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Risks on Students Prostitution in Zamboanga City

INTRODUCTION

Many students nowadays Hard-up students are turning to the sex industry to pay for their course fees, according to reports (streetlight.uk.org 2000). Young prostitute are earning by taking up pole dancing, escort work and prostitution to help fund their studies. The trend has been blamed on the rising cost of higher education, which will see some students graduate with projected debts and the proliferation of websites that facilitate opportunities for anonymous sex work.

The High in tuition fees, soaring living costs and government cuts to maintenance grants are all reportedly forcing more and younger prostitute to turn to prostitution and other forms of sex work.

The young students who engage on this job are very fragile on society and emotional pressure. The commercial student prostitute industry includes street prostitution, massage brothels, escort services, outcall services, strip clubs, lap dancing, phone sex, and child pornography, video and internet pornography, and prostitution tourism. Most student prostitute who are in prostitution for longer than a few months drift among these various permutations of the commercial sex industry.

There are corresponding risks that a student prostitute can acquire namely some sexually diseases that they can get through the intercourse and also in her personality, her outlook towards the society whether it is emotionally or physically.(Weitzer, Ronal, 2005)

RELATED LITERATURE

All prostitution causes harm to women. Whether it is being sold by one’s family to a brothel, or whether it is being sexually abused in one’s family, running away from home, and then being pimped by one’s boyfriend, or whether one is in college and needs to pay for next semester’s tuition and one works at a strip club behind glass where men never actually touch you – all these forms of prostitution hurt the women in it.

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(Melissa Farley,. 1-28-2000)

HEALTH PROBLEM

In the Philippines student prostitute working in club or bars and school keep and entertaining their customer as they can give. Nearly all student prostitutes can be fine and taken from anywhere they agree for having a short time and long time sex as the customer will do so. Mostly the student prostitute stay at school but is also found in the bar’s and clubs or in a substandard dormitories provided by the bars or clubs, they are using sign and symbol to figure out the customer that they can easily taken or paid. Lots of students who are engaging in this kind of job where facing difficulty, like facing financial problem. For them in order to survive and for them to go to school this is the easiest way to earn some money and to sustain their daily needs. Though there is a lot of other good works, they still choose this job even their health are more concerned. Student prostitute is a tuff job, they probably get some serious diseases or health problem that they will suffer it for the rest of their lives and also they can undergo some emotional and physical difficulties.

The possible disease that prostitute engaging in sex especially the student prostitute is STD (sexually transmitted disease )is an infection of the genitalia and reproductive organs and other tissues, they are transmitted by sexual activity. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), also can be transmitted sexually. If the student prostitute infected by the virus and continuing in sexual activity tendency they will be spreading the virus. According to the world health organization WHO (World Health Organization) there are 2 million people who is infected with the virus. (WHO, 1990) How is HIV transmitted? Worldwide, the primary method of this virus transmission is through heterosexual intercourse with over 90% off all adolescent and adult HIV infectious occurring in this manner. Whole infection may occur in both sexes during the heterosexual intercourse.

And if this student prostitute do not consult her doctors or if she is irresponsible about her body and neglected her hygiene , she is at greater possibility to have this illness. Here in the Philippines particularly in Zamboanga there are lots of clubs, bar or a pub house in the said city. It shows that people in the Zamboanga city loves to go in the pub house. Also their lots of prostitute especially young ones work as guest relationship officer or student prostitutes so no wonder that they can easily acquire the diseases. But health care of Zamboanga city do the job or giving permit as seeing if this particularly prostitute can practice or if he past some medical session that hospitals give then he might be qualifier as to work as guest relation officer but being a prostitutes is illegal by law and it its prohibited in our country.

There are several diseases that student prostitute might acquire during sexual activity, not only HIV. In the early days AIDS epidemic, previous to the routine of screening blood and blood product for HIV antibodies, HIV also occurred in some patient as a result of receiving blood transfusions and blood products. Other way HIV virus can be transmitted include the injections of illegal drugs, sharing or using previously use needle, male to male sexual intercourse, contact with another person’s bodily fluids such as blood prostitute, or vaginal secretion (does not include sweat or saliva), and sexual intercourse both vaginal and anal intercourse, as well as oral sex.

