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Due to the limited dodo beginnings and the pollution ensuing from utilizing fossil beginnings states have seen an increasing accent on renewables. This paper looked at the developments in renewables in the Netherlands and Turkey by showing the fiscal and political chances. The Netherlands is a guide land in renewable and renewables has besides been going more and more of import in Turkey. This paper indicates Turkey has great potency in the renewables arena and performs better than most EU states.
But the higher fixed costs and outdated funding mechanisms in Turkey demands new methods. The Netherlands wind experience may function as a good footing to Turkey in the renewable country.
Rough estimations of the universe militias of fossil fuel are: oil 40 old ages, gas 60 old ages and coal 200 old ages ( World Energy Outlook, 2006 ) . We are seeing an addition in the demand for energy and a lessening in the supply of fossil energy. For case, we can see that the oil production of Brent Oil ( North Sea ) and West Texas Intermediate ( WTI )[ 1 ]has been worsening for many old ages.
That makes Western society more dependent on oil from less stable states like Venezuela, the Middle East and Russia. The increasing dependence on politically instable states gives Turkey the possibility to go a comparatively stable state in an instable country. Although Turkey itself does non bring forth fossil energy, it can go an energy hub by transporting fossil energy from its Asiatic neighbor to Europe.
An option to fossil energy is renewables.
Portfolio survey consequences indicate that replacing fossil fuel with renewable energy helps cut down electricity-generating cost hazard ( Huang and Wu, 2007 ; Awerbuch, 2006 ) . The possible advantage of including renewable energy beginnings in the generating portfolio is that of extenuating fossil monetary value volatility.[ 2 ]Costello ( 2005 ) argues that fuel diverseness has the possible to progress several socially desirable aims such as ( a ) lower long-run monetary values, ( B ) lower monetary value hazard, ( degree Celsius ) less dependence on foreign beginnings of energy, ( vitamin D ) higher power dependability and ( vitamin E ) a cleansing agent environment.
The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark rank among the most environmentally witting states in the universe, yet renewable energy could non set up itself without authorities intercession in these states. The EU with its Renewable Energy Road Map ( 2007 ) established a compulsory mark of 20 % for renewable energy ‘s portion of energy ingestion. There are differences between the states in Western Europe. Germany and Spain are the front smugglers in renewables. For illustration, weave energy is good developed in Germany. A big difference between those two states and the remainder of Europe is that in Spain and Germany a long-run attack was developed, which had a positive influence on the investing clime. Turkey, which will go a full member of the EU in the close hereafter is blowy and sunny, which gives chances to bring forth air current energy and solar energy.
One of the biggest differences between the EU-15 and the campaigner states refering the opportunities for renewable signifiers of energy is public consciousness, which is really high particularly in Northern Europe. In Denmark, for illustration, there are more than 3000 co-operative air current turbines and between 100,000 and 150,000 persons who own them. By January 2003, 20 per cent of Dutch families had already opted for green electricity ( Reiche and Bechberger, 2004 ) .
Hilmi Guler, Minister of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey, said that the issue of renewable energy was really non a affair of the hereafter but a affair of today, that pressing action had to be taken in the country of renewable energy and that Turkey was non affected by the planetary crisis sing energy enterprises. Guler stated that Turkey was 2nd after China in power and natural gas ingestion that it was in a prima place in many investings, that the energy market was ready for new investings in all facets and that the investing Bankss in Europe and worldwide should measure Turkey otherwise from other states. Guler asserted that the value of energy investings in Turkey exceeded 30 billion dollars, and that 80 per cent of the investings were realized in the renewable energy country. Stating that they had prepared the air current, solar power and geothermic maps of Turkey, Guler emphasized that Turkey was among the first 11 states in the universe sing air current power, that its one-year solar power potency was 380 billion KWh and that the geothermic energy, which is a really clean type of energy, offers many new investing chances. Turkey aimed at increasing the figure of investors in the energy industry from 3,000 to 3 million, and besides added that energy efficiency is a manner of investing and that the late started Energy Efficiency Project ( ENVER ) was touring all over the state, informing people about how to salvage energy in all countries from visible radiation bulbs to white goods.A
Turkey ‘s alone characteristic is that it is the first state in the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development ( EBRD ) part that has ne’er had a communist authorities and it will be a challenge to use the Bank ‘s passage experience to a state with a different history and background in the passage procedure. Nonetheless, Turkey is the second-largest economic system in the EBRD part ; fostering the development of the market economic system in Turkey is cardinal to the prosperity of the part. It is of import for the Bank and Turkey to work together and implement the experience from Central Europe to the Western Balkans in Turkey. In its first undertaking in Turkey since the state became an EBRD state of operations in September 2008, the Bank is supplying a a‚¬45 million loan for the building of the largest air current farm in the state. The undertaking aid Turkey promote clean energy and cut down its dependence on imported fuel beginnings. The EBRD funding will be used for the building and development of a 135-megawatt onshore independent air current farm, which will be located in Osmaniye, in southern Turkey. The air current farm is being developed by Rotor Elektrik, a company incorporated in Turkey, a member of Zorlu Energy Group and owned by Zorlu Holding, one of the largest pudding stones in Turkey.
