Nowadays, workplaces are responsible for the safety of their employees. Taking measures of their well-being is necessary to prevent accidents in the workplace. They work very difficult and sometimes work extra hours for their welfare. Although no worker would risk placing themselves in a situation where they put themselves in danger. Momentarily, manufacturers change the way they approach the protection of their employees as they wish to work in a safe atmosphere. Industries should be concerned about the safety of an individual as they put effort into designing projects and systems.
It comprises a main duty and moral responsibility for the work site to look after their employees’ protection. Safety requirements are important to assess the engineer’s safety in the work atmosphere. In an industry, safety precautions are a requirement in order to ensure safety to employees. Problems may occur during operation such as things may break, malfunctions may happen, settings change, horns go off, shut-ins take place, and more.
Such problems can be solved quickly, without serious outcomes.
Unfortunately, some risks may have the potential to cause negative consequences. Workplace, health and safety procedures are essential in order to prevent accidents. It is important to observe the working circumstances, since hazards may happen in the workplace. These safety precautions make the physical safety of a product and all the aspects. Safety policy refers to the methods, processes, and performance that meets safety objectives. Conducting risk managements are essential for that it identifies hazardous activities. In an aircraft, maintenance must perform an incorrect hazard analysis to each component to identify any risks.
When flying a commercial aircraft, the passengers must be considered about their safety because of the tendency of failures in machines or technical problems. Safety assurance evaluates the effectiveness of risk strategies and controls. It can be achieved by monitoring and measuring the outcomes of an activity which complies with the safety policy and objectives. There are many engineering fields. Such as Electronics and telecommunication engineering, software engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering and etc. Among these engineering fields, someone has many risks at their works. Now we discuss about civil engineering field.
Civil engineering is the major profession in this real world. It is the most needed engineering field in today world. It is considered as a world’s oldest profession. In last two decades, Civil engineering is one of the most important and in demand field in engineering industry. It takes major place not only in the public sector but also in private sector. Civil engineers create, develop and protect the atmosphere in which we live. Problem solving skills, ability to work to deadlines and within budgets, the ability to think methodically and manage projects are some of the civil engineers’ skills. They should have above skills to do their works properly. There are two types of engineers in civil engineering field. The first one is consulting engineers and the second one is contracting engineers. The consulting engineers are responsible for the design work of projects.
Planning the suitable design for projects, managing budgets and project resources, making sure the project complies with legal requirements, especially health and safety and assessing the sustainability and environmental impact of projects are the works done by consulting engineers. The contracting engineers are responsible for the implement consulting engineers’ designs during the project works. Civil engineering is involved with the planning design and implementation of development projects. It deals with design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment. It also deals including public works. Such as, roads, canals, bridges, dams, railways, airports, high ways, harbors, water supply systems, flood control systems and structured buildings. Several different entrepreneurs work at the same time with different working moments in civil engineering.
Hazard identification is fundamental to civil engineering. Furthermore, external environment and civil structures which situated with inside or outside the building site may be generates hazards in civil engineers’ works. The starting point for identifying hazards of their occurrence should be correctly drawn up graphic schedule of civil engineers’ work. The identification of hazard is a process civil engineers’ main aim is to determine to predict possible dangerous situations in their workplace. Unidentified hazards are the reason for the most uncontrollable risks in civil engineers’ works. Being a civil engineer involves a number of professional challenges. Their workplaces are possible sites for accidents, major injuries and even death. So, the civil engineers have to work in critical and dangerous places to do their works. They have to face many problems at their work sites. So, engineers have to identify the hazards at their work sites. This should be done as soon as possible during the work. If engineers fail to identify a potential risk, they are the main reason for the hazards during their work. Elements of the production process and elements of the surroundings of civil engineers’ work are the sources of hazards in civil engineering field.
The place of work, the kind of conducted their work, the machines and equipment they used and the conditions stemming from the building site location are the factors which generates hazards in the field of civil engineering work. When dealing with the subject of hazard in the civil engineering, we may loosely divide it into two major aspects. The first one is natural hazards. Disaster is the main example for the natural hazards. Civil engineers have to work out site in all weathers. We can’t stop them but we can reduce them with every one contribution to maintain natural balance. Safeguarding the individuals and the assets of society against natural hazards is a classical task of the civil engineers. The second one is physical hazards. We can prevent the physical hazards. For an example for physical hazards, when employees work at elevated heights, they will be at risk of falling and getting injured. Sometimes they lose their body parts because of falling from elevated heights. And sometimes they have to face death. The role of human errors also takes a part in accidents at work sites. Civil engineers have to face these accidents when they work without suitable safety equipment. So, when they face accidents, they do not have any safety precautions to protect them.
