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Strategic Management A Case study On Ornamental Fish Trading in India Submitted by- Group 4 Srinivas Hegde Chandni. C. S Sharon Barboza Yashovardhan Sinha Sneha Pujari Mohammed Zooheb Ornamental Fish Trading in India Introduction Keeping colourful and fancy fishes known as ornamental fishes, aquarium fishes, or live jewels is one of the oldest and most popular hobbies in the world. The growing interest in aquarium fishes has resulted in steady increase in aquarium fish trade globally. The ornamental fish trade with a turnover of US $ 6 Billion and an annual growth rate of 8 percent offers lot of scope for development.
The ornamental fish sector is a widespread and global component of international trade, fisheries, aquaculture and development. However, the scope of this sector and the impact on human and aquatic communities are often inaccurately known and unappreciated(ref. 1) Ornamental fish keeping is one of the most popular hobbies in the world today. The top exporting country is Singapore followed by Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Indonesia and India.
The largest importer of Ornamental fish is the USA followed by Europe and Japan.
The emerging markets are China and South Africa. Over US $ 500 million worth of ornamental fish are imported into the USA each year. Although most fish kept in aquariums are from freshwater, the acquisition of marine ornamental fish has greatly increased, popularized by children’s movies starring charismatic colourful fishes and other creatures. Recent advances in fish husbandry and aquarium equipment technology have further facilitated the hobby of the people.
Ornamental Fish Trade History Some early cultures were known to keep fish, other than for the consumption of food.
Some examples of ancient fish keepers are the Chinese, the Romans and early Asians. It has been noted that the ancient Babylonians kept ponds of ornamental fish and this was circa 500 BC. The most important contributor to the art of fish keeping was the Chinese. Goldfish were the first ornamental fish to be kept. These fish date back to 960 AD during the Sung Dynasty in China. Ponds stocked with ornamental fish gained popularity among the rich from 968-975 and eating the fish was strictly prohibited. In 1136 Emperor Hiau-Tsung started to breed and keep these fish in a more controlled environment.
Several new breeds of ornamental fish evolved which helped make him popular and known throughout China. While excited about the prospects of keeping fish indoors, fish enthusiasts did not understand how the water needed to be “cycled” in order for fish to stay alive for long in doors. In 1805, Robert Warrington is credited with studying the tank’s requirement to be cycled to keep fish alive for longer. With the opening of the Public Aquaria at the London Zoological Gardens at Regents Park in 1853, fish keeping as a hobby reached a new level of interest.
In 1856, German Emil Robmaber wrote an essay, Sea in a Glass,” introducing fish keeping as a hobby to the public. This hobby required specialized equipment and attention at this point, reserving it for the wealthy. Fish tanks for tropical fish required heating via flames underneath (gas burning lamps underneath slate bottoms). When electricity was introduced into the home, fish enthusiasts began experimenting with electrical immersion heaters in glass tubes. Up until the 1950’s, all fish were fed live foods. Dr Baensch revolutionized the hobby by inventing flake foods.
From there on, the hobby flourished. Fueled by faster and more advanced transportation, more and more breeders and hobbyists helped make the aquarium hobby more popular. The inventions since the 1950s, such as water chemistry, filtration, aeration, and lighting have basically made it possible for anyone to enjoy fish. There was not a wide selection of aquariums in the 50’s and 60’s. Most of them had thick metal frames and the largest size was 100 gallon, unless you had a tank custom built. Today, the tanks are frameless and are available in glass, acrylic or plexi-glass.
They come in all shapes and sizes, such as square, rectangular, hexagon, bow front, towers, and globular. Most new tanks have fluorescent lighting instead of incandescent, which is better for plant growth, and emphasize the beautiful colours of the fish. People can buy a range of sizes from 2 1/2 gallons to 500 gallons. It’s taken thousands of years, but at least now we can keep basically any type of fish and enjoy a nature in our own living room. We can enjoy a little piece of the ocean, or a piece of a South American Jungle or even parts of the great rift Lakes of Africa.
