Iot Based Smart and Automatic Waste Management System

In the current scenario, many times we see that the garbage or Dust bin which are at public places in the cities are overflowing due to increase in the waste every day. This creates unhygienic condition for the people around and creates acidic smell around the surroundings this leads to spreading some deadly diseases & human illness. To avoid such a situation we are planning to design “Iot Based Smart And Automatic Waste Management System”. In this proposed System there are multiple dustbins located throughout the city, these dustbins are equipped with low cost embedded device which helps in tracking the level of the garbage bins and an unique ID will be provided for every dustbin in the city, so that it is easy to identify which garbage bin is full.

When the level reaches the threshold limit, the device will transmit the level along with the unique ID provided. These details can be accessed by the authorities from their place with the help of Internet and an immediate action can be made to clean the dustbins.

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Today main issue of dustbin Overflow is it creates unhygienic condition for the people around and creates bad smell the surroundings which leads in spreading some deadly diseases & human illness. To overcome all these problems we are going to implement a project called Iot Based Smart And Automatic Waste Management System. Implementation is being done with the help of IoT concept. The Internet of Things. (IoT) is a concept in which surrounding objects are connected through wired and wireless networks without user intervention.

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Objects can communicate and exchange information using internet. In this system multiple dustbins are located throughout the city, these dustbins are provided with a sensor which helps in tracking the level of the garbage bins and a unique ID will be provided for every dustbin in the city so that it is easy to identify which garbage bin is full. When the level and weight of the bin reaches the threshold limit, the device will send a notification of the reading along with the unique ID provided. After getting the notification the staff can go to the dustbin and can collect the garbage. If the garbage bin is full and no one has collected it In such circumstances the bin displays that it is full please use another bin. The status of the bin is accessed by the concerned authorities from their place with the help of Internet and an immediate action will be taken to replace overflowing bins with the empty bins.


Things which are connected by Internet and can be controlled from the internet is commonly called as Internet of Things. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept in which objects are connected through wired and wireless networks. In the field of IoT, the objects communicate and exchange information to provide data to the end user. Nowadays the mobile devices equipped with various sensors and communication modules, with communication network technologies such as Wi-Fi and LTE, according to the characteristics and merits of IoT services, waste management has also become a significant issue in day to day life. An absence of waste disposal and management systems at the required time leads to disease, and inefficient waste management policies have caused serious environmental problems and have incurred considerable costs for waste disposal. In our proposed system, the Smart dust bins are connected to the internet to get the real time information of the smart dustbins. In previous years, there was a rapid growth in population which leads to more waste disposal. So a proper waste management system is necessary to avoid spreading diseases.

By using iot the authorities can manage and take actions required at the time. But due to lack of iot, ineffective groundwork, some waste is not collected which poses serious health hazard to the surrounding environment. Proper cleaning intervals may provide a solution to this problem . But keeping a track of the status of the bin manually is a very difficult job. There are multiple dustbins are located throughout the city, the Smart waste management are connected to the internet to get the real time information of the smart dustbins. These dustbins are interfaced with esp32 based system with ultrasonic sensors. Where the ultrasonic sensor detects the level of the garbage in dustbin and sends the signals to esp32 the same signal are encoded and send to the application and it is received. The data has been received, analyzed and processed in the database, which displays the status of the Garbage in the dustbin on the application of authorized person mobile. The concerned authority get alert about dustbin through application and informs person whoever is responsible for collecting garbage from the particular areas. The garbage trucks collect the garbage from the completely full dustbin and dispose it.

Five reports were reviewed in detail for the literature review, with the majority of these reports providing the information that the waste should be controlled by stopping the increase in waste. These reports does not show that the only waste should be collected is from food waste. Therefore, evidence is taken from these reports to be used in different context from that in which it was collected. For example, a common thing across all of the reports was the fact that where a reduction in food waste arisings had been observed, there was very less data to confirm how much food waste had simultaneously been diverted from the residual waste stream to home composting and how much was a result of at source waste prevention behaviour. A number of the reports show that home waste is not only the problem for arising in waste. Overall the reports demonstrate that while there is some evidence to support the theory that implementing a waste collection can lead to an overall reduction in collected waste, there is currently no proper evidence to demonstrate to what extent this is due to prevention at source as opposed to diversion to home composting. A number of the reports support the need for further research in this area requirement gathering Here we will discuss everything we will need in order to execute. Below we list the necessary hardware and software requirements.

A Software plays an important role in the integration and working of our hardware design.There are two parts to our software development: initialization and configuration of hardware and, the development of Android based mobile application for the user interface.

Xml stands for Extensible Markup Language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format which is readable for both human as well as machine. It provides textual data format that has strong support via Unicode for different human languages.In this system, XML is used as the frontend for android application.

  • Html is been used for the front side of the admin panel. It is a software solution stack that defines the properties and behaviours of web page content .It includes detailed processing
  • Android studio is the official integrated development environment (IDE) for Android platform development. Google provides an IDE called Android Studio to develop android applications that is freely available under the Apache License 2.0. Android applications require specific configuration files. We are using android studio to develop our android application which will be used by any students (users).The application logic is primarily written in the Java programming. The android developing tool converts these files into an android application. The tooling allows compiling, packaging, deploying and starting applications which are developed. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) and gradle tooling contains the necessary tools for this. The android SDK contains the android debug bridge (ADB). ADB is a tool that allows you to connect to a virtual or real android device. This allows managing the device or debugging your application. Most of androids configuration files are based on XML. The android tools provide special specialized editors for android specific files. These editors typically allow switching between the XML representation of the file and structured user interface.