Further subdivisions of our descriptive survey are as follows: Section 2 gives brief information about environmental finance and authorities policies. Section 3 describes the state of affairs in the usher land, the Netherlands, and subdivision 4 presents the chances in item in Turkey in the renewables country. Finally, subdivision 5 concludes and farther research possibilities are discussed.
Environmental finance has acquired great prominence as a consequence of the planetary heating job and the planetary cooperation has been taken with the Kyoto Protocol ab initio adopted on 11 December 1997. Harmonizing to the Kyoto Protocol the European Union states have agreed to cut down their emanations by 8 % during the period of 2008-2012 relation to 1990. A broad assortment of mechanisms are being employed to cut down emanations and promote renewable energy engineerings ( RETs ) in conformity with the Protocol. Clean development mechanisms, joint execution undertakings and CO2 emanation trades are 3 flexible instruments for making the clean marks. Under the Clean Development Mechanism ( CDM ) a developed state can “ patronize ” a nursery gas decrease undertaking in a underdeveloped state where the cost of nursery gas decrease undertaking activities is normally much lower, but the atmospheric consequence is globally tantamount. The developed state would be given credits for run intoing its emanation decrease marks, while the underdeveloped state would have the capital investing and clean engineering or a good alteration in land usage. Under Joint Implementation ( JI ) a developed state with comparatively high costs of domestic nursery gas decrease would put up a undertaking in another developed state. Under International Emissions Trading ( IET ) states can merchandise in the international C recognition market to cover their deficit in allowances. States with excess credits can sell them to states with capped emanation committednesss under the Kyoto Protocol.
The European Union ( EU ) holds an Emissions Trading Scheme ( ETS ) for C dioxide ( CO2 ) and other nursery gases that started in 2005. It is a alleged “ cap-and-trade ” strategy that allocates emanation caps to defilers. This means that their emanation marks are based on absolute criterions that define emanation ceilings. When a defiler manages to maintain emanations below his ceiling, he can sell his excess in the signifier of emanation rights, called “ allowances ” , to a defiler who wishes to increase emanations. Companies or other groups are issued emanation licenses and are required to keep an tantamount figure of allowances ( or credits ) that represent the right to breathe a specific sum. The entire sum of allowances and credits can non transcend the cap, restricting the entire emanations to that degree. Companies that need to increase their emanation allowance must purchase credits from those who pollute less ( Faure and Peeters, 2008 ) . The European Climate Exchange ( ECX ) is the taking market place for trading C dioxide ( CO2 ) emanations in Europe and internationally. Located in London, the ECX presently trades two types of C credits: EU Allowances ( EUAs ) and Certified Emission Reductions ( CERs ) . ECX volumes are sing enormous growing. The C market ‘s entire value for 2008 was estimated at a‚¬92 bn ( US $ 125 bn ) , more than double the a‚¬40 it was deserving in 2007.[ 3 ]Although the ETS allows the market to put the monetary value of C, C monetary values are extremely volatile, dealing costs are high and international escapes create many jobs.[ 4 ]
High hazard degrees due to the policy uncertainness and high operational purchase make investings in clean engineering and renewable energy undertakings hard to finance. The market by and large moves toward fuels that do non necessitate great capital outgo and the private sector is loath to develop clean energy production engineerings and put in renewable energy beginnings. Investings in renewable energy decreased worldwide in the first one-fourth of 2009 by 53 % compared with the first one-fourth of 2008 due to the reluctance of Bankss. Private equity houses and venture capitalists reduced their investings by 22 % over the same period ( Energieraad, 2009 ) . Banks and institutional investors demand a certain degree of certainty before they decide to finance a undertaking. This degree of certainty has been raised due to the recent recognition crunch, which is doing the funding of renewable energy undertakings even harder ( CPB/PBL, 2009 ) .