When civil engineers do excavation, they have to face many risks because of falling down into crater, being knocked down by excavator or truck and being buried under excavated material. So, they should be very careful when they work in excavation. When they work in road sites, they have to face many accidents by heavy vehicles. It is very dangerous to work. Being struck by pump hose when they work with dams. Civil engineers also have to face danger from sharp reinforcement bars when they work in dangerous workplaces. Electrocution during consolidation is also a very dangerous hazard in civil engineering field. It is also a reason for personal injuries and death of civil engineers. Explosion of gas cylinder is the major risk in the world when civil engineers deal with gas industry in their works. It is the reason for major fire accidents in cities. So, the civil engineers get injury or even death by huge fire accidents. Demolition is one of the most effective hazards in civil engineering. Suffering burn during torching of membrane when they injured very deeply in their body parts. Electrocution due to improper electric connection and fire hazard due to welding spark are faced by welding work civil engineers. Stuck by grinding wheel and breaking of wheel are the hazards faced by grinding work civil engineers. The falls of objects which are stacked in elevated areas are causing injuries. So, every civil engineer faces most dangerous hazards when they work at their worksites. The above statements say that civil engineering field is the risky job among the all engineering fields. Knowing the sources of hazards one can identify the potential hazards and develop a proper work safety plan.
Hazard evaluation is the process of measuring the identified hazards in workplace for each year. It is also a fundamental that can be applied to civil engineering projects. Identification, probability of risks, risk assessment, monitoring and review are the basic steps of a hazard evaluation process. For the initial hazard evaluation in civil engineering, consider the hazard identified in the worksites before any safety controls are applied. The result indicates that hazard evaluation in civil engineering are far from ideal. In reality, most risks do not have a single cost but a probability distribution of possible costs. The maximum hazard evaluation levels were found to be a civil engineering project within the nuclear industry, gas industry, railway industry and general construction industry sector. According to the statistics, maximum probability of civil engineers’ death is happened due to their worksite accidents. There are 60% deaths more than any other workplace activity for each year.
There are also 4000 injuries happened to civil engineers for each year. In construction accidents, the maximum accidents are happened by falls down from evaluated heights and trapped by something collapsing or overturning. Struck by moving vehicle, contact with electricity or electrical discharge also takes a part in engineers’ work site accidents according to the probability of engineer death and personal injury. According to the statistics, civil engineers faced death and personal injuries by working without safety equipment. Struck by a falling object during machine work, contact with moving machinery or material being machined and exposure to a hot or harmful substance are also take a miner part in construction accidents to civil engineers. Hazard evaluation of in-coming benefits includes ensuring backup supplies for process critical systems in civil engineering field. Hazard evaluation helps to manage and control the hazards in their workplaces.
The application of engineering safety and risk management within industries and institutions provides continuous exposures of risk to human and the environment. This is a rapidly evolving area of expertise that continues to provide risk prevention solutions in a wide range of industrial, commercial, transportation, government, and institutional setting. In a nuclear industry, engineers design and develop nuclear equipment for their needs. Though, it can cause nuclear exposure to radiation which may lead to the environment, and may also affect the people around. The process of risk management is the best practice all over the world, particularly for hazardous industries but spreading to others. Engineering decisions are being made on the basis of dangerous hazards. Therefore, it is essential for engineers to understand the process of risk management. In order to manage workplace protection and avoid accidents and illness absence, it’s important to identify, monitor and reduce the risk associated with workplace hazards. To effectively control and prevent hazards you must involve workers.
Employees must have a good understanding of the conditions that create hazards and insights into how they must be controlled. The workplace must develop plans with measures to protect workers during emergencies and nonroutine activities. Evaluate the effectiveness of existing controls to determine whether they continue to provide safety, or whether different controls may be more effective. Review new technologies for their potential to be more protective, more reliable, or less costly. Risk management is an area of knowledge in which all engineers must be familiar with. It should be a discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety. Safety engineering is essential as it safeguards human life, especially in high-dangerous areas such as nuclear, aircraft, chemical, oil and gases, and mining industries, where a fatal mistake can cause a catastrophe. All the work industries do have protective risks but the management should give their time to think and strategize the things that what safety precautions are required in their work sites to make sure that their workers are safe enough for all the working time.
