Smart Washroom Leaning System Using Image Processing and IoT

Nowadays, technology is developing day by day and at the same time, cleanliness is under risk. The abstract of this paper is to maintain cleanliness and hygiene washrooms. The scheme Swatch Bharat has been introduced by our government. In that scheme, one of the objectives is to keep the washroom cleaned. Hospital is one of the busiest areas and it is crowded all the time. It should be maintained clean and hygiene. In the hospital, there are many wards like IPD wards, Diagnostic labs, OPD, offices, etc.

For each ward, there are many washrooms. The housekeeping staff will clean the washroom on a rotation basis and it will be contaminated before the next clean-up is scheduled. Our proposed system will ensure keeping cleanliness and hygiene. In this paper we need to do two things i.e. first we need to identify the dirt in the washroom and secondly if the washroom is dirty then it should send the message to respective housekeeping staff by observing their working activities.

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Therefore, from these two things it safes and cleans the society. For this purpose, we are going to use image processing and IoT.


The scope of the project is to keep cleanliness. Cleanliness plays an essential part in our day to day life. It will reduce the risk of infection and spreading several diseases, such as Malaria, Flu, Hepatitis, Cholera, Typhoid etc. The hospitals' one of the motives is to provide clean and safe environment for patients, visitors and hospital staff. In a hospital, all the areas must be cleaned and hygiene and it should be safe, welcoming and comfortable for everyone.

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The cleaning standards must be met all the time in the hospital. Maintaining the cleanliness in hospital is not only related to patient satisfaction, but it also reduces the several diseases of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI). The cleanliness will reduce the growth of infective organisms.

Image processing is a method to convert an image into digital form and perform some operations on it, in order to get an enhanced image or to extract some useful information from it. The input should be given as image or video frame and output may be image or characteristics associated to the image or enhanced image. It will apply two-dimensional signals whenever it is going to set the processed images.

Literature survey

Kitisak Osathanunkul, Kittikorn Hantrakul, Part Pramokcho [1] proposed a system that will reduce the wastage of the clean water and keeping washroom clean, it is mainly used in the public toilets. In this system they used the MQTT protocol as a communication protocol. The MQTT can be derived as Message Queuing Telemetry Transport. It is a publish- subscriber-based protocol and it works in the application layer. An MQTT system consist of a client and a server. The server often called as Broker and the client may be either publisher of information or a subscriber. In this they have taken the flushing duration for 3 seconds to save the clean water as much as possible. In this there are 2 parts, the first is Automatic Flusher part and the second is the server part. They had used the infrared sensor to detect the human.

D.Kadge, A.K.Varute, P.G.Patil, P.R.Belukhi, they defined about the sewage system and in train how will they dispose sewage system. Indian railways have 7500 stations and 114500km of the total track over a distance of 65000km. Everyone expects healthy and hygienic surroundings is required while traveling in the train. They feel awkward when they see the waste on the platform and the disgusting smell, it creates a negative impression on the foreign tourist. This is because toilets in the trains they dispose the human waste on the track itself. In this paper they mentioned two types of mechanisms; they are track changing mechanism and sewage disposal mechanism. In sewage disposal mechanism, they used two types of sensors they are ultrasonic sensor and the position sensor.

Pandya Chintan, Yadav Jatin, Kareliya Sanket they said about human waste disposal. The place for the human waste disposal should be in a place where there is no infrastructure facilities and the Bio toilet tank should be needed. This paper will give the easy way to dispose the human waste. For the Bio toilet tank there are 2 doors, one is for the opening door and one more is the exit door. At the top of the tank input door is there and inside the tank the output door is existing. The pneumatic cylinder is used to open and close the doors. The speed of the train is detected by the RPM controller and it will transfer the data to the proximity sensor, which controls the train. The RPM controller, Proximity sensor and Compressed air tank will be used to control the Pneumatic cylinder.

Iman Morsia, Mohamed Mansour, Mohamed Mostafa, in this paper they detected a method to identify the gas leakage using the PLC and SCADA system. If the gas is leaked it will harm the humans as well as environment also. Earlier days all are using the expensive gas sensor to improve detection and recognizing the pattern. The main goal here is to identify the gas leakage using the inexpensive senor. In this paper they present a gas detector system which will monitor and measure the gas pollutant in the environment and it will also detect the different gases. Beside the fertilizer factories the ethane, methane gases are available and with those hydrogen, propane and iso-butane gas is also.

Problem statement and definition


Our main objective is to maintain a healthy and hygienic environment in the hospital. Washrooms are important and maintaining cleanliness is also important and keeping the washroom clean should be habituated. Certain steps have to be taken care by everyone to maintain the washroom dirt less and they need to learn how to use the washroom in the right way. In the rota basis the housekeeping staffs will clean the washroom. The washroom will become dirty before the next clean-up scheduled depending on the time and the location of the da etc, In this the washroom must be cleaned whenever it is dirt. We need to give awareness among the people about the hygienic of the washroom. The responsibility of the sweeper is to do their work in the right way. This project is the stepping stone to the Clean and disease free India.

Problem statement

In hospital cleanliness should be maintained proper if not maintained then so many diseases will spread. This system will provide a solution to maintain cleanliness by sending the message to the housekeeping staff whenever there is dirt in the washroom area.

Problem definition

We have 4 facilities accommodating OPD, Diagnostics Lab, IPD wards, offices etc. Each floor has multiple washrooms for patients, staff and visitors. The washrooms are cleaned by the Housekeeping staff on a rota basis. Depending on the location, the time of the day etc., a washroom might get dirty much before the next clean-up is scheduled. We need an interactive solution that uses technology to sense if a washroom is dirty, and alerts Housekeeping and captures and analyses data.