A stable governmental support system might cut down the general uncertainness significantly. Governmental support is necessary because bring forthing energy by agencies of renewables is more dearly-won than bring forthing fossil energy. The high fixed costs of installings shadow the benefits of renewable beginnings. After installing air current energy and the other renewable energy beginnings have the advantages of an input that in kernel costs a‚¬0, or in other words, is free of charge. Held, Haas and Ragwitz ( 2006 ) provide an lineation of policy instruments used to advance renewable energy beginnings ( RES-E ) as shown in Table 1 below:
Table 1: Policy Instruments
aˆ? Investment inducements
aˆ? Tendering system
aˆ? Environmental revenue enhancements
aˆ? Tax inducements
aˆ? Feed-in duties
aˆ? Quota duty
based on TGCs
aˆ? Rate-based inducements
aˆ? Shareholder programmes
aˆ? Voluntary understandings
aˆ? Contribution programmes
aˆ? Green duties
Governments could back up RES-E by feed-in duties, quota duties, tendering systems and revenue enhancement or investing inducements, fundamentally. Feed-in duties ( FITs ) are generation-based, price-driven inducements that normally take the signifier of either a fixed sum of money paid for RES-E production or an extra premium on the top of the electricity market monetary value paid to RES-E manufacturers. Quota duties based on Tradeable Green Certificates ( TGCs ) are generation-based, quantity-driven instruments with which the authorities defines marks for RES-E deployment and obliges a peculiar party of the electricity supply concatenation to carry through them. Once defined, a parallel market for renewable energy certifications is established and their monetary value is set following the demand and supply conditions. For RES-E manufacturers, fiscal support may originate from selling certifications. Tendering systems are quantity-driven mechanisms that can be either investment-focused or generation-based. Here a fixed sum of capacity to be installed is announced and contracts are given following a predefined command procedure that offers victors a set of favorable investing conditions. In generation-based tendering, alternatively of supplying up-front support, they offer support in the signifier of a “ command monetary value ” per kWh for a guaranteed continuance. Investment incentives set up an inducement for the development of RES-E undertakings as a per centum of the entire costs, or as the predefined a‚¬ per installed kilowatt. Tax inducements are generation-based, price-driven mechanisms that work through payment freedoms from the electricity revenue enhancements applied to all manufacturers. Besides the regulative instruments, there are besides voluntary attacks to the publicity of RES-E, which are chiefly based on consumers ‘ willingness to pay premium rates for green electricity.
In its clime policy, the Netherlands set a planetary mark of 5 % renewable energy by 2010, and 10 % by 2020. Harmonizing to the EU Directive, the RES-E portion of the Netherlands should make 9 % of the gross electricity ingestion in 2010. The Netherlands wants to increase the energy generated from renewables to 14 % of the entire energy supply in 2020. In 2007 merely 2.8 % of the entire energy came from renewables.
