Social change means a change in social structure, in the size of society, in the composition or balance of its parts or in the types of its organization (Ginsberg, 1958).Social change is an incontestable feature of cultural reality. It is another thing that its pace varies from age to age, culture to culture and from one area of culture to that of another. For a variety of reasons the pace of social change has been rather slow in earlier cultures, chief reasons being the hold of authoritarianism, religion, illiteracy etc.
With the decline of authoritarianism and religion, with the rise of science, technology and industry, with the attendant fast means of communication and travel, the process of social change has been accelerated. It can be said that social mobility comes through education. Social change is influenced by so many factors such as historical, cultural, geographical, biological, demographical, political, economical and ideological factor. Education is also an important tool for social change.
Characteristics of Social Change:
(1) Social change is universal
It means that social change is not confined to a particular society or group. It occurs in every society, sociologically, speaking an unchangeable society is considered as a dead society. Thus, no society is free from the impact of social change.
(2) Speed of social change is related to time factor
The speed of social change is not uniform. It differs from period to period. In modern society the speed of social change is rapid or faster than traditional society.
(3) Speed of social change is unequal and comparative
We can argue that speed of social change is more or less similar in each society. It is slow in traditional society whereas it is rapid in modern society. In urban areas the speed of social change is faster than the rural areas.
(4) Social change is an essential law
Essential law means a law which occurs and over which we have no control. It may be planned or not, it must occur.
(5) Social change may be planned or unplanned
Planned changes are those which occur by some deliberate or conscious effort. On the other hand, unplanned change refers to the change which occurs without any deliberate effort like earth-quake, war, political revolution and other natural calamities. Thus, social change occurs both in planned and unplanned manner.
(6) Social change may be short term or long term
Some change brings immediate change which is known as short term change, like fashion, behavior of the individual etc. But other changes take years to produce result which is known as long term change. Custom, tradition, folkways, mores etc. are long term changes.
(7) Social change lacks definite prediction
Prediction means ‘foretelling’ in case of social change we are well aware of various factors but we cannot predict although it is a law. Definite prediction of social change is not possible, because what will the result of social change we cannot say.
(8) Social change is a community change
Social change does not refer to the change which occurs in the life of an individual or life pattern of individuals. It is a change which occurs in the entire community and that change can be called social change which influences a community form.
(9) Social change is the result of the interaction of various factors
A single factor can trigger a particular change but never causes social change. It is always associated with other factors such as Cultural, Biological, Physical, Technological and others. It is due to the material interdependence of social phenomena. EDUCATION
What is education?
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others, but may also be autodidactic. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education is commonly divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college, university or apprenticeship. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE
The relationship between education and social change takes a dual form-education as an instrument and education as a product. This implies that education as an instrument is used as a means for bringing about desired changes in the society and in the latter case changes in the educational structure follows as a consequence of changes which have already taken place in the society. There are three types of relationship between education and social change which are as follows: 1. Education as a Necessary Condition of Social Change.
Historical experience of advanced countries has shown that for any social revolution education is the pre-condition. Illiterates remain satisfied with their existing conditions and feel that they are destined to be what they are. They never bother to exert to bring change in their present social and economic conditions. They are guided by orthodoxy, traditions and fate rather than by rationality in their actions. Education helps people to make them rational in their thinking and approach.
2. Education as an Outcome of Social Change
There is inter-dependent relationship between education and social change. On the one hand it brings change in social conditions. On the other hand it is influenced by social change, which means social change helps spreading education. Education follows social change. It has its place before and after social change First come social changes and then teaching process is changed according to those social changes. Education system changes according to the needs of society.
3. Education as an Instrument of Social Change
Education as an instrument of social change means how education helps people to bring social change. Education changes the outlook and the tradition approach towards social and economic problems. It sharpens the skills and knowledge of the children. Technical education helps in the process of industrialization which results in vast changes in society. Education not only preserves the cultural traditions i.e., customs, traditions and values etc. of the society but also transmits them to the next generation. It also motivates the children to adopt new pattern in order to remain dynamic and forward looking. Education fulfils the needs of the society and propagates such ideas which promote social changes in all fields of life. TYPES OF SOCIAL CHANGE