All of us can have this illness. We cannot blame this student prostitutes to have an affair on their customers and have sex. It is part of their field, because engaging in sex with their customers is the greatest achievement a prostitute and entertain prostitute that the student prostitute can offer to their customers. (WHO, 1990) Student Prostitute frequently must contend with some distinctively female sign of HIV infection such as: Early Signs and Symptoms of HIV

Some people experience signs and symptoms of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), as soon as they become infected, while others do not. When they occur, early signs and symptoms are often mistaken for the flu or a mild viral infection. Initial signs and symptoms of HIV include: Fever, Headache Tiredness Nausea Diarrhea Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin. Any symptoms from becoming infected typically resolve in one to four weeks. As you can see, the signs and symptoms of HIV infection are similar to those for many different viral infections. The only way to know for sure if you are infected with HIV is to be tested. Many people infected with HIV do not have any signs and symptoms at all for many years.

Later Signs and Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

Gonorrhea in the 1900’s was misdiagnosed and not considered as serious as it really was. It was described as a purulent, or pus leaking inflammation of the mucous membrane, discharging from the urethra in men and the vagina in women. Victorian doctors however, were incorrect in their diagnosis of gonorrhea as a mild and inconsequential disease in women. In the outer physical appearance, women with this disease seemed healthy, but the doctors were unaware of the affect it had on the uterus and fallopian tubes, often, if untreated, leading to sterility and severe pelvic inflammation. (Walkowitz, 1980, p.53) The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) says the following signs and symptoms may be warning signs of late-stage HIV infection: rapid weight loss, dry cough, recurring fever or profuse night sweats profound and unexplained fatigue, swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck, diarrhea lasting more than a week, white spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat, pneumonia, red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids, memory loss, depression, and other neurological disorders HIV destroys the white blood cells that are required to fight infection.

As the white cell count falls to dangerous levels, numerous infections and diseases emerge. It is at this point that a person is said to have AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). According to the CDC, as with an initial HIV infection, you cannot rely on these signs and symptoms to establish a diagnosis of AIDS. The symptoms of AIDS are similar to the symptoms of many other illnesses. AIDS is a medical diagnosis made by a healthcare professional based on specific criteria established by the CDC. The student prostitute might put their health at risk. One health risk includes acquiring an HIV which causes AIDS, and is transmitted through bodily fluid such as blood, seprostitute, and vaginal secretions. These are the health problems that many of student prostitutes may encounter in reality. It is easy to understand that high risk behavior is associated with AIDS/HIV which include a history of having sex for money or drugs, having unprotected sex with a man who had sex with another man, having unprotected sex with someone who currently or previously injected street drugs, a history of multiple sex partners, or having unprotected sex with someone who has any of these risk factor.

You don’t get HIV/ AIDs by kissing, using same utensils, hugging, through sweat or saliva or the normal interaction of very day life. Student prostitute is a difficult job because it affects you physically, mentally and emotionally. Most of them don’t mind the physical abuse they encounter and the risks to get some disease or a health problem in order for them to survive and to earn some money. A protection against HIV/AIDS is virtually certain for anyone who remains sexually abstinent. That’s probably not going to happen for most consistent and correct use of condoms or dental gums is imperative for those who are not in long term relationships of course while condoms may offer your best protection against HIV/AIDS. You should be aware that these protections are not fool proof.

Condoms occasionally break and are never guarantee of protection against HIV/AIDS, STD and unwanted pregnancy. Never try to double protection yourself by using of condom by you and your customer, (male or female) at the same time this is likely to damage one or both condoms thereby, failing to protect either partner from HIV or other sexual transmitted disease (STD). Student prostitute is prone to have this infection especially if they don’t do safe sex.( in F et al., 2010.) Sometimes there may be no outward signs of STDs or STIs for that reason, safer sex methods (condoms) should be used. As a customers in a pub house if you want to have some extra service to guest relation officer you should be aware of these STIs/STDs better you use a condoms to have a safer sex. The guest relation officers always suffer of illness usually gonorrheal. Health care education about prevention of the spread of STDs to other is often accomplishing prostitute simultaneously.