High-level system design

In this system, observing the sweeper's working duty we need to determine the washroom cleanliness and maintaining properly. It presents the design and implementation of the cleanliness of the washroom in the hospital. There are 2 things to be done, the first thing is to identify the dirt in the washroom through cameras when there is no one in the washroom. The second thing is to send a message to sweeper?s whenever there is a dirt in the washroom area. Whenever there is a lock on the door from inside there the camera should be switched off this can be detected by using PIR sensor. The image will be sent to the server for checking out dirtiness in the washroom area.

Hardware details

Arduino board

1790700117729000Arduino Uno board is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P. It also consists of other components like serial communication, voltage regulator, crystal oscillator etc. it is along with the ATmega328P. It has 6 analog inputs, 16MHz quartz crystal, 14 digital input/output pins, a usb connection etc. It has a number of ways for communicating with another Arduino board,

IR Sensor

An Infrared sensor is an electronic instrument, used to observe some characteristics from the surrounding by emission and/or detection of infrared radiation. It is also capable of measurement that the heat is emitting from an object and motion detection.

IP Camera

Internet Protocol Camera is like the CCTV and Webcam, they will be transmitting the data and receiving the data over the network on the internet. This can be done by using the IP address of the camera. More than a network connection for sending the images. As like laptops, tablet and printer how they will connect to network exactly like the same way IP will connect to network internet. The main difference between IP and CCTV or webcam is that the IP address is used to configure the IP camera on the network.

DC Motor

A Direct Current or DC motor is a rotatory electrical machine which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. DC motor has parts like stator, a robot, a commutator with brushes, an armature. The DC motor consist of magnetic field inside the motor which will be used to turn the DC motor. The motor will turn because of the opposite polarity between the magnetic field inside the motor.

Relay Switch

It is an electro-mechanically operated switch, they used to transmit and receive the information, and where the input signal be either 1 or 0, and these signals will change into mechanical terms like ON and OFF. It means that those electrical signals 1 or 0 is converted into mechanical ON and OFF terms using the electromagnets. The relay meaning is that it is an electrical device that is going to use the electromagnet to run a pair of movable circuits from an open circuit to the closed-circuit position.

In the work flow diagram the camera which is there in washroom is in the ON state, then it will check if the door is locked or not. If the door is locked and there is a human in the washroom, the camera will automatically switched off. It will check if door is not locked and human is not there then camera is ON state and it will capture the image of the washroom area and it will send the image to the pre-processing in that phase the image will find out the dirt in that area then if there is a dirt in that area then it will send the SMS to the house keeping staffs and if there is no dirt then it won't send any message. The camera is ON till the door is locked.


Arduino and PIR sensor:

An Infrared sensor is an electronic instrument, used to observe some characteristics from the surrounding by emission and/or detection of infrared radiation. It is also capable of measurement that the heat is emitting from an object and motion detection. The IR sensor is used to detect the object.

Arduino and DC motor

A Direct Current or DC motor is a rotatory electrical machine which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. DC motor has parts like stator, a robot, a commutator with brushes, an armature. The DC motor will rotate clockwise or anti-clockwise.

Arduino and Relay switch:

It is an electro-mechanically operated switch, they used to transmit and receive the information, and where the input signal be either 1 or 0, and these signals will change into mechanical terms like ON and OFF. It means that those electrical signals 1 or 0 is converted into mechanical ON and OFF terms using the electromagnets. The above fig 5.3 shows the schematic diagram of Arduino and relay switch.

Overall schematic diagram

The IR sensor has a digital output pin and it is connected to digital pin 2 in the Arduino board and when the object is detected it will be high. The relay switch is having a digital output pin and it is connected to the digital pin 7 to the Arduino board and the DC motor will rotated when the IR sensor is high. The GND of IR and Relay switch is connected to GND of Arduino and the 5V is connected to 5V in the Arduino board.


The image is captured by the camera through IP camera and these images are preprocessed that is it takes input image as colored image and convert it into binary image. The colored image is converted into a grayscale image and then it will convert into a binary image. The steps are shown below in fig 5.5. In this first the image is converted into plane image i.e. it wills divide the images as plane and after that the image is converted into RGB. The planes are converted into RGB planes then it is going through the data type conversion phase. It is converted into gray scale images. After all this the noise is removed from the image and it will detect the edges in the image. Last but not the least the image is converted into binary image.

In our project we align the image that is the reference image where we need to train the image and this is total area we need to target to be tested further. In this we will detect the dirt in the washroom area. After converting the image into binary image the test will be going too started. The image is a set of pixels which is aligned in the some pattern. The dirt is detected by calculating the amount of pixels drastically changes, in this the pixels will have a major change then only it will take into consideration. The small changes like the sunlight or shadow the pixel will change but not too much varied so whenever the pixels will have major change then only it will detect. We will set a threshold to detect the dirt on the floor. For image it will check how many pixels are crossed the threshold value. Those pixels which are above the threshold value are 1 and below are 0. Depending on this we will detect the percentage of the dirt on the floor.


Our proposed project will create awareness among the people about proper sanitation. It makes the use of Internet of things are a rapidly growing technology. Our proposed system will make everyone to strictly follow the cleanliness and proper sanitation in the toilets. It prevents the new contagious diseases that spread due to improper sanitation of the toilets. The image processing will be used to capture the image and check the dirt. In the hospital, it is important to maintain cleanliness and hygiene. The proposed system will be used in keeping the washroom cleaning and hygiene. Thus by using technologies in the smarter way, we can maintain the cleanliness next to godliness. Keep Clean, be Safe.


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Updated: Dec 29, 2020
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Smart Washroom Leaning System Using Image Processing and IoT. (2019, Dec 06). Retrieved from

Smart Washroom Leaning System Using Image Processing and IoT essay
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