The change from social evils to scientific thoughts
Digressive / Negative
In a well going society new evils emerge
NATURE OF SOCIAL CHANGE
1. A Universal Phenomenon
2. The spreading of social change is not uniform
3. Variations in the Speed of social change
5. Results in interaction of number of factors
6. Modifications or replacements.
Aspects of Social Change
Scientific and Technological
Role of education in Social Change
1) Education perpetuates eternal values
2) Promotes capacity to welcome social change
3) Evaluation of social change
4) Transmission of culture
5) Removal of obstacles
6) Increasing the areas of knowledge
7) Leadership role
8) Mother of new changes
9) Spreading knowledge
10) Stabilizing democratic values
11) Control channelizes and modifies thoughts of new generation
12) School as a workshop for citizenship training
13) Awareness against social evils
14) National and international understanding
15) Equality among masses
16) Social Awakening
17) National Development
Influence of Education on society
Education plays a very important role in molding the character of an individual. It is one of the concrete sources from which one get information and knowledge. It affects the society. We can make sense of its effective role from the following points. 1] Preservation and transmission of our social, moral and cultural values. In Education, through curriculum, students will be acquainted with social, moral and cultural values and teachers make them familiar with values and ideal through different activities, games, story-telling etc. Education makes them familiar with constitution, rules and regulations of citizens and so on. As we find in NPE 1986 major objectives to produce a productive citizen has been fulfilled by education so education preserves our value and it make others to imbibe those values.
2] Awakening of Social feelings
Through education individuals become aware about the importance of unity, love, fraternity and other values. Education makes all people get awakened of being a part of society and how they can contribute the world as society. People know different values and life skills and thus they develop concern for society including social mindedness, values life skills, learning to be, learning to do, learning to know, learning to live together via different activities story telling dramatization.
3] Political development of society
Education makes all aware about rights and duties of all, which are their responsibilities and duties so that they can develop their civic sense. Through different lesson of political leaders and stories education develop ideal leadership quality so that in future citizens can lead t e state as a society.
4] Economic development of society
Education develops skills in individual and makes him a productive citizen. Through education everyone learns how to earn money and as per their qualification he gets job or labour and on the whole with the help of education more or less everyone get work and earn money so due to increasing literacy per capita income will increase As we find govt take help in the form of tax and thus our economy develops. Because of education people migrate in other country and their earning helps to develop society, country. Thus education affects the economic development of society.
5] Social control
Education makes all aware about customs and duties the same as it makes aware about the rules and regulations as we find the rules in Indian constitution. People know how to preserve their lives via education. They make also familiar with crimes. Thus education provides a guideline and it controls all society.
6] Social changes and reforms
Education makes individuals perfects and aware about the rights. So they can claim against dwelled superstitions, beliefs which are harmful for them. Through education everyone learn grow to live and how to save from difficulty and how to inculcate values and ideals in their lives and ideals in their lives so they can appeal in court having of felling injustice. Education makes all aware about how to live peacefully and how to face difficulties ion their lives .They become aware about the proverbs like ‘nothing ventured, nothing gained’ so they develop their risk taking attitudes via education.
7] Socialization of a child
Education trains the mind of a child and it teaches him how to inculcate values in his life. It makes the child understand what is society, how he is a part of society, what are his roles in society, how he should behave, how he should interact with others etc. Education helps him to understand who is he? And it develops a sense if a social being in him. In short education socializes a child. Thus, education produces productive citizens it helps everyone how to flourish and makes them ideal citizens of society. To sum up, Education influences the society.
Education and Social Change
The role of education as an agent or instrument of social change and social development is widely recognized today. Social change may take place – when humans need change. When the existing social system or network of social institutions fails to meet the existing human needs and when new materials suggest better ways of meeting human needs. According to Maclver social change takes place as a response to many types of changes that take place in the social and nonsocial environment. Education can initiate social changes by bringing about a change in outlook and attitude of man. It can bring about a change in the pattern of social relationships and thereby it may cause social changes.
Earlier educational institutions and teachers used to show a specific way of life to the students and education was more a means of social control than an instrument of social change. Modern educational institutions do not place much emphasis upon transmitting a way of life to the students. The traditional education was meant for an unchanging static society not marked by any change. But today education aims at imparting knowledge. Education was associated with religion.
It has become secular today. It is an independent institution now. Education has been chiefly instrumental in preparing the way for the development of science and technology. Education has brought about phenomenal changes in every aspect of men’s life. Francis J.Brown remarks that education is a process which brings about changes in the behavior of society. It is a process which enables every individual to effectively participate in the activities of society and to make positive contribution to the progress of society. Introduction
Education in the Present Period
Education today is oriented to promoting values of an urban, competitive Consumer society. Through the existing education system, India has produced in the last five decades number of scientists, professionals and technocrats who have excelled in their fields and made a mark at the national and international levels. It is not a question of the extent to which education provides or fails to provide employment to people but it is a question of education providing modern technology for the benefit of the poor and deprived people. It is a question of the quality of education. Instead of merely viewing the growing population as a liability, we should change the population into an asset and strength along with trying to control its growth. This can be done only by education and human development. The three main deficiencies in the present education system may be described as follows: (1) The present education does not generate or fortify the type of knowledge that is relevant to our changed society. (2) Technology associated with a particular body of knowledge is inappropriate to our stage of development in terms of its employment potential or investment demands. (3) Education has failed to provide value framework which may prepare committed politicians, bureaucrats, technocrats, and professionals on whom our nation can depend for sophisticated system of support services to be useful in taking the country to the highest level.
