What was Franklin Roosevelts political experiance before he won the presidential election of 1932?
He had served as president Wilson’s assistant secratary of the navy and as governor of New York
In order to win the presidential election of 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had to
unite Democrats from the Northeast, South, and west
What was the name of Roosevelts signature program?
The New Deal
What made the election of 1932 particularily Historic?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt won 57 percent of the popular votes, and democrats swept both houses of congress
To what was roosevelt referring to when he said, “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself”?
The terror caused by depression
What was the three-part goal of roosevelts New Deal?
Releif, Recovery, Reform
Which woman became the New Deal’s unofficial ambassador in 1933?
What belief lay at the foundation of Roosevelts New Deal?
Capatalism held the solution to the nations economic crisis
The Emergency banking act of 1933 strengthened American banks by
releasing federal funds to bolster the banks assets
Which of thew following describes the Federal deposit Insurance Corporation
It guaranteed bank customers that the federal government would reimburse them for deposits if their bank failed.
What strategy did president roosevelt use to restore America’s confidence in government and the private banking system
Roosevelt broadcast his reassuring fireside charts on the radio
What was the purpose of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) program that begun in 1933?
The TVA helped supply jobs and power impoverished rural communities
How did the agricultural adjustment and farm credit acts of 1935 aim to help American farmers?
the acts paid farmers not to grow crops and provided long-term credit on mortgaged farm property
what event dealt the final blow to the National Recovery Administration in May 1935?
The supreme court ruled that the agency was unconstitutional
Why did southern tenant farmers benefit from the programs developed by the agricultural adjustment act, the commodity credit corporation, and the farm credit act?
landlords controlled the distribution of the benfits and denied benefits to many of their tenants
Dr. Francis Townsend and Huey P. Long both opposed the New Deal, calling instead for
the redistribution of income through taxation
the purpose of the national labor relations act, or wagner act, when it was enacted in 1934 was to
create the National Labor Relations Board and guarantee workers the right to organize
in 1937, disgruntled workers as the General Motors plant in Flint, Michigan, acted on their grievances by
staging a sit-down strike
the farmers of the social security act agreed to fund the program
with tax contributions from workers and their employers
The social security act of 1935 provided
old-age pensions, grants to states for dependent mothers and children,and unemployment insurance.
What impact did New Deal programs have on the average national unemployment rate during the 1930’s?
The programs reduced the average unemployment rate, but it remained high, at about 17 percent through the 1930’s
what was the outcome of the 1934 Indian Reorganization act on Native Americans
it restored indians right to own land communally and have greater control over their own affairs.
What accounted for Franklin Delano Roosevelts landslide victory in the 1936 presidential election?
The New Deal’s extreme popularity among American voters
President Roosevelt’s plan to remove judicial obstacles to New Deal reforms in his second term of office
was popularly known as court packing
President Roosevelt’s plan for enlarging the Supreme Court
became unnecessary when 4 conservative judges retired
To change the economy in 1937, President Roosevelt
cut funds for relief projects and decreased deficit spending
What was the outcome of President Roosevelt’s fiscal decisions in 1937?
The country suffered a recession.
In his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, John Maynard Keynes argued that
Government intervention is needed in bad economic times to pump enough money into the economy to revive production and increase consumption
Which of the following statements describes the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938?
It sets standards for wages and hours
Which of the following describes the overall impact of the New Deal?
It prevented the United States from turning toward authoritarian solutions to the nation’s economic crisis
During the 1930’s, the tide of fascism , millitarism, and violent nationalism that most concerned the United States rose in
Italy, Japan, and Germany
A reluctant isolationist, President Roosevelt believed during the 1930’s that
free trade was necessary for America’s domestic prosperity
The objective of the Neutrality act of 1937 was to
Prevent increasing American involvement in foreign affairs
Which of the following occurred as a result of the Nazi-Soviet treaty of nonaggresion in August 1939
Hitler’s invasion of Poland
What event sparked the beginning of World War II
Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939
What was the significance of the Battle of Britain in 1940?
The British victory handed Hitler his first major defeat`
The purpose of the Lend-lease act of 1941 was to
Make arms, munitions, and other supplies available to Britain
President roosevelt justified the proposed Lend-lease Act in January 1941
by citing the need to defend freedom of speech, freedom to worship, freedom to want, freedom to fear, and other ideals
In the Atlantic Charter in August of 1941, The united States end England Aggreed to
Protect the freedom of the seas, free trade, and the right of National Self-Discrimination
In the Tripartite Pact of 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan agreed to
form a defensive alliance among imperial powers
The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, was part of the Japanese plan to
Knock out a significant portion of American Naval bases in the Pacific
What was the immediate consequence of the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941?