Nothing is more relaxing than to sit in front of the aquarium and watch the antics of the fish. It is like a city of its own and you can create it. Ornamental Fish Trade in India The growth of ornamental fish trade in India is very much encouraging. Most of the ornamental fishes cultured and marketed in India are exotic species. Our country has a rich and unique biodiversity with a variety of indigenous ornamental fishes. But this resource has not been properly exploited. The Western Ghats of India is a gold mine of tropical ornamental fishes and it is one of the 25 prominent areas of the world.
It exhibits exceptional mega biodiversity and high degree of endemism with respect to fresh water fishes. The potential of streams and rivers of the Western Ghats as a rich source of the ornamental fishes is yet to be recognized… India’s share in global ornamental fish trade is negligible and at present the ornamental fish export from India is dominated by the wild caught species. Ornamental fish culture in India involves breeding of exotic species and this activity is a small segment of the Fisheries Sector.
India is endowed with a suitable climate, water resources and large manpower base. The potential manpower can be easily trained into ornamental fish breeding technology and fast growing domestic market. Moreover, the unit value of ornamental fish is higher than the food fish. Hence this sector offers good opportunity for rural and urban households to augment income and link them to the International trade. Almost all of the tank bred ornamental fish in India comes from the small-scale or back yard type of breeding units.
But due to the lack of adequate infrastructure and key inputs like appropriate feed, quality brood stock etc these breeding units are not in a position to produce varieties which are in demand in the international market. Organized trade in ornamental fish depends on assured and adequate supply of demand, which is possible only by mass breeding India’s share in ornamental fish trade is estimated to be Rs 158. 23 lakh which is only 0. 008% of the global trade(ref. 2) The major part of the export trade is based on wild collection.
There is very good domestic market too, which is mainly based on domestically bred exotic species. The overall domestic trade in this field cross 10 crores and is growing at the rate of 20 per cent annually. The earning potential of this sector has hardly been understood and the same is not being exploited in a technology driven manner. The export from country is mainly confined to freshwater varieties from the natural sources predominantly from the North-Eastern States (85%) and a few bred varieties of exotic species (15%). Ornamental fish breeding and culture is confined in and around the metro cities in India viz.
Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. Recently reports have established that in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Kerala, Assam, Bihar, and Karnataka and in many other places, people have started producing ornamental fishes. Considering the relatively simple technique involved, this activity has the potential to create substantial job opportunities, besides helping export earnings. Important ecological considerations in the ornamental aquarium trade The purpose of managing a fishery is to maintain the resource so that it is renewable and therefore sustainable.
Responsible aquaculture practices rely on sustainable production systems, to minimize impacts on the natural environment, and support resource conservation. In other words, the harvest of fish from the wild or their domestic culture, if performed with sound foundations in ecological and economic principles, can be sustainable and self-reliant Commercial industries(ref. 3) In traditional subsistence fisheries, fishermen use primitive and inefficient gear to capture most aquarium fish. However, supply of aquarium fish is not inexhaustible, and signs of over-fishing are becoming apparent in localized areas.
With the high demand and pricing of many beautiful species, ornamental fish are being harvested at greater volumes and higher rates, threatening the viability or sustainability of the fishery. Unfortunately, in a few instances unscrupulous collection techniques have led to the demise of local fish populations. Alterations of natural riverine and marine habitats, caused by collection or other unrelated human activities, have also taken their toll. To facilitate the capture of aquarium fish in the wild, some collectors may use highly toxic substances such as sodium cyanide in marine environments, and rotenone in freshwater rivers and streams.
The use of cyanide is not acceptable because it can have long-term deleterious health effects on the captured fish and the surrounding environment. Local populations of freshwater fish and their surrounding environment have also suffered from strip logging activities, oil drilling, and mining operations. In South America, regional biologists indicate the indiscriminate use of herbicides and pesticides, to control the cultivation of plants used for manufacture of illicit drugs, percolate directly in the water stream deteriorating water quality and deleteriously affect the health of fish and invertebrate fauna.