In the Netherlands, a cardinal resource for RES-E is biomass ( see Figure 1 below ) . Taken together, biogas, solid biomass ( co-firing ) and biowaste accounted for more than half of the RES-E market in 2004. Between 1997 and 2004, solid biomass grew at an mean rate of 140 % per twelvemonth. The lone other resource with a ample market portion is wind. Already, the Netherlands are ranked 4th highest in Europe in footings of air current power production. This means that air current power is used to a larger extent than in for case the UK, which ranks 5th highest. Initially, wind farms were placed onshore, but since 2006, they can be found offshore every bit good.[ 5 ]
Photovoltaic Energy ( PV ) experienced strong growing between 1997 and 2004 ( an mean growing rate of 70 % per twelvemonth between 1997 and 2004 ) , but saw a decrease by half in its installed capacity in 2005 ( 2100 MWp Megawatt extremum ) compared with 2004 ( 5660 MWp ) .[ 6 ]
Figure 1: Electricity Generation in the Netherlands
Beginning: European Commission
The consequences of the survey on renewable electricity in the Netherlands by Junginger et Al. ( 2004 ) indicate onshore air current, offshore air current and large-scale biomass workss as the most promising and robust renewable options in footings of economical public presentation, ecological sustainability and high proficient execution rate. Wind energy in the Netherlands has a advancement ratio of 80 % , which means that every doubling of the established power consequences in a 20 % cost decrease. This kind of information is of import for doing efficient policies. A new technique needs money to develop itself into an efficient, low-cost and finally profitable procedure. The best manner to back up this stage is by giving investing grants. The 2nd stage is working this possible profitable procedure on which a feed-in system has the most consequence. The 3rd and last stage is to guarantee that the technique corsets and will non be replaced by an unsought replacement. Tax governments are the most effectual for this last stage ( CE Delft, 2008 ) .
The Dutch green electricity policy over the last decennary can be characterized by three stages: in the early 1990s, the Government negotiated voluntary understandings with the energy distribution sector on marks for green electricity gross revenues, which have ne’er been met. In the 2nd half of the 1990s, a regulative energy revenue enhancement was introduced, from which clients of green electricity were exempt. This led to a significant addition in demand, which was mostly met by green electricity imports and did non take to extra domestic renewable energy capacity. Finally a alteration in policy took topographic point in 2003, switching the focal point from the publicity of demand to the publicity of supply through a system of regulated feed-in duties.[ 7 ]Despite the renewable energy policies, the growing of the renewable energy markets in the Netherlands has been little and the marks have non been to the full met. The Dutch Government has non yet succeeded in well cut downing the market uncertainnesss and in constructing assurance among the market parties, because the policies have non been stable and the policy aims have often been partially equivocal ( Rooijen and Wees, 2006 ) .
With the start of emanations merchandising a market-based attack has been introduced in the Netherlands. The emanation trading tool gives the treatment on cut downing environmental jobs as a quantitative step, which makes it easier to manage. The Netherlands was among the first states to see tradeable green certifications in add-on to revenue enhancement freedoms for RES-E.
On the other manus we see negative signals from the market. Royal Shell Dutch, the largest Dutch company and one of the largest oil companies in the universe, announced in the spring of 2009 that it would retreat from a air current park undertaking that it had joined with Nuon. The Dutch Government was non amused by this measure of Royal Shell Dutch. The Government said that the largest company in the Netherlands has to take the lead in of import inquiries in the society.
Royal Shell Dutch announced that in the short tally it would non put in air current and solar energy, for the ground that from an economic position the cost of such investings is excessively high and therefore the return excessively low. This emphasizes two old expressions:
Although the air current is gratuitous, it is non inexpensive.
Windmills do non turn on air current but on subsidy.
However, we besides see that sixty big energy houses promise to bring forth electricity clime neutrally in 2050.[ 8 ]This means for illustration that from now on workss will merely be built if they do non foul the air with CO2. At this minute renewables are no alternate to fossil energy on an economic footing. So, the lone possibility is to catch the CO2 and to hive away it underground.
The Turkish Government, which enacted its Energy Efficiency Law on 2 May 2007 to utilize energy expeditiously, is expected to accomplish 25-30 % nest eggs in energy ingestion. As of February 2009, the Government approved the Kyoto Protocol, whose chief intent is to cut down C emanations. Because Turkey has no big oil or gas militias, it is following new and pressing long-run energy schemes to cut down the portion of fossil fuels in primary energy ingestion, therefore the development and usage of renewable energy beginnings and engineerings is going progressively critical for the sustainable economic development of Turkey. The Government ‘s mark is to raise the portion of electricity generated from renewable beginnings to 25 % by 2020. Comparing the portion of renewables of Turkey with those of EU states in Table 2 below, Turkey performs better than most EU states.
