Social and Multicultural Psychology

Individuals are influenced by lots of people, things, and scenarios. The impact of their social interaction is influenced by the method they believe, feel and behave. Comprehending how individuals form accessories and get along within society is necessary, especially given that there is a growing variety of individuals with ethnic or minority and cultural backgrounds. Although “norms of habits” are promoted by all cultures, other multicultural variables such as contextual factors, racial and ethnic identity, religious/spiritual beliefs, parenting factors, trainee mindsets must likewise be consider when dealing with varied populations.

In this discussion, social and multicultural psychology will be defined, different research techniques utilized to evaluate social interaction will be recognized, and resemblance and distinctiveness of the two branch of psychology will be discussed. Social Psychology and Primary Research Study Methods

According to Merriam-Webster dictionary online, social psychology is specified as “the research study of the manner in which the personality, mindsets, inspirations, and habits of the individual influence and are influenced by social groups.

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” In other words, social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies the interaction of people in different social contexts (Kong, 1996). It takes a look at how and why people believe, feel, and do the things they do as an outcome of the scenario they find themselves in (Kong). Social psychology and sociology are comparable except sociology concentrates on group aspects such as race and socioeconomic class while social psychology concentrates primarily on how the specific acts in particular circumstances. Some essential research study strategies (McLeod 2007) made use of by scientists to examine an individual’s social interactions include:

RESEARCH STRATEGIES
DESCRIPTION
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EXAMPLE
Experiment
( Laboratory, field or natural).

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Accurate and objective measurements in a well-controlled environment (artificial setting) Researcher determines place, time, individuals, scenarios and standardized procedure real life setting Stanley Milgram, a Yale University psychologist, experiment on obedience concentrated on the three-way dispute between obedience, authority. and individual conscience.. Case Study

In-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community Gathers qualitative data and levels of ecological validity
Sigmund Freud detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses. Interviews

Unstructured (informal) casual conversation with no set questions. Structured (formal): Fixed, predetermined set of formal questions. Questionnaire: written interview.
Collect qualitative and quantitative data.
Skinner Behavior Study modified operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals in 1948 to reinforce or punish. Observations Covert Observations: Pretend to be an ordinary member of the group and secretly observes. Creates ethical problems or deception and consent. Overt Observations: Inform the participant(s) that he or she is being observed so they will be aware. Record behavior in natural, controlled, participatory, and non-participatory settings. Kathy Sylva and a team of researchers from Oxford and the University of London’s Institute of Education, discovered in the 80s/90s that a child’s academic, social and behavioral development is substantially enhanced by going to pre-school, particularly if they are poor. Content Analysis

Indirectly observe the presence of certain words, images or concepts within the media, politics. Content Analysis of TV shows containing violent content or study sex-role stereotyping. Pilot Study

An initial run-through of the procedures to be used in an investigation; select a few people to pretrial the study on them. Scottish Births Survey to determine provisional level of maternity care.

Multicultural Psychology and Its Similarity and Distinction from Social Psychology
Multicultural psychology is defined as “the systematic study of all aspects of human behavior as it occurs in settings where people of different cultural backgrounds encounter each other.” Sometimes the discipline is referred to as “cross-cultural psychology” (Cherry, 2008). “The goal of cross-cultural psychologists is to look at both universal behaviors and unique behaviors to identify the ways in which culture impacts our behavior, family life, education, social experiences and other areas (Cherry, K. 2008).” Multicultural psychology studies individuals within ethnic or minority settings. Multicultural Psychology is similar to, yet distinctively different from, Social Psychology.

While the social psychology focuses on the individual or group’s interrelations and interconnections from a variety of family, ethnicity, socio-economic status, gender, education and moral factors, multiculturalism analyzes the cultural experiences. Prosocial behavior integrates cognitive, social, emotional, biological, and environmental factors through a variety of socio-emotional interactions. However, multiculturalism identifies not only the differences our social identities but also allow the conversion or transference from one culture to another (Stamatouras, 2010). Multiculturalism tolerates cultural membership despite one’s birth, previous group affiliation, or physical characteristics. As Stamatouras (2010) noted in his article on multiculturalism, “a variety of cultures are allowed to co-exist”. Social psychology shows us how other people impact human behavior while multicultural psychology shows us how cultures impact it.

Conclusion
Every group is affected by culture, identity, and societal forces. Social psychology and multicultural psychology are the disciplines that explore the impacts on individuals and environments. The research and analysis enable us
to better understand our personal attitudes and behaviors as it relates to diversity in our homes, schools, communities and cultures.

References
Cherry, K. (2008).What Is Cross Cultural Psychology?.About.com Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/branchesofpsycholog1/f/cross-cultural.htm Kong, K. T.(August, 1996 ). Social Psychology on the Net. Education 113,University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved from http://csua.berkeley.edu/~kaserina/psych/definition.html McLeod, S. A. (2007). The Interview Method. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/interviews.html Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20psychology Stamatouras, A. (2010). Multicultural Psychology. University of Phoenix http://www.markedbyteachers.com/university-degree/social-studies/multicultural-psychology-is-a-discipline-that-is-closely-related-to-cross-cultural-psychology-and-in-fact-is-difficult-to-make-that-distinction-weiner-freedheim-schinka-gallagher-2003-multicultural-psychology.html

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Social and Multicultural Psychology. (2016, Mar 22). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/social-and-multicultural-psychology-essay

Social and Multicultural Psychology

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