The greatest losses of wild-caught aquarium fish may occur during the handling period between capture, local exporting/importing warehouses, and transportation docks. While in transit, fish may be subjected to physical injury, extreme changes in water quality conditions, water temperature fluctuations, and indiscriminate exposure to toxic chemicals used as prophylactic treatments for disease control. Also it has been determined that mortality of captured fish from the wild can be species dependant. For example, mortality has been estimated to be high (e. g. 80%) in some marine tropical fish such as the Banggai cardinal fish to a low of 6% for some freshwater fish species such as the cardinal tetra. To reduce injury and mortalities incurred in storage and post-shipment mortality, several of the larger importing wholesalers have established their own guidelines for fish collection, standardized handling procedures, and even assembled their own gathering stations or warehouses at major exporting centres worldwide. Local community-based organizations and international institutions have also been organized/formed to achieve market-driven product quality standards and ustainability in the marine aquarium industry. Why breeding? Ninety five per cent of our ornamental fish export is based on wild collection. Majority of the indigenous ornamental fish trade in India is from the North Eastern states and the rest is from Southern states which are the hot spots of fish bio diversity in India. This capture based export is not sustainable and it is a matter of concern for the industry. In order to sustain the growth it is absolutely necessary to shift the focus from capture to culture based development.
Moreover most of the fish species grown for their ornamental importance can be bred in India successfully. Organised trade in ornamental fish depends on assured and adequate supply of demand, which is possible only by mass breeding(ref. 4). Technology There are quite a large number of tropical aquarium fishes known to aquarists. While many of the fish are easy to breed, some of these are rare, difficult to breed and expensive. Most of the exotic species can be bred and reared easily since the technology is simple and well developed.
It is advisable to start with common, attractive, easily bred and less expensive species before attempting the more challenging ones. An ornamental fish project can be either 1) rearing only 2) Breeding only 3) Breeding and rearing depending upon the space available. The technology involves the following activities Culture/rearing: The culture/rearing of these fishes can be taken up normally in cement tanks. Cement tanks are easy to maintain and durable. One species can be stocked in one tank. However in case of compatible species two or three species can occupy the same tank.
Ground water from dug wells / deep tube wells are the best for rearing. The fishes reach the marketable size in around 4 to 6 months. Eight to ten crops can be taken in a year. Feeding: Young fish are fed mainly with Infusoria, Artemia, Daphnia , Mosquito larvae Tubifex and Blood worms. For rearing, formulated artificial or prepared feed can be used. At present no indigenous prepared feed for aquarium fish is available. The amount and type of food to be given depends on the size of the fry. Feeding is generally done twice in a day or according to requirement. For rearing from fry stage dry/ prepared feed can be used.
In general, most of the ornamental fish species require crude protein level in the range of 30-45 %, crude fat (lipid) 4-8 % and carbohydrates between 30-50 %. Well balanced manufactured foods can be utilized or different feed ingredients can be selected and mixed to get the appropriate protein, lipid and energy level. Commonly available ingredients such as agricultural by products (groundnut cake, rice polish, wheat bran, maize bran, soybean meal) and animal protein sources (fish meal, meat meal) can be mixed. The feed is provided in the dough or pelleted form.
Breeding: The method of breeding is based on the family characteristics of the fish. The success of breeding depends on the compatibility of pairs, the identification of which is a skill born out of experience. Generally the breeders are selected from the standing crop or purchased and reared separately by feeding them with good live food. However, it is always better to buy good breeding stock. Otherwise, the original characteristic of the species keeps on getting diluted because of continuous inbreeding. Breeders especially egg layers should be discarded after few spawning.