Every civil engineer should carry out a risk management at their workplaces. Risk management, one should describe the risks in civil engineering and how one can prevent them. The work environment coordinator gives the risk management for execution. In this way, the work follows the workplace regulations, and does not create risks for each civil engineer. The civil engineers should make sure that they receive correct instructions to prevent hazards in their work sites. Risk management should apply in the workplaces according to the hazard evaluation in civil engineering field. Risk management techniques help to control the identified hazards in civil engineering.
To design solutions for occupational safety at a workplace for the civil engineers’ project, an occupational hazard was assessed. Possible solutions for occupational safety depend on the number of criteria such as hazardous factors from which workers must be protected, the number of danger zones and etc. The following are the possible solutions for civil engineers’ safety at their workplaces.
It is very important when they do their works at dangerous work sites. They should wear the right protection equipment such as hard hats, earplugs, earmuffs, safety gloves, full face masks, safety helmets and any other equipment which is required to wear during working. These equipment’s will prevent the civil engineers from the incidents that happen at their work sites. Civil engineers should be trained to use the equipment safely.
Employees should be trained to stack the items safely in elevated areas to protect themselves. The falling objects should be stored on working platforms to reduce accidents. Employees must learn how to use the instruments which used in their works at work sites. So, the safety training should be important to protect engineers. Employees must supply and maintain the own head protection.
Mostly engineers have to face problems due to the dangerous workplaces. So, they should install the right safety equipment in their workplace to minimize the opportunities of a workplace hazard. Airbags and safety nets are examples for collective fall arrest equipment. Only none of the above measures are practicable then, employees should be considered ladder of step ladders. Use toe boards and guard rails while working platform to reduce accidents.
Display the mandatory head protection signs and awareness signs around the work sites. Vehicles should be kept away as far as possible by using warning signs, posters and barriers from work sites. Such as excavation, road sites and etc. It will be more protectable for engineers.
Equipment for work at elevated height needs regular inspection and maintenance to ensure that it is fit to use. A regular marking system is properly required to safe employees from struck of machineries.
The above solutions help to prevent the engineers’ personal injuries, accidents and deaths. Employees should avoid working at elevated height, if possible. A properly organized provision should be implemented at their workplaces. They should follow these safety precautions when they working at their work sites.
The first step for maintaining a safe workplace is defining and analyzing hazards. Although all hazards in civil engineering should be addressed, resource limitations usually do not allow this to happen at one time. Hazard identification, hazard evaluation, risk assessment and hazard control in the preplanning design and layout of manufacturing or service utilities can be used to establish priorities so that the dangerous stages are addressed first and those least likely to occur major problems can be considered later in civil engineering. Working at height, and manual handling considered to be most critical hazards in industry of civil engineering. Based on methods used to communicate risk at work sites, it was revealed that site meetings, posters and informal verbal communication are used to reduce and prevent risks. Safety committees play a major role in health and safety risks in work sites. Safety committees in civil engineering also require health and safety risk to be communicated to civil engineers. Risk management issues regular inspections and compliance certificates. Furthermore, safety is another factor influencing risk management. Knowledge of safety engineering is a criterion for civil engineering. The work environment influences the safety of an engineer. The knowledge of safety engineering also provides factors hindering safety risk management in worksites. The factors include the engineers’ awareness from hazards in every engineering fields. The process of analyzing hazards in civil engineering should correspond to the process of changes in the state of the structure being erected. Concerning the above, a procedure facilitating the recognition of factors which generate hazards has been developed. An important component of the procedure is a catalogue of hazards which includes possible conditions of work realization. The good process of safety engineering helps to deliver safe efficient and manage risks. A workplace safety training will help to reduce injuries and death. Occupational safety is one of the good acts because this act can be a guideline to the engineers for securing the safety and welfare of themselves at their workplace. Safety is also protecting engineers against risks in engineers work. So, every thing connected with the safety at the work site, the engineers can refer safety to the responsibilities that they should take at their workplace, the procedures of enforcement. Safety engineering is very useful in many ways for future developments. Safety engineering must be important in every engineering field.