Discussion about risk factors should emphasize that the same behaviors that led to infection with one STD may introduce risk for any other STD, including HIV. Methods use to contact sexual partners should be discussed. The patient should understand that, until the partner has been treated, continued sexual exposure to same person may lead to re infection. People may need help in planning discussion with partners. If a person is especially apprehensive about this aspect, referral to a social worker or other specialist may be appropriate. Such support is especially important when the person is newly diagnosed with HIV infection.

The infection person should be told what the causative organism is and should receive an explanation of the usual course of infection including of potential communicability to others and possible complication. Education about prevention of STDs includes information about risk factors and behaviors that can lead to infection. Include in this education is information about the relative value of condoms in reducing risk infection. The use of condom too provide protective barrier from transmission of STD- related organism has been broadly promoted, especially since the recognition of HIV/AIDs.

The use of condom has been shown to reduce but not eliminate the risk of transmission of HIV and other venereal diseases. The safer sex more appropriately connotes the public health message to be used when promoting the use of condom. STDs provide a unique set of challenges for nurses, physicians and public official. Because of perceived stigma and possible threat to emotional and physical relationship, those symptoms of STDs are often reluctant to seek health care in timely fashion. Similar to many other infections disease, STDs may progress without symptoms. A delay in diagnosis and treat prostitute is potentially harmful because the risk of complications for infected individual and the risk of transmission to others increase over time. (Boily MC et al, Lancet Infect Dis 9: 118-29, 2009)|

EMOTIONAL

The posible emotional health consequences of student prostitution include severe trauma, stress, depression, anxiety, self-medication through alcohol and drug abuse; and eating disorders. Almost all the Student prostitute categorized themselves as chemically-addicted. Crack cocaine and alcohol were used most frequently. Ultimately, prostitute in prostitution are also at special risk for self-mutilation, suicide and homicide. 46% of the prostitute in the Minneapolis/St. Paul study had attempted suicide, and 19% had tried to harm themselves physically in other ways. (Smelter. S.C. Bare B.G. ( 2008 ).

SOCIAL

In society student prostitute’s are usually easy to get along with despite of endeavor that they are engaging to, but because of the moral specification of the society they tend to be avoidant with the people around them and are trying to hide from the reality resorting to different kinds of vises just to make them selves accompanied. (

PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT

There is much academic debate over the notion of free choice – whether individuals enter prostitution voluntarily or are coerced by unequal power. More importantly, however, is the effect of prostitution on those involved. Most psychologists believe the long-term psychological harm resulting from prostitution is comparable to that from rape or domestic violence. Beyond the Streets highlights that 76% of those involved in prostitution experience some form of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

The core experiences of violence and psychological trauma associated with prostitution are disempowerment and disconnection with others. Internally these experiences often cause a ‘split’ between the mind, body and spirit. Individuals involved in prostitution often develop complex coping mechanisms and rituals to minimise their pain and brokenness, Dissociative disorders (e.g. disconnection, distancing), Anxiety disorders (e.g. fixation, memory loss, panic attacks, flashbacks), Substance abuse (leading to long term addiction and mental illness), Sleeping disorders – oversleeping, insomnia, Depression, Self-harm, Eating Disorders, Obsessive-compulsive behavior (streetlight movement group, united kingdom alright reserve 2012)

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES

Early psychology theories on prostitution were based mainly on the psychoanalytic writings of Sigmund Freud. He regarded prostitutes as biologically deficient and therefore unable to resolve the Oedipus conflict. Freud believed that prostitutes were morally inferior and less able to control their impulse than others. Many Freudians disciples perceived prostituted females as frigid with “immature psychosexual development and severely deficient abject relationship.” However, in case studies of “sex delinquents and prostitutes [there] failed to indicate any general state of abnormality.” In a study by Jennifer James, prostitutes tended to experience a higher rate of orgasm than females in the general population, contradicting the indication of frigidity among prostitution involved females.