Health care Water exchange, is a must for maintaining water quality conducive for the fish health. Only healthy fish can withstand transportation and fetch good price. Chemicals / antibiotics, Methylene Blue, Methylene Yellow, Malachite Green, Ampicilin, Vitamins, Potassium permanganate, Copper sulphate etc can also be used for preventing / treating diseases. Ornamental Fishes Aquarium fishes are mainly grouped into two categories, viz. , Oviparous (egg – layers) and Viviparous (live-bearers). Further, the fresh water ornamental fish varieties can be broadly grouped into Tropical and Cold water species also.
Management of these two categories are different in nature. According to water tolerance fishes are hard water tolerant, soft water tolerant species and those with wide tolerance. The fishes and the details of grouping is given in Exhibit 1(ref. 10) Ornamental Fishes under Genetic Upgrading Many widely sought Indian species of ornamental fishes are going under a genetic upgrading and may end up patented by foreign countries. This could hit the Indian ornamental fishes industry, mostly centralised in south, in the nascent stage quite badly.
The fish export from India is two per cent of 4. 5 billion dollar of global business and major revenue comes from the fishes the foreign scientists are vying for patent. Dr UC Goswami, President, Section of Animals, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences of Indian Science Congress Association said the industry was closing in to lose a good source of revenue if the government fails to formulate a clear policy on ornamental fish export. He also said that ‘We need to protect and promote the breeding of ornamental fishes, which are real aquatic treasure of the country. (ref. 5) India with its tropical climate fused with varied sources of fresh water and nearly 9,000 km long coastline suits best for small fish cultivation. Tamil Nadu and Kerala have promoted the fish cultivation at micro level roping in foreign agencies such as fisheries resource and management society. Other states getting into the act have come out with policies giving fillip to the business considering the wide demand for Indian species Singapore and few other south-Asian countries are the biggest buyers of Indian ornamental fishes.
But Germans making inroads into the industry genetically engineered Indian species into hybrids ones. They changed their colour pigments using genomics. “They took the valuable fish from us and looking for their patent,”. One of prettiest of fishes with maximum global demand Colisa was the first to undergo genetic changes in German labs. The fish is commonly found in the ponds is being exported as Gaurami, which is one costliest ornamental fishes. If the practice is allowed the Indian species will lose identity and become property of the foreigners,” he said, adding, “the foreign countries are cashing on the absence of any definite policy on fish keeping and exports”. There are several species such as catfish, dwarf, giant Colisa and barbs-the highly popular Indian fishes are being de-Indianised. Dr Goswami who has extensive work upon the ornamental fish said that different types pigments were formed upon the fish according to the food they took and the quality of water and the adequacy of sunlight they enjoyed.
He said there were vegetarian and non-vegetarian fish but both of them get colours through the vitamin rich diet they consume in water. The best live fish food for the non vegetarian fish was Chironomous and Tibifex larva while the vegetarian fishes extracted vitamins from variety of under water plants Ornamental Fish Farming in India Fish Species Two categories of ornamental fish are being marketed – exotic ornamental fish and native fish of India, which have ornamental value for coloration or behaviour. Exotic fish dominate the domestic market.
Already 288 exotic varieties have been recorded in Indian market. More than 200 species of these freshwater fish are bred in different parts of India and others still have to be imported as fry. According to availability, demand, and climatic conditions the ornamental fish farmers of West Bengal are mainly engaged in breeding and rearing of common exotic live bearers and egg layers2. The egg layers lay sticky or non-sticky eggs on the glass wall or aquarium plants. Some parents show parental care and some destroy their eggs so different breeding setups are needed.
Live bearers release young in batches and are easy to breed. Among the preferred fish, there are common exotic live bearers like guppy, Poecilia reticulata; molly, Poecilia latipinna; swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri; platy, Xiphophorus maculates and egg layers like gold fish, Carrassius auratus; koi, Cyprinus carpio; tiger barb, Puntius tetrazona, Siamese fighter, Betta splendens; serpae tetra, Hyphessobrycon serape and on-growing of some imported fish like silver shark, Balatocheilus melanopterus; angel, Pterophyllum scalare, red – tailed black shark, Labeo bicolor; red finned shark, Labeo erythurus.
