better processing memory, and more storage space.

Frame Material Selection

Material selection is one of the key factors that directly affect the mass and other physical properties of the vehicle. A good selection results in a weatherproof, light and strong product. When selecting the materials, five main factors were considered: deflection, strength, weight, water resistance and cost. Based on these criteria, various materials were considered and compared. Materials considered were 3K, Plain Weave Carbon Fiber, Generic Carbon Fiber, Airex Foam Core, Aluminum 6061, PVC (Hard), Styrene (Plastic) and Class IV Balsa. Of all these materials, carbon fiber, aluminum and wood are the most commonly used Materials in hexacopter constructions. However, most of the articles, articles, and blogs examined show that material selection is based on well-known facts rather than calculations. Below are three such facts.

“Carbon fibers are the stiffest, lightweight and vibration absorbent, but they are expensive.”

“Aluminum is relatively light, affordable, and has average stiffness, but it can have engine vibration problems because of its lower damping effect compared to carbon fiber. Severe vibration problems can seriously affect sensor readings. “

“Wood is easy to mold and dampens vibrations better than aluminum, but is not very stiff and can be easily broken.”


Working Methodology of Drone

The hexacopter system is first turned on. The joystick is held in neutral position. As soon as the position is zero, the gyroscope starts calibration and the indicator lights up, later it flashes. After the light goes out, the joystick is moved to start position 1. Then the throttle is raised. Even if there is no input from the joystick, readings are made by the gyroscope and the hexacopter moves according to the readings of the gyroscope. When the hexacopter moves to the desired location, the spray module can be turned on. Then the joystick is moved back to start position 0. When the joystick is in Start 0, the engine stops. Thus, the system is off.

Working Methodology of Surveillance System

This surveillance system detects motion of any object within its camera’s range using FPV drone camera. Captures the image / videos and stores it in computer and analyses the data in real time and sends the date to the respective person. Also we can retrieve images / videos from computer at any time. Since FPV drone camera is static-sensitive, take good grounding measures.


The final results showed that not all goals and goals set at the beginning of the project were achieved. Although a completely autonomous flight was not achieved, the team has made significant progress in developing a low cost, low crew, unmanned aircraft and the introduction of a camera system. Several design iterations were performed to create a hexacopter most appropriate to the project objectives, and the final prototype demonstrated the potential for the project’s success.

Overall, an unmanned aerial vehicle was fully realized in this project. The hexacopter showed that could fly up with high altitude.

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). (2019, Dec 10). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/unmanned-aerial-vehicles-uavs-essay

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