Modern psychology and psychiatry have long since dismissed Freudian theoris on prostitution as biased, psychologically unsound, and lacking of necessary social and economical variables. Current psychological research on prostitute has focused on such mental disorder as depression, schizophrenia, and suicidal tendencies.

SOCIAL THEORIES

Early sociological theories on prostitution were also fraught with gender biases and methodology problems. Sociologist William Thomas attributed female prostitution to a need for excitement and response, postulating that prostitution was the “most likely avenue to satisfy those needs.” One critic attacked his prostitution as “sexist in that females were identified as offenders through sexual behavior.” In the 1950 work, The Criminality of Women, Otto Pollak held that female crimes were typically sexually motivated and that female sex criminals such as prostitutes were more of a hidden nature and thus inadequately accounted for in the statistics. In rejecting his arguments, a writer noted: “Pollak’s theories on causation were heavily influenced by Freudian analysis [and] therefore are subject to the same criticism.”

Modern sociologically based theories have explained prostitution in relation to the family, social structure, sexual pathology, and morality. Kingsley Davi’s functionalist theory of prostitution proposed “the function served by prostitution is the protection of the family unit, maintenance of the chastity and purity of the ‘respectable citizenry. “ Charles Winick and Paul Kinsie advanced in The Lively Commerce that the social structure is threatened by prostitution because “people tend to equate sexual activity with stable relationship, typified by the family.” In a social pathology proposition, Edwin Lemert described prostitution as a “formal extension of more generalized sexual pathology in our culture, of which sexual promiscuity and thinly disguised commercial exploitation of sex in informal context plays a large and important part.”

According to cultural transmission theories, teenage prostitution is the result of a “weakening of family and neighbor control and the persistence and transmission from person to person of traditional delinquent activities.” Some evidence exists to support the introduction of many runaway and street youth into prostitution through other prostituted teenagers or from learned behavior. Other cultural transmission theorists blame juvenile prostitution on “urban anonymity and the weakening of traditional and moral values.” This view further contends that prostitution is not a reflection of ecological factors, but can be seen on all occupational and income level. The fact that runaways and teen prostitutes cross the socioeconomic strata, as do those that they service, lends credence to this perspective.

ECONOMIC THEORIES

Economic theories attribute prostitution to economic influences that cause individual to enter and remain in the sex-for-sale industry. Winick and Kinsey postulated that one’s decision to enter into prostitution is based primarily on few opportunities in the work force and the recognition of the income potential prostitution presents. Lemert held that a female’s inferior power in society, including power less control over material gains, makes prostitution a viable choice to balance the gender differential. According to James, there are five aspects of the social and economic structure that lead female into prostitution: (1)No other occupations are available to unskilled or low skilled females that a comparable income to that of prostitution. (2)Practically no other occupation for unskilled or low skilled females provides the independent and adventurous lifestyle of prostitution.

(3)The traditional role of female is virtually synonymous with the culturally defined female sex role that focuses on appearance, service, and sexuality. (4)The cultural significance of wealth and material items leads some females to desire what is normally unavailable due to their socioeconomic position in society. (5)The discrepancy between accepted male and female sex roles creates the “Madonna-whore” view of female sexuality; as a result, females who are sexually active outside their normal sex role expectations such as in prostitution, are labeled as deviants and lose their social status.( – R. Barri Flowers, 1998)

Research on male prostitutes has found that boy prostitution is also closely tied to economic necessity or financial opportunity, irrespective of traditional sex roles or expectations.  In her study of teenage prostitution, Joan Johnson describes money as a symbol for love among prostituted youth. Many teens become addicted to the money made from prostitution, some selling sexual favors while still living under their parents’ roof. Johnson suggest that because most teenage prostitutes lack self-esteem, earning money through prostitution “makes them feel good about themselves,” as they are amazed that “people will pay their bodies.” ( – R. Barri Flowers, 1998)

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The researchers conceptualized that there are three variables that are affecting the research about student prostitute, as mentioned, student participation in prostitution is determined by their personal characteristics.