Sometimes they are collecting the fry of native ornamental fish and selling them after rearing and domesticating them. The native ornamental fish include honey gourami, Colisa chuna; rosy barb, Puntius conchonius; zebra fish, Brachydanio rerio; glass fish, Chanda nama; Reticulate loach, Botia lohachata. Presently only about 52 native fish species from West Bengal have been earmarked as aquarium fish3. Farmers use their facilities to breed a range of species shifting with the season(ref. 6) Food and feeding Food, especially the first food of larvae is vital for achieving good survival rates.
The small-scale farmers cannot afford different readymade pellet feed or brine shrimp larvae. However, they have successfully substituted low cost alternative live feeds. Green water, water fleas, Tubifex or sludge worm, mosquito larvae and chopped earthworm are used. Different homemade feed like whole-wheat bread, vegetable peelings and rice are also fed. However, most farms depend on Daphnia, tubificid worms and mosquito larvae. The farmers collect Daphnia from the nearby ponds by sieving through fine mesh in the early morning.
Tubicid warms and mosquito larvae are generally collected from the sewage water channels. In fact there are quite a few people whose profession is to collect these live foods and sell them to the farmers. Generally the farmers dispense the feed once daily, preferably in morning. The rate of feeding depends on species, size and season. Overfeeding is more harmful than under feeding as the excess feed destroys the water quality. (ref. 6) Water & Health management In ornamental fish farming, proper water quality maintenance is the primary preventive measures as they are very sensitive to temperature and pH.
The common health hazards of the ornamental fish are white spot, mouth fungus, tail and fin rot. For ornamental fish rearing, water is mainly obtained from tube well, canal or tap water. The physico-chemical parameters of water such as pH (7-8), hardness (100- 300 ppm), temperature (21-300C), dissolved oxygen (>5 ppm), chlorine (< 0. 1 ppm) and carbon dioxide (< 15 ppm) content play a crucial role in the culture as well as breeding of all the ornamental fish species. The farmers use some easily available and economic chemicals and medicines as preventive measures which can be found in Exhibit 2(ref. ) Marketing Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal is the main distribution centre. From here the fish are sent to different states of India by air or road. A fair amount is also exported. Two parallel marketing procedures exist for exotic and native fish. In the case of exotic species, more than 99% is consumed by the domestic market and a few species like gold fish and angelfish are exported. On the other hand, 90% native ornamental species are collected and reared to meet export demand. The amount of marine ornamental fish trade is negligible in this area.
The marketing process is generally being done through the following channels: • Firstly, the producers directly sell the ornamental fish directly to the wholesalers, but the amount is very negligible • Secondly, there are some big middle tired men who buy large volumes of fish at very low prices from the producers, rearing the fish for 2-3 months before selling at the wholesale markets again for increased profit. • Lastly from the wholesale markets, retailers and others purchase the ornamental fish. For export, the Marine Products Export Development Authority has 20 registered exporters.
They either have their own farm or collect the fish from different areas for export. The USA, Japan and Singapore are the main markets. (ref 6) Economics An ornamental fish production unit may be of three types – a breeding unit, rearing unit or combined breeding and rearing unit. The profit depends on the carrying capacity, candidate species and infrastructure. The marginal farmers who breed or rear the fish have to sell them earlier due to the lack of proper equipment and get less profit. On the other hand better-off farmers rear the fish to an optimum size and get more profit.
The average cost and return of a minimal breeding and rearing unit of live bearers is in Exhibit 3 Outlook Ornamental fish farming can be a promising alternative for many people. It requires little space and less initial investment than most other forms of aquaculture. At the first stage of starting of an ornamental fish farm, very sophisticated or complicated equipment is not necessary. Only a clear understanding of habits and biology of the fishes basic needs is required so it can be practiced even in urban areas with little alteration of backyard or even the roof of a dwelling.
