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1.1 Describe the factors to take into account when planning healthy and safe indoor and outdoor environments and services. When planning activities there are many factors we have to take into account to ensure that the objectives of those activities are healthy and safe to achieve. In my setting, we carry out a risk assessment by checking and ensuring that the environment where the activity will be carried out is clean and tidy, there is good room temperature and ventilation, there is enough space for the pupils, and that the environment and activity is appropriate to their age and also to their individual needs, for example, if there is any child on a wheelchair we adapt every activity to include that child making sure he/she has enough space to move around the room, access to all the areas in it and can reach anything easily.
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If there is anyone that is visually impaired, we use adequate lighting in the room and take the necessary measures to help that child and every individual pupil to complete the activity healthily and safely.
Apart from that, we also ensure that there is an appropriate staff/ child ratio in each activity, that the equipment is not damaged and it is safe to use, and that we have the necessary resources and right protective clothing if for the activity or for the weather conditions if the activity is carried out outdoors.
We also consider and make others aware of any short term/long term medical conditions that pupils may have, such as, allergies, asthma or/and any child's requirements, to be able to fit everyone in the activity in a healthy and safe way.
In my school we are aware of every hazard that could put anyone at risk of harm and ensure that everyone working within the school knows the procedures to follow so that the risks are controlled and that the right actions are taken in case of an accident or emergency.
1.2 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in the work setting are made aware of risks and hazards and encouraged to work. In my setting we follow the school's health and safety policies and procedures, we make sure that all visitors and staff sign in and out and that we do pupils' register every morning and afternoon when they come to the classroom. We ensure risks assessments are made and recorded regularly. We take the right measures to prevent children or anyone working in the setting from being at risk of harm by hazards such as cleaning products for example. In my school, the School keeper maintains a list of substances and chemicals likely to be hazardous to health and requires all the staff to carry out and keep assessments under the COSSH regulations ,therefore, I ensure these have adequate labels on, are dated, are stored in a cupboard out of the reach of children, and used appropriately and carefully.
Another hazard could be things such as spillages of food or any other type of fluids such as paint, glue or water, and in this case we must not ignore them, clean them, place “wet floor”or the appropriate signs covering them to make everybody aware of the hazards and risks and thus, prevent any accidents. Other ways we use in my setting to encouraging pupils and other staff to work being aware of hazards and its risks, healthily and safely are: giving instructions of how to use adequately and safely the equipment and resources provided, making sure there are not overloaded cables and that sockets have covers if not in use, maintaining the classroom tidy and picking up objects such as felt-tip pens that may fall on the floor and also very importantly, being a good role model having a good practice regarding to personal hygiene, for example, wearing neat and clean clothes and washing hands regularly.
1.3 Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services.
- Instruction booklets.
- School policies and procedures.
- Seeking advise and support from more experienced staff.
- Health and safety trainings.
- Health and safety legislation: The Health and Safety at Work Act (1974), Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals)Regulations (1996), and Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002.
1.4 Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service.
In my setting we implement the health and safety legislation by working according to, and following the codes of practice of its laws and by reinforcing those making others aware of them on a daily practice. One example for this, is to make the pupils aware of hazards and risks in class and giving instructions on how to take action to prevent any harm.
For example talking to them about emergency situations such as fire alarms, explaining to them the importance of having fire exit doors and why we must keep those closed and free from obstruction, and also the procedures to follow by demonstrating them how to behave and act, what to do,and where to go in order to be safe, and for this, we held a fire practice termly and we also have the fire precaution procedure displayed on a notice board in every classroom
In my school, we also deliver lessons related to health such as healthy eating, or PE (physical education) classes in order for them to exercise and keep healthy. We also promote hygiene by reminding and displaying posters encouraging children to wash their hands with soap before and after activities, before eating and after going to the toilet.
An example to ensure safety in my school is to have all the staff and visitors wearing a badge of identification, and signing in and out of the premises sheet.
3.1 Explain why it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management.
It is very important to allow children and young people to take controlled risks in order to support them learning, achieving their objectives and challenges, and to develop effectively. If we would not allow children to undertake activities involving risks appropriate to their age being supervised and control by the staff, and all the risks would be removed from their daily life and practice in school, they would not be able to improve their skills,progress adequately, learn how to make sensible judgements by themselves, and thus, it would be difficult for them to function in society. Every activity may involve a risk, and this should be planned and balanced sensibly, and with careful consideration so that the likelihood of accident or injury will be minor.
3.2 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and young people and health and safety requirements.
Every child has the right to learn, develop, explore new experiences and to make their own choices, being protected from harm as identified by UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989. However the children do not always have the skills and appropriate judgments to make the safe choice. It is the adults' responsibility to identify the dangers and make the decision about the child being able to take part on the activity or having to arrange extra support to enable them to do it.
It is our role to encourage children to make their own choices in order to explore and progress, supporting their individual needs and ensuring that, activity and environment are safe and that any risks are under control, in order to protect and prevent them from being harmed.
3.3 Give example from own practice of supporting children or young people to assess and manage risk.
There are many times when I have encouraged children to take risky activities providing them with support and ensuring safety. An example of this is when I was preparing snacks in a “year two” class to celebrate a pupil's birthday and I ask some children to help me with the preparation. Two of the children helped me cutting apples and oranges. First of all, I made them aware of the hazards and risks, I asked them to wash their hands and I provided them with protective clothes such as disposable gloves (making sure they weren't allergic to latex), and plastic aprons.
Then I gave them guidance on how to hold and handle the knive, where to place the fingers of the other hand to hold the fruit and the distance they had to keep from the cutting edge, and how to cut the fruits. After making a demonstration for them to copy and ensuring they understood the procedures to follow, I let them cut the fruits supervising, assisting, and providing them with support when they needed it.
Another example of me supporting children or young people to assess and manage risk is when children have free play time and they go outside, play and climb on the climbing frames. They have to assess and manage the risks by themselves, for example, how high they can or decide to go, where to step safely, be aware of other children that are on the frame so that they do not hurt each other, and that they are supervised at all times by an adult that is by the climbing frame to assist and give support if they need it.
4.1 Explain the policies and procedures of the setting or service in response to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness.
In my school, we assess, record, and report everything that concerns us or/and that occurs in the premises or in school trips, in relation to health and safety and always following my school's policies and procedures guideline.
In a case of a minor accident for example a child bumping his forehead against a door and not having any wounds or marks and not feeling dizzy, we would assist the child and place an ice pack on the bumped area, fill an accident form to keep it recorded in the pupils' accident book which is kept at the schools reception, send a note to the child's parents or careers and put a sticker on the child saying: “I bumped my head today”.
My school requires all the staff that works within the school to have a First Aid certificate, therefore, my school provides all the staff with First Aid training. In a case of an accident such as someone falling from a climbing frame and having a broken leg,we would assist, reassure and comfort the child carefully put the child in a resting position, inform the welfare officer/assistant immediately,and this would inform the Headteacher, parents and call and ambulance to come and take the child to hospital,as this isn't an accident that could be dealt by my school's staff Then we would fill an accident form to keep it in the accident book and a copy would be given to the parents and shown to the ambulance staff.
In a case of a child having upset stomach and throwing up,or having fever,we would call the parents to come and pick the child up to take him/her home or to be taken to hospital if he/she gets worse. In a case of a child having contagious or infectious illness or sickness such as diarrhoea, chicken pox or head lice, we would call the parents to take the child home and we would also send a notice to other pupils' parents to make them aware and take precaution and action on their children when necessary.
4.2 Identify the correct procedures for the recording and reporting accidents, incidents, injuries, signs of illness and other emergencies.
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