First is the Age, it is said that the age is affecting the individual’s maturity, experiences and sense of independence. Second is Economic Status, mostly the main reason why students engaged in this kind of work because of the benefits that it is giving to them, easy and a high paying job.  Third is Educational Attainment, it is another variable because for student to attain more in their education they resort to prostitution.

The Conceptualize Framework is best represented through the following scheme at Figure 1.0:
Risks
* Physical Health
* Social
* Emotional
* Psychological
* Health Problem
Risks
* Physical Health
* Social
* Emotional
* Psychological
* Health Problem
Student Prostitute
* Age
* Economic Status
* Education
Student Prostitute
* Age
* Economic Status
* Education

* Age
* Economic Status
* Education

* Age
* Economic Status
* Education

Figure 1.0

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study aimed to determine the factors that contributed to the risks on students prostitute.
It specifically aimed to answer the following questions:
1. What are the psychological and emotional state of a student prostitute?
2. What are the reasons why they engage in prostitution?
3. What are the health, social, and emotional problems encountered by the student prostitute in Zamboanga City?
4. How do the prostitute cope up with the problems and the risks of prostitution?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of the study deemed to benefit the respondents by letting them know and be aware of the possible diseases they may acquire while doing their work. Second, to help student prostitutes by giving them adequate information and suggestion regarding on what to do if ever they will encounter sexually transmitted diseases. Third, to the community, to bring awareness to them that people who are fond of engaging sexual intercourse might have diseases as well which can be transmitted; hence, it gives idea that customers must be more cautious on their health. And last, to the student, to provide information as to their emotional, physical and psychological state.

The findings of the study deemed to benefit the respondents by letting them know and be aware of the possible risk physically, emotionally, mentally, and the possible diseases they may acquire while doing their work. For the school which the student prostitute is in to be informed of the kind of hazards that the student is in with their work most preferably the teacher’s and the guidance and counseling office. And as to the parents of the student prostitute’s to be informed and to be guided as to what is the risk that their children is encountering with the kind of work their in.

CHAPTER II

METHOD
This chapter consists of the research design, the setting, the participants, the instrument used, definition of terms, the procedures and limitation of the study

DESIGN
This study will use a descriptive qualitative research in a form of case study design. The researchers will use this approach being the most appropriate design to pursue the objectives of the study. It seeks to gather pertinent and detailed information from the respondents through an interview on their detailed cased study on Student Prostitutes.

Qualitative research design in this study will flexible to modification throughout the data gathering process in contrast to other research that is generally planned prior to commencing the data collection with no possibility of change once started. The researchers will adjust the inquiry based on the on-going experience of the collection and interpretation of data. It opts to emphasize that the generation of as much relevant raw descriptive information from the respondents.

PARTICIPANTS
In this study, the researchers will utilize three (3) respondents, age ranges from 15 to 25 years old. The participant’s qualification is that they are college student boy or girl, whether they are enrolled or have recently stopped schooling. That they have practiced or engaged in any form of prostituting through the course of schooling. And that they have full awareness of what they are doing and that they know the consequences of their actions and are willing to share their experiences.

SETTING
The study will be conducted within Zamboanga City, at an area that is convenient for both the respondents and the researchers.

MEASURES
MEASURES
Student Prostitute-

Age- is affecting the individual’s maturity, experiences and sense of independence.