As less manpower is needed, the women or the elders can run small home units. With slightly more sophisticated equipment such as heaters, aerators and power filters, and practices such as selective breeding, stock manipulation and proper feeding, large units can be maintained in urban areas also. (ref. 6) Indian Ornamental Fish- Wide varieties and unique features Indian ornamental fishes with their brilliant colours and unique features need no introduction to the World market.
The fresh water and the brackish water bodies and the seas abound the Indian sub continent abound in attractive varieties of fish which are dearer to the hobbyists the world over. India exports over three hundred varieties of fresh water fishes today. The tropical ornamental fishes from north eastern and southern provinces of India are in great demand in the hobbyists market . Export of marine ornamental fish is yet to take off from India. Prominent among the fresh water Indian Ornamentals them are Loaches, Eels, barbs, catfish, Goby etc…
India also exports tank raised varieties of fishes such as gold fish, Mollies, Guppies, platties, Sword tails,Tetra, Angel, Gourami, African Cichlids and fighters . Different colours with various patterns of fishes are the hall mark of these varieties. A few varieties of fishes that are being exported are given in Exhibit 4(ref. 9) Mangalore: Aquarists Turned Entrepreneurs—Dr Ashwin Rai, Ronald D’Souza The hobby of fish-keeping is a multi-million dollar industry. According to sources, there are around 60 million aquarists in the world. In the United States, aquarium-keeping is the second-most popular hobby after stamp-collecting. It is acknowledged by hobbyists, the trade, and the government, that the aquarium hobby and the culture of ornamental and commercial fish in India has not yet reached its full potential and there is plenty of scope for further development, both within the country and as an export business. India has the climate, the land, and plenty of enterprising people to develop a fish breeding and export trade to match that of Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong, and China, where ornamental fish are big business…’- claims the Aquarists Society of Karnataka. (ref. ) There is a possibility that this might be foretelling what the future has in store. The success story of two boys from the city tells the tale of a passion for fish-keeping, which has led to their establishing the largest aquarium breeding centre in the state. Fisheries post graduates and childhood buddies Dr Ashwin Rai, Maroli, and Ronlad D’Souza, Pumpwell, dreamt of running their own aquarium fish breeding centre in the city during their student years at St Aloysius School. Today, the duo own ‘Aquatic Biosystems’, the first and the largest ornamental fish breeding centre in the state.
It has existed for the past one and a half years at Bondanthila House near Vamanjoor. Aquatic Biosystems is spread over one and a half acres of land. This is the fourth fish breeding centre in Karnataka after Kunigal, Theerthahalli, and Mysore. “Only 50 per cent of our project has been completed. We have some 40 species in the centre and breed an average of 25,000 ornamental fish every month”, says Dr Rai. He received his PhD degree from Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University in 2002 for conducting research in the subject of fish biology.
The breeder is quarantined for three months to make sure that it is one hundred per cent disease-free. The next stage is conditioning, explained Dr Rai. The centre has as many as 52 growing ponds, 200 breeding tanks, 20 nursery tanks, and 12 breeder tanks. Ronald D’Souza said they have a plan to export aquarium fish to Gulf countries beginning sometime next year. “At present we have 72 clients all over India. Our biggest market is Bangalore. There are about 1,000 retail outlets in the state.
Some 25 retail outlets exist in Mangalore. The numbers of hobbyists and shops have been increasing in the district. Angel fish and gold fish have a good market, and we also have rare species such as Discus and Tetra’, he added Future of Ornamental Fish Business in India Ornamental fish breeding business is undeniably the most lucrative and having the most potential for future growth in any parts of the world. According to the statistics, in United States, the hobby is considered second most popular after stamp collecting.