Though education does not guarantee high status and higher positions to all people, yet without education, an individual is unlikely to achieve social mobility. Gore avers that education plays a role in equalizing opportunities in three ways. (1) By making it possible for all those who have the desire to be educated and the ability to benefit by that facility; (2) By developing a content of education which will promote the development of a scientific and objective outlook. (3) By creating a social environment of mutual tolerance based on religion, language, caste, class, etc. for providing equal opportunities of social mobility to all individuals in society, and for providing equal opportunity to secure good education is crucial. How is education related to equality of opportunity can be perceived on the basis of the findings of one empirical study conducted in eight states in 1967 on the social background of students (age, sex, caste, father‟s occupation, father‟s education, etc.) studying at various levels high school, college and professional colleges. This study presented two posse-group, propositions:
(1) Education is priority with those in the white-collar group, and children in this group use educational facilities more than other groups, and children in this group use educational facilities more than other groups;
(2) Education is differentially available to those who do not belong to white-collar group (see Gore,1994:33). If the first proposition is correct, it probably underlines the irrelevance of education to non-white-collar groups in our society.
Education, Social Change And Modernisation :-
Education has been accepted as one major agency of socialization, and teachers and educational institutions as socializing agents. In describing education as an instrument of social change, three things are important: the agents of change, the content of change, and the social background of those who are sought to be changed, i.e. students. Educational institutions under the control of different cultural groups reflect the values of those groups which support and control education. In this situation, teachers Impart specific values, aspirations and to the children.
Social reformers, who were educated emphasized values like removal of caste restrictions, equality of women, doing away with social evil social customs and practices, voice in the governance of the country, establishing democratic institutions and so on. They, thus, wanted to teach liberal philosophy through education for changing society. In other words they regarded education as a flame or light of knowledge which dispelled the darkness of ignorance.
The use of education for spreading the values of modernization came to be emphasized from the 1960s and 1970s onwards. Highly productive economies, distributive justice, people‟s participation in decision-making bodies, adoption of scientific technology in industry, agriculture and other occupations and professions were accepted as goals for modernizing the Indian society. And these goals were to be achieved through liberal education. Thus, modernization was not accepted as a philosophy or a movement based on rational values system but as a process that was to be confined only to economic field but was to be achieved in social, political, cultural and religious fields too. Education was sought to be utilized as channel for the spread of modernity
According to the sociological perspective, education does not arise in response of the individual needs of the individual, but it arises out of the needs of the society of which the individual is a member1. The educational system of any society is related to its total social system. It is a sub system performing certain functions for the on-going social system. The goals and needs of the total social system get reflected in the functions it lays down for educational system and the form in which it structures it to fulfill those functions.
In a static society, the main function of the educational system is to transmit the cultural heritage to the new generations. But in a changing society, these keep on changing from generation to generation and the educational system in such a society must not only transmit the cultural heritage, but also aid in preparing the young for adjustment to any changes in them that may have occurred or are likely to occur in future. In contemporary societies, “The proportion of change that is either planned or issues from the secondary consequences of deliberate innovations is much higher than in former times.” This is more so in societies that has newly become independent and are in a developing stage. Consequently, in such modern complex societies, education is called upon to perform an additional function of becoming Thus, the relationship between educational system and society is mutual; sometimes the society influences changes in educational system and at other times the educational system influences changes in the society.
Education of Women :-
The National Policy on Education, 1986 also laid emphasis on education for attaining women‟s equality which will foster the development of new values. The strategies proposed are: encouraging educational institutions to take up active programmes to further women‟s development removal of women‟s illiteracy, removing obstacles inhibiting their access to elementary education, and pursuing policy of non-discrimination to eliminate sex stereotyping in vocational, technical and professional courses.
Education of SCs, STs. And OBCs
Education is directly related to the development of an individual and the community. It is the most important single factor for economic development as well as social emancipation. For the weaker sections of society, education has a special International Educational E-Journal, significance because for a number of centuries, their illiteracy and social backwardness have been used for their harassment, humiliation and economic exploitation.
Nature Of Social Change And Its Impact On Education
Change In Wider Social Environment :-
The change may be in the total social environment surrounding the society. It may be due to some internal forces or external forces arising in other societies. Social phenomena occurring in neighboring or distant societies have very widespread impact now. English, for example, is now became a world language for dissemination of knowledge and consequently India feels the necessity to emphasis the need for retaining and strengthening the knowledge of English in order to continue to be benefited by new knowledge developing all over the world.