Table 2: Share of Renewables in the EU
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.euractiv.com/en/energy/eu-renewable-energy-policy/article-117536
Turkey has significant renewable energy resources, which are chiefly hydropower, air current, solar and biomass. Renewables are the second-largest domestic beginnings for energy production after coal. The chief autochthonal energy resources in Turkey are lignite, hydro and biomass. Currently electricity is chiefly generated in Turkey utilizing thermic power workss ( which consume coal, lignite, natural gas and fuel oil ) , geothermic energy and hydro power workss. Harmonizing to the TEIAS, Turkish Electricity Energy Production Capacity Projections, the energy demand is expected to increase by about 6-8 % until 2017 and the demand in Turkey can non be met get downing from 2009. To run into the expected demand 34155 MW new capacity including 11645 MW air current and hydo capacity and 2500 MW thermic capacity is needed.
Wind 0.1 %
Solar 0.4 %
Geothermal 1.1 % % 0.1
Biomass 5 %
Hydro 3.6 %
Figure 2: Energy Beginnings in Turkey
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.enerji.gov.tr
Figure 2 indicates that the renewables have a 10.2 % portion in the entire energy supply. The renewable energy supply in Turkey is dominated by hydropower ( 3.6 % ) and biomass ( 3.5 % ) . The part of air current and solar power is limited but expected to increase.
The benefit from greater development of these beginnings would be tremendous: ( I ) reduced trust on imported fuels ( increased energy security ) ; ( two ) decreased environmental impact compared with fossil fuel and atomic power workss ( i.e. no nursery gas emanations ( except biomass and biogas ) or toxic waste ) ; ( three ) competitory costs ( which are still diminishing ) compared with many conventional engineerings ; and ( four ) no fuel costs ( except biomass and biogas ) and virtually unlimited fuel beginnings.
Harmonizing to the Energy Market Regulatory Authority ( EMRA ) , the mean investing costs ( per MW ) in 2007 ( based on the type of coevals installation and resource ) were:
Coal: 1,250 YTL ( about US $ 1,050 ) ;
Natural Gas/LPG/Fuel Oil: 1,000 YTL ( about US $ 850 ) ;
Hydroelectricity: 1,600 YTL ( about US $ 1,300 ) ; and
Wind* : 2,000 YTL ( about US $ 1,700 ) .
*The increased demand for air current power has caused the investing costs to increase from US $ 1,000 to US $ 1,700 but it is expected that these will diminish once more in the hereafter ( but the operating costs are the lowest ) .
Turkey spent a sum of US $ 120 million ( 2005 monetary values and exchange rates ) on authorities energy R & A ; D between 1980 and 2005. In this period, 15.6 % of its entire energy research and development budget ( US $ 17.4 million ) was allocated to renewable energy. Government R & A ; D expenditures for renewables followed the general tendency in overall energy R & A ; D expenditures, lifting in the late eightiess and so falling in the early 1990s. Public support increased well in 1997.
Turkey ‘s geographics is extremely contributing to hydroelectric power coevals ; Turkey has approximately 1 % of the entire universe hydroelectric potency. There are many rivers in Turkey and 5 separate water partings. The Iranian Gulf watershed in eastern Turkey includes the Tigris River ( known in Turkey as the Dicle River ) and the Euphrates River ( known in Turkey as the Firat River ) , which flow southwest into Iraq and finally unify and empty into the Bay of Basra at the northern terminal of the Persian Gulf. The Aras/Caspian watershed in eastern Turkey includes the Aras River, which flows due east and whose Waterss finally empty into the Caspian Sea. The Black Sea watershed screens much of northern Turkey, and includes Turkey ‘s longest river, the Kizilirmak. The Mediterranean watershed screens much of southwesterly Turkey, where rivers either flow South to the Mediterranean Sea or west to the Aegean Sea. The fifth watershed covers the part around the Marmara Sea, which includes several smaller rivers. A map of the major rivers of Turkey is shown in FigureA 3.
FigureA 3: Major Rivers in Turkey
Beginning: DOE Office of Fossil Energy
There are 678 sites available, 135 of which are under operation, for hydroelectric works building, distributed over 26 chief river zones. Table 3 below gives the H2O and hydroelectric potency of selected river basins in Turkey.
