Surface waters area unit waters that include all waters current

Surface waters area unit waters that include all waters current or keep on the surface of continents (rivers, lakes, ponds, dams). The chemical composition of surface water depends on the character of the land crossed by these waters throughout their course altogether watersheds. These waters area unit the seat, in most cases, of the event of a microbic life owing to the waste that's poured there and of the vital surface of contact with the external atmosphere. These waters are infrequently drinkable with no treatment.

During the preparation of drinking water, all these substances must be wiped out by treatment before dissemination of drinking water to customers (Degr?mont et al., 2004; Legube et al., 1996). Connections among water and shakes are the fundamental procedures controlling hydrochemical properties of surface water in the considered zone (Timgad Basin). Timgad Basin is a piece of the North-East Algerian Saharan Atlas. It is located about 40 Km East from the city of Batna, Algeria. The hydrochemical properties of surface water sample collected from the Timgad Basin are exhibited in Table 1.

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Phenol, present in surface waters, represents a real danger for humans because it is quickly absorbed by all routes of exposure (ATSDR, 2008). Phenol is a strong eyes and respiratory irritant and it is destructive to skin upon direct contact (Michalowicz et al., 2007). The usage of phenol-contaminated waters causes protein degeneration, tissue disintegration, loss of motion of the focal sensory system and furthermore harms the kidney, liver and pancreas in human bodies (Knop et al., 2013). As per the suggestion of World Health Organization (WHO), the admissible convergence of phenolic substance in consumable waters is 1µg/L (WHO, 1984) and the guidelines by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), call for bringing down phenol content in wastewaters under 1mg /L (Dutta et al.

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, 1998). It is consequently important to decrease or eliminate phenols from water and wastewater. The determination of a specific treatment strategy depends on the nature of the effluent, waste sort and concentration, presence of other compounds, level of removal required and financial matters (Ghodbane et al., 2008). The treatment of phenolic water with natural and modified clay is considered to be a successful strategy because of its large surface area, micro-porous nature, high adsorption level, high purity and availability in large quantities (Huang et al., 2004; Vimonses et al., 2009; ?zcan et al., 2004). In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing natural clay minerals like montmorillonite, kaolinite, and illite for the removal of toxic metals and some organic pollutants from aqueous solutions (Naseem et al., 2001; ?zcan et al., 2004; Witthuhn et al., 2005 ; Gonen et al., 2006; Bhattacharyya et al., 2007; Koyuncu et al., 2008; Shu et al., 2010). Bentonite consists basically of clay minerals of the smectite (montmorillonite) type and has a large industrial applications including clarification of mineral oils, cosmetics, paints, and pharmaceuticals (Christidis et al., 1998). Other studies were carried out to examine the possible use of natural clay as an effective adsorbent for the removal of rare earth elements and heavy metals from aqueous solutions (Hassani et al., 2008; Aghamohammadi et al., 2007). They are some literature references concerning the phenol adsorption on natural and modified bentonite (Banat et al., 2000; Juang et al., 2002; Vianna et al., 2004; Djebbar et al., 2012; Diaz-Nava et al., 2012; Hank et al., 2014), the potential of bentonite to adsorb phenol from aqueous solution was assessed, and the adsorption of phenol on activated clay was higher than adsorption on natural clay.

The Prime objective of this work was to investigate, experimentally, the potential of natural and modified bentonite to adsorb phenolic pollutants using phenol as a model component. Laboratory batch kinetics and isotherm studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of natural and modified clay. The effects of contact time, pH, temperature, adsorbent mass, and initial phenol concentration were studied.

Updated: May 19, 2021
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Surface waters area unit waters that include all waters current essay
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