Change In Social Goals, Objectives And Values :-
The social change may be in social goals, objectives and values. The changes may be in social values that directly affect the content of social roles and social interaction. For example, the adoption of equality as a value may ultimately lead to compulsory and free primary education, to expansion of primary educational facilities to all children up to the age of fourteen and to providing financial and other aid to backward classes for enabling them to avail of the expanded educational facilities. Institutional Social Changes
The social change may be „institutional‟ which includes change in more definite structures such as form of organization, roles and role content. The adoption of democracy and adult franchise in India has made training in responsible and responsive citizenship absolutely necessary for the electorate. This may ultimately affect the content and the method of teaching in educational institutions as well as the teacher-taught relationships.
Changes In Knowledge And Technology
The changes may be in the existing knowledge and technology. Space exploration, industrialization, agricultural and domestic technology, development of transportation, and mass media of communication, new understanding of the human organism, individual and social behavior are some of the scientific and technological areas in which knowledge has expanded a great deal and will still continue to expand. Thus, the development of knowledge and technology may bring changes in syllabus, teaching and evaluating methods and role of teacher.
Change In Size And Composition Of Population
The change may be in the size and composition of population. The explosion of population with differential rates of increase in different regions, communities, socio-economic groups and age groups may necessitate many changes in the educational system. Students with different levels of intelligence and educational aspirations, belonging to different socio-economic classes, different castes and religious groups have begun to come in the same type of educational institution and are huddled in same classroom. All these changes also necessitate change in the educational system.
Thus, different types of social changes occurring in society make the existing educational system dysfunctional to a certain extent and in course of time pressurize to bring changes in it.
Social Change And Lags In Indian Educational System
In response to social change educational system must also change. The change may be in consonance with the social change and meet the new goals and demands of various social groups adequately. Otherwise a lag is created between the goals and demands of the society and the goals and demands of the educational system. A number of such lags have occurred in the Indian educational system after independence and in many ways perform a dys functional role in Indian society. This has been accepted by the Kothari Commission very clearly. It reported: “As is well known, the existing system of education is largely unrelated to life and there is a wide gulf between its content and purposes and the concerns of national development Instead of promoting social and national integration and making an active effort to promote national consciousness, several features of the educational system promote divisive tendencies; caste loyalties are encouraged in a number of private educational institutions; the rich and poor are segregated, the former attending the better type of private schools which charge fees while the latter are forced, out of circumstances, to attend free government or local authority . Modernisation Of Education In India : Problems
The modernization of education in India becomes a special problem in several ways. India has adopted the path of economic development within the framework of a free society and therefore it cannot adopt authoritarian means to modernize education. The centre has to get the willing consent of the states and each state has to get the willing consent of its elected representatives in their legislative assemblies before introducing any major change in the allocation of resources to education or in the educational system itself.
Secondly, India has no colonies to depend on for resources to meet the expenditure on modernizing its educational system. It has to depend on its own self and find out its own resources which are bound to be very limited. But, it can avail assistance from advanced countries and international agencies like UNESCO which have developed programmes to assist educational development in developing countries. However, the fact that this aid will also be limited has to be taken into account Thirdly, India has lots of diversities. It economy is mixed, including modern factories along with traditional agriculture. Its tribal, rural and urban groups show very wide contrasts in their physical and social conditions of living. The different levels of development at which the various sections of society stand differentiate their educational needs and complicate the problem of educational development. The aims, methods and organization of education which may be functional for one group may be dysfunctional for the other.
Lastly, in western societies, economic modernization preceded political and social modernization. Consequently, in their educational thinking, they could lay more emphasis on the needs of the individual than on the economic needs of the country. But India, being largely agricultural and poor has to think of the economic needs of the country before it thinks of the needs of individuals. It cannot initially afford to waste its resources on educational programmes that are not productive in economic terms.
Thus the Indian education system needs a complete overhaul through proper legislation and its effective implementation. Legislations should be made taking into account the regional diversities of each state. The masses should be made aware of the new developments.
Education has become one of the influential instruments of social change in India. It has led to the mobilization of people‟s aspirations for development and change. Thus in modern complex national societies, education can neither be regarded as a controlling force conserving cultural heritage, nor could it be viewed as an agent of social change. It can only be regarded as a cooperative force in bringing about social changes decided by the forces possessing more pervasive power in society. Thus the Indian education system needs a complete overhaul through proper legislation and its effective implementation. Legislations should be made taking into account the regional diversities of each state. The masses should be made aware of the new developments.
Greene.MC Reflections on Post Modernism and education. Educational Policy http://www.sociology guidr.com / education / education and social change Ram Ahuja (2005). Society in India concepts, Theories and Recent Trends New Delhi: p.215
Ram Ahuja (2005). Social Problems in India New Delhi. p.1-26