In India however, the aqua-culture business has yet to reach its climax or full potential with plenty of room for development. The availability of land, lower costs including manpower resource has made India one of the potential export trader matching the likes of Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and China. (ref. 8) The success story of two post graduates buddies, Dr Ashwin Rai, and Ronlad D’Souza who envision the dream of running their own aqua-culture business is just one of the clear examples of more to expect from India. They now own ‘Aquatic
Biosystems” which is current the largest ornamental breeding centre in the state. With production rate that averages about 25 thousand fish per month that spreads over 40 different fish species, the figure is enough to speak for itself. Currently they are eyeing larger market shares and have plans to increase production to export aquarium fish to Gulf countries which they hope to achieve sometime next year. (ref. 7) Ornamental fish farming is an activity, which not only provides aesthetic pleasure to the fish keeper, but is also an easy way to financial gains.
Ornamental fishes are beautifully decorative, fancy and colourful fishes, which give soothing effect to the eyes. These otherwise mute yet charming pets are becoming more popular than cats and dogs. Culturing and keeping ornamental fishes which once started as an easy and stress relieving hobby has now gained momentum as a commercial venture. They are also being associated with religious beliefs as culturing these fishes are being associated with good luck. In Feng Shui (Vastu Kala) fish are considered as a symbol of health as well as wealth i. e. fish is lucky pet.
References: 1. www. ratemyfishtank. com/articles/48 & http://www. suite101. com/article. cfm/tropical_fish/101988 2. Ornamental Fish Culture: Creating A Niche In The Economy ? Shabir Ahmad Dar, Mohd. Ashraf, Mishal. P & A. M Najar 3. http://edis. ifas. ufl. edu 4. http://www. e-pao. net/epSubPageExtractor. asp 5. Role-of-Genetics-in-Fish-Conservation-and-Aquaculture-in-India 6. Ornamental Fish Farming – Successful Small Scale Aqua business in India Abalika Ghosh, B. K. Mahapatra and N. C. Datta 7. http://www. daijiworld. com/news/news_disp. sp 8. (Chao et al. 2001; Gil and Martinez 2001; Vagelli and Erdmann 2002; Cato and Brown 2003; Lunn and Moreau 2004) 9. www. mpeda. com/aquarium/htmlorna/ornamentafishfeedback 10. http://www. nabard. org Exhibit 1: The varieties fishes and the details of grouping Species| Water Quality| Season| Breeding Type| EggType/ Care| Molly| Hard water Sp. | Summer/Monsoon| Live Bearer| Young Ones| Guppy| Hard water Sp. | Summer/Monsoon| Live Bearer| Young Ones| Platy| Hard water Sp. | Summer/Monsoon| Live Bearer| Young Ones| Swordtail| Hard water Sp. Summer/Monsoon| Live Bearer| Young Ones| Blue Gourami| Wide Tolerance| Summer/Monsoon| Nest Builder| Male Guard eggs| Pearl Gourami| Wide Tolerance| Summer/Monsoon| Nest Builder| Male Guard eggs| Rosy Barb| Wide Tolerance| Summer/Monsoon| Egg Scatterer| Adhesive| Gold Fish| Wide Tolerance| Monsoon/Winter| Egg Scatterer| Adhesive| Z/P/Vl Danio| Hard water Sp. | Summer/Monsoon| Egg Scatterer| Non Adhesive| S Fighter| Wide Tolerance| Summer/Monsoon| Nest Builder| Male Guard eggs| Catfish| Wide Tolerance| Monsoon/Winter| Egg depositer| Enclosures Reqd. Angel| Soft Water| Summer/Monsoon| Egg depositor| Parents Fan Eggs| FM Cichlid| Soft Water| Summer/Monsoon| Egg Depositors| Enclosures Reqd. | R D Cichlid| Soft Water| Summer/Monsoon| Egg Depositors| Enclosures Reqd. | Bl W Tetra| Soft Water| Summer/Monsoon| Egg Scatterer| Adhesive| B A Tetra| Soft Water| Summer/Monsoon| Egg Scatterer| Adhesive| Serpa Tetra| Soft Water| Summer/Monsoon| Egg Scatterer| Adhesive| Manila Carp| Soft Water| Summer/Monsoon| Egg Scatterer| Adhesive| Exhibit 2 Economic chemicals and medicines as preventive measures used by farmers Chemicals/Medicines and dose| Methods of use| Purpose|