Table 3: Water and Hydroelectric Potential of Turkey
The entire gross potency and entire energy production capacity of these sites is about 50 GW and 112 TWh/yr, severally, approximately 30 % of which may be economically exploitable. The national development program aims to increase this to 100 % by 2010. The part of little hydroelectric workss to the entire electricity coevals is estimated at 5-10 % ( Koyun, 2007 ) .
Turkey lies in a cheery belt between 36a-¦ N and 42a-¦ N. The state ‘s capacity for solar energy is immense, with an norm of 7.2 hours of sunshine each twenty-four hours, harmonizing to the Research Institute for Electricity Affairs ( EIEI ) in Ankara. The annual mean solar radiation is 3.6 kWh/m2-day and the entire annual radiation period is about 2640 H, sufficient for solar thermic applications. Furthermore, harmonizing to the Turkish Solar Energy Potential Atlas, it has been calculated that 380 billion kWh/year of energy can be produced from concentrated solar thermic power workss. The solar energy potency for seven parts and some metropoliss in Turkey can be seen in Table 4 below.
Table 4: Solar Energy Potential of Turkey
Turkey ‘s entire solar energy potency is 35 Mtoe per twelvemonth and solar energy production is expected to make 602 kilotonnes of oil equivalent ( Ktoe ) in 2010 and 1,119 Ktoe in 2020.
Despite this immense potency, flat-plate solar aggregators for domestic hot H2O production in coastal parts are the lone existent usage of solar energy. The entire photovoltaic applications sum to about 1000 kilowatt and are chiefly used where the transmittal of electricity is non economically executable. Widespread usage is expected depending on the lessening in monetary values and the addition in efficiency in the hereafter ( Bilgen et al. , 2008 ) .
Turkey has the most proficient air current energy potency, which is 83,000 MW, among the OECD states ( see Table 5 below ) .
Table 5: Wind Energy Potential of Turkey
Some metropoliss in Turkey have comparatively high air current velocities. These have been classified into 6 air current parts with a depression of about 3.5 m/s and a high of 5 m/s at 10 thousand height, which corresponds to a theoretical power production of between 1,000 and 3,000 kWh/ ( m2/yr ) . The most attractive sites are the Marmara Sea part, the Mediterranean Coast and the Aegean Sea Coast. The air current features of some selected metropoliss in Turkey are shown in Table 6 below:
Table 6: Wind Features of Some Selected Cities in Turkey
Turkey is promoting the building of Build-operate-transfer ( BOT ) wind power workss by private power developers. The first air current power installation in Turkey was commissioned in November 1998, and is located near the metropolis of Izmir in western Turkey. The installation has 12 air current turbines with a entire capacity of 7.2A MWe, and is owned by Gucbirligi Holding, Inc.
In entire 40 new air current farm undertakings have already obtained licences and 751 licence applications ( approximative sum ) are still expecting blessing. The blessing of independent air current energy undertakings requires at least a 6-month history of air current measurings.
Table 7 below shows the location, capacities and makers of the 40 new air current undertakings, which have a sum installed capacity equal to 1503.35 MW with capacity under operation and capacity under building. New undertaking applications for about 85,000 MW were made to derive a production licence.
Harmonizing to the Turkish Wind Energy Potential Atlas, it has been calculated that 5000 MW capacity of air current power workss can be installed where the one-year air current velocity is higher than 8.5 m/s. Besides, a 48,000 MW capacity of air current power workss can be installed where the one-year air current velocity is higher than 7.0 m/s.
Turkey has a end to deduce 2 % of its electricity from air current power. The Government plans to increase air current power to 11,000 MW in 2013, 15,000 MW in 2015 and 20,000 MW in 2020 at least.
Table 7: Wind Undertakings in Turkey
Turkey has important potency for geothermic power production, possessing one-eighth of the universe ‘s entire geothermic potency. Much of this possible is of comparatively low heat content that is non suited for electricity production but is still utile for direct warming applications ( see Table 8 below ) .
Table 8: Geothermal Energy Potential of Turkey
Turkey soon has 1 operating geothermic power works, a 20A MWe installation in the Denizli-KA±zA±ldere geothermic field in the southwesterly Turkish state of Denizli. The installation includes 9 production Wellss, and besides has an integrated liquid C dioxide ( CO2 ) and dry ice production mill that can bring forth a combined sum of 40,000 metric dozenss per twelvemonth of the 2 merchandises. Another 20A MWe power production unit is being planned for this installation ( Koyun, 2007 ) .