Hardware requirements

  • Hardware Requirements are the hardware that is been used by the developer in order to develop this system. Arduino uno is the main hardware that is used for this system.
  • ESP32 is a series of the low-cost, low-power system on a chip microcontrollers with integrated Wi-Fi and dual-mode Bluetooth. The ESP32 series employs a Tensilica Xtensa LX6 microprocessor in both dual-core and single-core variations and includes built-in antenna switches, RF balun, power amplifier, low-noise receive amplifier, filters, and power-management modules. ESP32 is created and developed by Espressif Systems, a Shanghai-based Chinese company, and is manufactured by TSMC using their 40 nm process.[2] It is a successor to the ESP8266 microcontroller.
  • Ultrasonic sensors work by emitting sound waves at a frequency too high for humans to hear. They then wait for the sound to be reflected back, calculating distance based onthe time required. This is similar to how radar measures the time it takes a radio wave to return after hitting an object.
  • 12v dc battery for power supply to the motherboard.
  • Ultrasonic sensors work by emitting sound waves at a frequency too high for humans to hear. They then wait for the sound to be reflected back, calculating distance based on the time required. This is similar to how radar measures the time it takes a radio wave to return after hitting an object.

This project Smart and automatic Waste Management using IOT is a very innovative system which will help to keep the cities clean. This system monitors the garbage bins and informs us about the level of garbage collected in the garbage bins via a mobile application or web application. For this the system uses ultrasonic sensors placed over lid of the the bins to detect the garbage level and compare it with the garbage bins depth. The system makes use of esp32 for sending data . The system is powered by a 12V power supply. An application and a website is built to show the status to the user monitoring it. The application gives a view of the garbage bins and highlights the garbage collected in colour in order to show the level of garbage collected.. Thus this system helps to keep the city clean by informing us about the garbage levels of the bins by providing data of the bins via IOT application development platform.

The authorized person receives the indication of garbage dustbin is full through the application and if the person does not accept the notification he will get a notification through sms . with the information received the officer can go and collect the garbage time to time. The data get stored in the database created and than the data is retrieve In IoT applied to external and public environments, communication is important for service provisioning. In particular, since this type of IoT has a wide service domain, reliable communication is necessary for devices to communicate with each other. Therefore, the gsm module and wifi module utilized in the proposed system communicate with each other based on a wireless mesh network , securing communication reliability. IoT devices in an external environment may need to move on occasion. With a battery-based power supply, the mobility of the proposed system is secured. In IoT with a wide service domain, data exchanges and services should be conducted seamlessly at any time and any location. User convenience has been enhanced with the advent of IoT.


We have implemented real time waste management system by using smart dustbins to check the level of smart dustbins whether the dustbin are full or not. In this system if a dustbin gets full the iot devices sends a notification to the website and the application. By implementing this proposed system the waste management gets a boost and people can get a clean city. This system indirectly reduces unhygenic waste and makes city clean. In major cities the garbage collection vehicle visit the areas everyday once or twice depends on the population of the particular area and sometimes these dustbins may not be full. Our System with the help of iot will inform the status of each and every dust bin in real time so that the concerned authority can send the garbage collection vehicle only when the dustbin is full. The scope for the future work is this system can be implemented with all the garbage bins and can help to make cities clean and provide a better life to people.

It is a privilege for us to have been associated with Prof. Rajashree Gadhave, our guide, during this project work. We have been greatly benefited by her valuable suggestions and ideas. It is with great pleasure that we express our deep sense of gratitude to them for their valuable guidance, constant encouragement and patience throughout this work. We are also indebted to our guide for extending the help to academic literature. We express our gratitude to Prof. Srijita Bhattacharjee (Project Coordinator), Dr. Ashok Kanthe (Head of Department of Computer Engineering), Dr. Madhumita Chatterjee (Principal) for their constant encouragement, co-operation and support. We take this opportunity to thank all our classmates for their company during the course work and for useful discussion we had with them. We would be failing in our duties if we do not make a mention of our family members including our parents for providing moral support, without which this work would not have been completed.


  1. Challenges and Opportunities of Waste Management in IoT-enabled Smart Cities: A Survey( 2017 ), Theodoros Anag-nostopoulos, Arkady Zaslavsky, Kolomvatsos, Alexey Medvedev, Pouria Amirian, Jeremy Morley.
  2. Measuring and Managing the Smartness of Cities: a Frame-work for Classifying Performance Indicators( Oct 2015 ) R. Carli, M. Dotoli, R. Pellegrino and L.Ranieri.
  3. Smart Waste Management using Internet-of-Things(IoT)(2016), Gopal Kirshna Shyam ,Sunilkumar S. Manvi ,PriyankaBharti.
  4. Automation Of Smart Waste Management Using Iot To Support Swachh Bharat Abhiyan A Practical Approach(2017), Bharadwaj B, M Ku-mudha, Gowri Chandra N, ChaithraG.
  5. Barnes, P., Jerman, P.: Developing an environmental management system for a multiple-university consortium. J. Clean. Prod. 10(1), 33–39 (2002)
  6. Dahle, M., Neumayer, E.: Overcoming barriers to campus greening: a survey among higher educational institutions in London, UK. Int. J. Sustain. High. Educ. 2(2), 139–160 (2001).
Cite this page

Iot Based Smart and Automatic Waste Management System. (2022, Jan 07). Retrieved from

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