Gas Leak Detection And Smart Alerting Using Iot

Categories: Internet


Iot is an expanding network of physical devices that are linked with different types of sensors and with the help of connectivity to the internet, they are able to exchange data. Through iot, internet has now extended its roots to almost every possible thing present around us and is no more limited to our personal computers and mobile phones. Safety, the elementary concern of any project, has not been left untouched by iot. Gas leakages in open or closed areas can prove to be dangerous and lethal.

The traditional gas leakage detector systems though have great precision, fail to acknowledge a few factors in the field of alerting the people about the leakage. Therefore we have used the iot technology to make a gas leakage detector having smart alerting techniques involving calling, sending text message and an e-mail to the concerned authority and an ability to predict hazardous situation so that people could be made aware in advance by performing data analytics on sensor readings.

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Internet of things aim towards making life simpler by automating every small task around us. As much is iot helping in automating tasks, the benefits of iot can also be extended for enhancing the existing safety standards. Safety has always been an important criteria while designing home, buildings, industries as well as cities. The increased concentration of certain gases in the atmosphere can prove to be extremely dangerous. These gases might be flammable at certain temperature and humidity conditions, toxic after exceeding the specified concentrations limits or even a contributing factor in the air pollution of an area leading to problems such as smog and reduced visibility which can in turn cause severe accidents and also have adverse effect on the health of people.

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In order to have a control over such conditions this paper proposes a system that uses an mq-6 sensor which is capable of detecting gases such as h2, lpg, ch4, co, alcohol, smoke and propane.

This system is not only capable of detecting the leakages and hence presence of excess amounts of harmful gases and alerting through audible alarms but also, with the help of iot, alerting the concerned authority about the condition before any mishap takes place through a personal call and message using gsm module, an e-mail about the details of the area using an ethernet shield. The system cuts off the main power supply of the house or building when the concentration of gas is about to reach its lower explosion limit (lel) which is done with the help of relays. The gas leakage detector system also sends the sensor reading to cloud so that analytics could be carried out on the readings for increasing the precision of the system.


Hardware Requirments

A) Mq6 sensorMQ6 is used to detect Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The breakout broad is very easy to use. It can be connected with Arduino or other popular micrcontrollers to detect level of LPG concentration in air. The level can be set by the trim pot very precisely. It can be also directly connected to analog pin of MCU to read analog values. This sensor has a high sensitivity and fast response time. The sensor’s output is an analog resistance. The drive circuit is very simple; all you need to do is power the heater coil with 5V, add a load resistance, and connect the output to an ADC. This sensor comes in a package similar to our MQ-3 alcohol sensor

B) Arduino unoArduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message - and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board. Unlike most previous programmable circuit boards, the Arduino does not need a separate piece of hardware.

  • Operating Voltage: 5V.
  • Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V.
  • Input Voltage (limits): 6-20V.
  • Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
  • Analog Input Pins: 6.
  • DC Current per I/O Pin: 40 mA.
  • DC Current for 3. 3V Pin: 50 mA.

C) buzzer buzzer is a device which makes a buzzing or beeping noise. There are several kinds; the most basic is a piezoelectric buzzer, which is just a flat piece of piezoelectric material with two electrodes. This type of buzzer requires some kind of oscillator (or something more complicated like a microcontroller) to drive it—if you apply a DC voltage you will just get a click.

D) wifi module(esp 8266)ESP8266 is Wi-Fi enabled system on chip (SoC) module developed by Espressif system. It is mostly used for development of IoT (Internet of Things) embedded applications.


  1. The MQ-6 Gas Sensor of the MQ-x family detects the concentration of gases. In order to stabilize the sensor reading it is important to pre-heat it. The best preheat time for MQ-6 sensor is 24 hours or more. The gas sensor module consists of a steel exoskeleton under which a sensing element is housed. This sensing element is subjected to current through connecting leads. This current is known as heating current through it, the gases coming close to the sensing element get ionized and are absorbed by the sensing element. This changes the resistance of the sensing element which alters the value of the current going out of it.
  2. Every value recorded by the sensor is checked against a threshold value. This threshold value is decided based upon the nature of the gases and also on the behaviour of the sensor. Precisely the sensor is connected to the A0 pin of the Arduino board. The voltage read from the sensor is calculated and displayed. This value can be used as a threshold to detect any increase/decrease in gas concentration. Now when the sensor will be exposed to the gases that MQ-6 can detect then the sensor readings could be compared with the threshold value for detecting leakages.
  3. The concentration of gases are recorded by the sensor and these values are updated on a cloud platform and in this case on ThingSpeak. The internet connection required for doing so is provided by stacking up the Ethernet Shield on Arduino UNO board. There are other platforms which could be used for this, for example. Microsoft Power BI, Google Big Query and the sensor data can also be posted on Google spreadsheet.
  4. The buzzer is actuated when the readings exceed the threshold value.
  5. A call is made to the concerned authority (Lab Incharge, Fire Station, and Ambulance). Just like the email feature, this is also modifiable according to the user needs as to when and what message should be sent and who all should be the recipients.
  6. If the sensor readings are about to reach the lower explosion limit (LEL), the relay cuts off the power supply to the main switch.


The proposed gas leakage detector is promising in the field of safety. The attempt while making this prototype has been to bring a revolution in the field of safety against the leakage of harmful and toxic gases to minimize and hence nullify any major or minor hazard being caused due to them. Nevertheless there is always scope of improvement and some of the features that will improve the system and make it even better and reliable. some of other future improvements

Extended Features of System

The behaviour of the gases is dependent on the temperature and humidity of the air around. A gas at certain concentration might not be flammable at low temperature but might have explosive nature at high temperature. For this reason addition of a Temperature and Humidity Sensor will be very helpful.

Performing Big Data Analytics on the Sensor Readings

Analytics could be performed on the sensor readings. The readings from sensors could be used for forming predictions of situations where there can be a mishap. Instead of straightaway alarming when the concentrations have gone high, algorithms could be worked upon which could determine such situations prior to their occurrence. Combining the gas sensor readings with the readings from temperature and humidity sensor would increase the precision of the system. The cases of false alarms being raised will reduce down to very small percentages.

Dedicated Application for System

A dedicated mobile application could be made for the system. The features of the application would be:

  1. Getting the details of the concentration levels of the house within a tap of a button.
  2. Since it is a safety device it is important for it to be perfectly calibrated and maintained at all times. The app can make sure to send reminders about getting the system checked every once in a while.
  3. The user can add or remove the recipients who will receive the information of leakage whenever they require.
Updated: Feb 20, 2024
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Gas Leak Detection And Smart Alerting Using Iot. (2024, Feb 20). Retrieved from

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