There are 11 other geothermic Fieldss, all in the far south-west of Turkey, which may be suited for geothermic power production. The Germencik-AydA±n field in the AydA±n Province is the most promising 1. The power coevals potency in this field has been estimated to transcend 100 MW.
Turkey hopes to bring forth 500A MWe from geothermic energy by the twelvemonth 2010 and 1,000A MWe by the twelvemonth 2020.
The Turkish Government enacted the Application Regulation of the Law on Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineral Water on 11 December 2007. The ordinance covers the process, elements and countenances in relation to: publishing a licence for operation ; reassigning this licence ; scrutinizing the actions ; resources and the environment ; revoking the licence ; protecting the resources ; go forthing the country of the licence in relation to the geothermic resources and natural mineral H2O that are specified or will be specified and gas that originates from geothermic power.
By 2010, every bit many as 500,000 abodes could be heated by geothermic power, which would stand for the usage of about 3,500A MWth.
Among the renewable energy beginnings, biomass is of import because its portion of the entire ingestion is high, severally. Turkey ‘s chief biomass beginnings are agricultural, forestry, animate being and organic wastes. Fuel wood is of import for rural countries in Turkey as in other developing states. Using vegetable oils as fuel options besides has economic benefits for Turkey ( Nalan, A-zturk and A-zek, 2009 ) .
Biomass still represents a important portion of the entire energy ingestion in Turkey, despite a bead from 20 % in 1980 to 8 % in 2005. Fuel wood and carnal waste are the chief biomass fuels used for warming and cookery in many urban and rural countries. The entire recoverable bio energy potency was estimated at 16.92 Mtoe in 1998. This estimation is based on the recoverable energy potency from agricultural residues, farm animal agriculture wastes, forestry and wood processing residues and municipal wastes. The entire biomass production was 7.3 Mtoe in 2005 and is expected to be 52.5 Mtoe in 2030 ( see Table 9 below ) .
Table 9: Biomass Production
There are important renewable energy chances in Turkey, but few steps have been employed to tap into that potency. Since the 1980s, Turkey ‘s energy policy has concentrated on attempts to excite private investing to run into the increasing internal energy demand. The development of market-based funding mechanisms in Turkey will heighten the use of possible benefits from renewable beginnings in Turkey.
In 2008 CO2 emanations in Turkey were 239.74 Mt whereas in the Netherlands they were 178.31 Mt, although the energy production in Turkey of 26.33 Mtoe is 3 times lower than that of the Netherlands of 60.77 Mtoe ( IEA, 2008 ) . Emission decrease mechanisms such as cap-and-trade strategies must hold an pressing deduction with authorities support in Turkey. Both price- and quantity-driven policy instruments and feed-in duties, which create success in Germany and Spain, are besides really of import. In Turkey the revenue enhancement grosss obtained from oil merchandises, natural gas and electricity constitute about 27 % of the entire revenue enhancement grosss. The solar duty will run in Turkey over a 20-year period with a rate of a‚¬0.28 per unit of energy for the first 10 old ages and a rate of a‚¬0.22 for the undermentioned 10 old ages being offered to solar micro-generators across Turkey.[ 9 ]Interventions by public governments such as revenue enhancements, subsidies and monetary value ordinances are said to hold direct effects on energy pricing ( Atac and Guran, 2009 ) .
In sectors where the energy input is high, the energy costs constitute about 15-20 % of the entire production costs. In the oil and gas market variable costs addition with authorities policies and higher emanation costs make the cost curve much steeper. Renewable undertakings seem to hold more fixed costs compared with utilizing fossil fuels straight, but some clip after installing, the larning consequence decreases the variable cost of renewables, which may make an overall decrease in the entire costs. Further research should be conducted about the learning consequence on interrupting even particularly for air current and solar undertakings, which have great possible, but the higher fixed costs in Turkey and profiting from the Netherlands air current experience provide solutions in the renewable countries with the Turkish Government ‘s fiscal support.
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