Common salt@ 15-30 gm/lt| Bath treatment for 30 min| As disinfectant| Methyline blue@ 2. 5 gm/lt| Added in aquarium water| For water purification| Copper Sulphate@ 0. 5-1 gm/lt| Bath treatment for 1 min| As disinfectant| Exhibit 3 Average cost and return of a breeding and rearing unit of live bearers Capital cost (Rs. )| | | 2 glass aquarium (2. 5 x 2 x 1) m each with| 1400| 2800| lids and fittings| | | 3 cement cistern (5 x 3 x 2) m | 1200| 3600| 3 aerator| 200| 600| Other equipments like hand net, buckets,| | 1000| pipes| | | | | 8000| Culture cost(Rs. )| | | 200 hundreds female | 1| 200| 50 male| 3| 150|
Feed for one year | | 3600| Others| | 1000| | | 4950| | | | Total cost(Rs. )| | 12950| Production| | | Monthly production of 5,000young| Yearly production of 60,000 young| 40% male = 24,000 60% female = 36,000| | | | Sale| | | 24,000 male| 1. 25| 30000| 36,000 female | 0. 3| 10800| Total sale| | 40800| | | | Annual profit = (40,800. 00 – 12,950. 00) = 27,850. 00| Monthly profit = Rs. 2,320. 83| Exhibit 4 Varieties of ornamental fishes exported from India(Scientific names) Acauthocobitis botia Acanthophtbalmus kuhlii Amblyceps mangois Amblypharyngodonmola Anabas teuudinens Anguilia benoensis Aorichthys aor
Aplocheilus panchax Aplocheilus blocki Aplocheilus lineatw Badis badis Barbus schberti Barilius bakeri Barilius harna Barilius canarensis Barilius gatensis Bardius shacra Batasio travancoria Botia acanthocobitis Botia lobachata Botia rostrata Botia striata Botio dario Brachirris sp Brachydanio albolineatus Brachydanio rerio Cassochedus latius Chaca chaca Channa amphibia Chnnna barca Channa bleheri Channa gachua Channa marulius Channa orientaus Channa punetatw Channa stewartii Channa striatus Chanda baculis| Chanda nama Chanda ranga Chanda wolfi Chichlasoma meeki CLuius batrachus Colisa chuna Colisa fasciata Colisa labiosw Colisalalius
Colisa sota Ctenops nobilis Danio devario Danio malabaricus Danio neaglierriensis Datniodes quadrifasciatus Elcotris marmoratus Etroplus maculatus Etroplus surantensis Esomus danricus Gagata ceniaGarra bughl Goblus sandanundio Gonoproctoptems – curmuca Gyptothorax cavia Hara horai Horabagrus nigricollaris Harabagarus brachysoma Labeo boga Labeo boggut Labeo calbasu Labeo dyocheilus Labeo robita Laguvia shawl Laubuca dadibur Jori Laubuca laubuca Lepidocephalus guntea Lycodontis tileMacrognathus aculeatus Macropodus cupuanus dayi Mastacembelus aculeata Mastacembelus armatus| Mastacembelus pancalus Monoterus cuchia Monotetrus travancorieus
Mystus gulio Mystus montanus Mystus tengara Mystus vittatus Nandus nandus Nangra itchkeea Noemacheilus botia Noemacheilus corica Ncomacheilus savona Neomacheilus beavani Neoma cheilusscaturigina Notopterus notopterus Puntius sophore Puntius stigma Puntius tambraparnel Puntius vittatus Rashora danicom’us Rasbora maculata Rhinomugil corsula Rita rita Rohtee alfrediana Schismatorhynchus nukta Scisor rhapdophorus Sctaophagus argus Sctophagus rubrifrons Sillaginopsis panijus Stigmatogobius sadanundio Tetradon cutcutia Tetradon steindachneri Tor khudree Tor mussullah Toxotes aculator Trichogaster leeri Wallago attu Xenentodon cancilla|
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