Congress endorsed President Roosevelts call for a declaration of war
President Roosevelt authorized the roundup and interment of all Americans of Japanese descent in 1942 because
a large number of people believed that Japanese Americans were potential sources of espionage and subversion
Which group was forced to train in segragated camps, live in segragated barracks, and serve in segragated units during World War II?
How did American Labor unions respond to the production demands of Worls War II
Labor Unions granted the goverments request that they pledge not to stike
Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto’s fundimental military strategy after the attack on Pearl Harbor was to
quickly conquer and secure Japan’s targets, before the United States could mobilize its manpower and resources
During the Bataan death March of 1942
Japanese soldiers forced US and Filipino soldiers to march sixty-five miles to a concentration camp
the naval battles in the Coral sea and at Midway Island signaled to the American Military that
Japanese domination of the Pacific was weakening
What technilogical development ultimitely led Hitler to withdraw the infamous U-boats from the North Atlantic?
At their meeting in Casablanca in January 1943, Allied leaders Roosevelt and Churchill
announces that they would accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of Germany and Italy
Women who remained at home contributed to the American War effort by
planting Victory Gardens of home-grown vegetables
The double V campaign called for both victory in the war and victory for
African Americans fighting racial prejudice at home
Why did the US fail to act on reports of Hitler’s Genocidal atrocities?
The American Public and its officials believed the reports were exaggerated
The allied assault against the German army on the beahces of Normandy on June 6, 1944 is commonly known as
As the allies closed in on him in DEcember 1944, Hitler ordered a desperate counterattack through Belgium known as
The battle of the Bulge
In February 1945, the Big Three met at Yalta to discuss
postwar self-determination for the people of Eastern Europe
Who succeeded president Roosevelt in the white house after his death on April 12, 1945?
What occurance made April 30, 1945, a turning point in the war?
Adolf Hitler killed himself in his underground bunker
Why did American Scientist begin to develop a superbomb in 1942?
They didnt want the Germans to develop one first.
The US dropped a second atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki only three days after the attack on Hiroshima
Because Nagasaki was the center of Japan’s Wartime Military and government operations.
One factor that aroused Soviet suspicions on the Wester Aliies during World War II was
the Western Allies long delay in opening a second front in Western Europe
By 1947, the intense rivalry between the Soviet union and the United States was called
the Cold war
Joeseph Stalins’ primary goal after world war II was to
ensure friendly governments on its boarders in Eastern Europe
What allowed the united States to emerge from worl war II as the most powerful nation in the world?
it had both a monopoly on atomic weapons and expanded production capacity
Why did Joseph Stalin feel that US foreign policy after World War II was hypocritical?
Americans were demanding democratic elections in Eastern Europe but supporting friendly dictatorships in Latin America
The allies divided Germany in 1946 because
they could not agree on the countries future
The US government’s policy of containment was first implemented when President Truman asked congress to send military and economic missions and 400$ million in aid to
Greece and Turkey
What message did President Truman emphasize when he presented the domino theory to congress in 1947?
he warned that if Greece fell to the rebels, confusion and disorder might well spread throughout the entire middle east
European Nations used most of the funds provided by the American Marshall plan of 1948 to
stimulate their economies and buy American Products
How did president Truman respond to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin in 1948 and 1949?
He ordered the air lifting of more than two million tons of good to West Berliners
why did president Truman approve the development of a hydrogen bomb in 1949?
The united States had confirmed that the Soviets had detonated an atomic bobm
The purpose of the National Security Act of 1947 was to
place oversight of all branches of the military under the security of defense
The peacetime military alliance created by the United States, Canada, and Western Europe countries to deter attacks from the Soviet Union was the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The Central Intelligence Agency was established to
gather information relevant to the National Defense and to perform any functions and duties related to intelligence affecting the national security
How did the Collapse of the Nationalist Government in china influence American actions in Asia in 1949
The focus of US foreign policy shifted to Japan
What was President Trumans initial response to the Israeli declaration of statehood in 1948
Truman Quickly recognized Israel and Pledged to make its defense cornerstone of US policies in the Middle East
In post World War II economy
Women’s Earnings saw significant decline
Which of the Following was among the factors responsible for the postwar economic boom in the Unites States?