Economic Status- the main reason why students engaged in this kind of work because of the benefits that it is giving to them, easy and a high paying job.  Education: is another variable because for student to attain more in their education they resort to prostitution. Risk- the potential that a chosen action or activity (including the choice of inaction) will lead to a loss (an undesirable outcome). The notion implies that a choice having an influence on the outcome sometimes exists (or existed). Potential losses themselves may also be called “risks”. Any human endeavor carries some risk, but some are much more risky than others. Health Problem-

Social- In society student prostitute’s are usually easy to get along with despite of endeavor that they are engaging to, but because of the moral specification of the society they tend to be avoidant with the people around them and are trying to hide from the reality resorting to different kinds of vises just to make them selves accompanied. Emotional- The posible emotional health consequences of student prostitution include severe trauma, stress, depression, anxiety, self-medication through alcohol and drug abuse; and eating disorders. Almost all the Student prostitute categorized themselves as chemically-addicted. Psychological- The core experiences of violence and psychological trauma associated with prostitution are disempowerment and disconnection with others. Internally these experiences often cause a ‘split’ between the mind, body and spirit.

PROCEDURE

Data gathering will start at the beginning of the semester for school year 2013- 2014. Prior to the data collection the researchers will use an interview schedule that was presented to a panel of experts for evaluation of the relevance of each item. After validation researchers will look for three potential respondents who are 15 – 25 years old student engaging in prostitution by snowball sampling technique. After the data was obtained, data will be transcribed, interpreted and analyzed.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The research delimits itself with the cases of student prostitution of college students within the ages 15-25, practicing within the limits of Zamboanga City. The study is also limited by research design and the scarcity of the willing respondents.

Data Analysis
The responses of the participants will be analyze qualitatively. The data from the interview sessions will include the answers of the participant to the said questions. 1.
2.
3.
4.

Respondents| Health Problem| Social| Psychological| Emotional| R1| | | | |
R2| | | | |
R3| | | | |

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books
Runaway Kids and Teenage Prostitution America’s Lost, Abandoned, and … – R. Barri Flowers, greenwood publishing group 1998 Smelter. S.C. Bare B.G. ( 2008 ). Brunner and Suddarth’s Texbook of Medical-Surgical

Jacobson, Jodi L. “The Other Epidemic.” World Watch”. May-June 1992, pp. 10-17. Weitzer, Ronald. “The Growing Moral Panic over Prostitution and Sex Trafficking.” The Crimininologist 30, 5(2005): 1-4. Parriott, Ruth. “Health Experiences of Twin Cities Women Used in Prostitution”: Survey Findings and Recommendations. Unpublished, May 1994.

Journal
Melissa Farley, paper presented at the 11th International Congress on Women’s Health Issues, University of California College of Nursing, San Francisco. 1-28-2000)

in F et al. Per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men in Sydney in the era of HAART. AIDS, published online ahead of print, 2010 WHO, policies and illness of unprotected sex, united kingdom 1990

Cuevas , Frances Prescilla L. “RN,MAN”. ( 2007 ), Public Health Nursing in the Philippines:
10th edition : Published by the Publication Committee Nation League of Philippines
Government Nurses, Incorporated

Valera, Roberto; Sayer, Robin; Glenn Schiraldi. “Violence and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in a Sample of Inner City Street Prostitutes.” American Journal of Health Studies Summer(2000)

Smelter. S.C. Bare B.G. ( 2008 ). Brunner and Suddarth’s Texbook of “Medical-Surgical” Nurcing: 11th edition: Lippicott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia Hunter, Susan Kay quoting oral testimony collected by the Council for Prostitution Alternatives. Prostitution is Cruelty and Abuse to Women and Children.” Feminist Broadcast Quarterly, Spring 1993. Available from the Council for Prostitution Alternatives, 519 Southwest Park Avenue, Suite 208, Portland, Oregon 97205;

Electronics
www.streetlight.uk.com/prostitution-the-facts

http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/mhvhealt.htm
http://www.assassinationscience.com/pros.html
http://www.philosophyinaction.com/blog/?p=2466
http://prostitution.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000106 http://helpmeinvestigate.com/education/2012/02/students-are-increasingly-turning-to-prostitution-to-fund-their-studies-or-are-they/ http://investigatestudentprostitution.wordpress.com/2012/05/13/student-prostitution-funding-a-lifestyle/

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Risks on Students Prostitution in Zamboanga City. (2017, May 24). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/risks-on-students-prostitution-in-zamboanga-city-essay

Risks on Students Prostitution in Zamboanga City
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