War-torn countries’ spending on American products
The GI bill help to boost the US economy after World War II
with the provision of Job training, education, and low-interest home loans
The executive order President Truman issued in 1948 during his reelection campaign was designed to
Desegragate every aspect of the American Armed Services
Congress rejected a number of President Truman’s fair deal proposals, including
civil rights measures and federal aid to education
Which of these men was the most infamous crusader against communism after World war II?
Joseph R. McCarthy
During the anti-communist scare of the late 1940’s and early 1950’s
federal employees were investigated, people were blacklisted, and homosexuals were harrassed
US military action in Korea in 1950 was triggered by
The invasion of South Korea by troops from communist North Korea
Why did U.S policymakers support a non-communist South Korea?
The believed South Korea was key to the revival of the Japanese economy and Crucial to US defense strategy in Asia
In his Campaign for the presidency in 1952, Dwight D Eisenhower emphasized
the threat of communism and the need to win decisively in Korea
One consequence of the Korean war was a
massive increase in US defense spending
What did anit-communist zealot Senator Joseph McCarthy do that led to his condemnation by the US Senate?
McCarthy conducted televised hearings in which he charged that the US army was full of communists
What was the Eisenhower administration’s approach to social welfare programs?
It allowed the welfare state to grow and the federal government to take on new projects
What was President Eisenhowers most important and far-reaching domestic initiative?
The passage of the interstate highway and defense system act of 1956
In the context of President Eisenhowers policy toward
Native Americans, termination meant
ending the federal governments special relationship with the Indians by transferring jurisdiction over tribal lands to state and local governments
In what direction did Eisenhower, the first republican to serve as president after the New Deal, take the federal government during his second term?
He left the size and functions of the Federal Government intact
The key to president Eisenhowers new look in foreign policy
a smaller conventional army bolstered by strength in airpower and nuclear weapons
President Eisenhower veiwed communism in Vietnam as
a force that had to be stopped before it spread to Japan, Taiwan, and the Philippeans
Betwen 1955 and 1961, the US spent 800 million in South Vietnam, most of it to
fund the South Vietnamese army
In the 1950’s, the CIA intervened in the internal affairs of
Iran, Guatamala, and Cuba
Why did many Cuban people support the uprisisng led by Fidel Castro against Fulgencio Batista in 1959?
Many Cuban people had a strong desire for political and economic autonomy
The purpose of the Eisenhower Doctrine was to
aid any Middle Eastern nation requesting assisstance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism
The US reacted to the Soviet Unions successful launch of Sputnik in 1957
with a feeling of of inferiority about US scientific and technilogical development
What impact did technilogical advances have on American industry in the 1950’s?
They chipped away at the number of jobs in the steel, copper, and aluminum, industries
in the 1950’s, most employed American women worked in
clerical, service, and domestic jobs
Lvittown, New York, was
an example of the assembly-line approachto producing affordable housing
Which of the following describes higher education in the US between 1940 and 1960?
It became increasingly available to veterans, the middle class, and African Americans
One cause of the unparalleled material abundance of the US in the 1950’s was
a population increase of about 30 millions
Between 1950 and 1960, the percentage of American families with television sets grew from less than 10 percent to
almost 90 percent
Some critics suggested that the reason for renewed interest in religion during the 1950’s was
American’s need for conformity and social outlets
In which of the following ways did television affect US politics in the 1950’s?
It allowed candidates to appeal directly to voters in their homes, which elevated the importance of politicians personal attractiveness
What did federal communications Commission chairman Newton Minow “our hero” call television after he surveyed what it offered to Americans in 1961
A vast Wasteland
What was sociologist David Riesman’s critisism of American society in his 1950 book the Lonely Crowd
Riesman lamented the growing conformity in American Society
How did Rock and Roll challenge American social and cultural norms in the 1950’s?
It was sexually suggestive
The most important changes in civil rights in the US in the 1950’s were instituted by
ordinary African Americans
The Supreme Court’s decision in Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) overturned which of the following precedents?
Seperate but equal established in Plessy vs Ferguson
How did president Eisenhower ultimately respond to the Arkansas National Guard’s attempts to block the enrollment of nine black students in Little Rock’s Central High School in 1957
He sent army troops to little rock to oversee the integration of the school
The civil rights acts of 1957 and 1960 can be characterized as
The Montgomery, Alabama, police arrested Rosa Parks on December 1, 1955, because she
refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man
The Montgomery bus boycott of 1956 persisted until
The US supreme court overturned Alabama’s state and local laws requiring segregation on buses
Which new civil rights organization chose Martin Luther King Jr. as it’s Leader in January of 1957?
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference