This usual refers to marine science or oceanology which usually reveals the study of Earth’s Oceans and Seas. It’s a dynamic topic since it usually corers a wide range of topics such as ecosystem, organisms in marine life, currents, waves and other geophysical fluids dynamics. It also called geology, plate tectonics and fluxes which are as a result of various chemicals which are emitted from oceans. Therefore, oceanography encompasses on a wide knowledge of ocean and its processes. There are quite a number of ocean surface current patterns which are seen in oceans and seas.
The movement of water takes place in pattern which is usually inform of currents. Ocean water can be moved horizontally on the surface of ocean (Garrison, 2005). Current on the surface are usually driven by wind or other forces such as Coriolis Effect and its also determined by where land masses are located which usually affect surface current patterns. One type of these patterns is current gyres which come on top of an ocean as a huge circular pattern which are usually seen by looking at the current of the ocean. This pattern usually originates from equator towards the middle latitude.
The motion which is circular follows clockwise directions which usually manifest itself in Northern Hemisphere and goes anticlockwise usually in southern hemisphere. Mostly at the poles of earth gyres have a tendency to flow in opposite direction. In this circular circulation of water as a result of gyres, energy from the sun can be spread evenly. In this case, water is warmed by the sun at the equator which facilitates heat to be moved to higher levels. Another example of these patterns is the cold-core and the warm-core rings.
Rings are usually vortices of ocean which results from current with meander wraps which are quite large and they forms around itself and detaches. For the cold rings large eddies are formed and they have a cold water core these are mainly found in Gulf Stream of south. For the warm core-rings, these are also large eddies whereby the core is made up of warm water and they are found on northern Gulf Stream. Cold water current is experienced mainly from temperate and Polar Regions and then they flow towards equator.
Warm surface current are dragged by atmospheric forces which are influenced by rotation of earth (Yust, 1956). In most cases, formation of surf usually occur when the waves in deep water comes towards the shallow water. Steepness of wave can go up to 1/7 of wave length causes and then the wave to break. In most cases, waves start breaking after they have reached water depth of 1. 3 time of the height of waves. Some waves are generated by wind and this result to formation of swell.
In most cases, typical swell wavelength is approximately, 200m and has a steepness of about 0. 08. These patterns have varying wave speeds and speed is usually determined by how fast the waves are formed and their movement. Wave speed of most swells which is usually measured from the peak is around 5-8 m/s of the gust speed. This should be measured 2-8 minutes period. In formation of surf, waves usually moves towards shallow water and to the bottom of wave which lead to reduction of speed. The wave speed of Tsunami is quite high as compared to the other two.
The wave speed of Tsunami is about 200 m/s and it can go up to 700 km/hr. The speed of tsunami is quite strong that it can sweep everything that it encounters on the way. Tsunami usually arises as large waves which have long wave length and they result from under sea disturbance which is impulsive and quite violent. They usually occur around the coast or ocean. Breaking surf results from waves which usually move toward shallow water. Swells usually forms under the influence of wind. Strong wind makes the ocean choppy which result to formation of swell.
Bay in an ocean shows a well documented world’s tidal ranges which are actually 16 meters (53fts) and this is usually determined by the shape of bay (Brower, 2007). Tides that are usually in a bad depend on location of ocean. Location of ocean determines how the current will flow. Direction of the current will mainly, be determined by the intensity and direction of wind. Tides usually form in relation to the direction of current. Therefore, ocean topography determines formation of tides. Depositional in coast has various features which distinguishes it from other land forms.
It has so many estuaries and lagoons which have Barrier Island and in other cases they usually develop deltas around the river. Wide range of sediments usually accumulates in depositional coasts. In the case of coastal erosion, there are very little or no sediments at all unlike the case of depositional where there are numerous sediments. The process of plate tectonic ensures that all coal resources distributions are controlled in that region sedimentation contributes to the formation of plate tectonics settings around the coastal region.
These forms are less seen in the case of erosion since no deposits are along the court. In erosion they are experienced in those areas where there are few deposits in the region. Active erosions and various forms of land slide causes sedimentation along the beach. Therefore sedimentation entirely depends on erosion since the eroded materials will finally be deposited along the sea or ocean which forms the sediments. Marine life is usually determined by the environment of that particular place. There are three types of marine organism which dwells in marine life; there are planktons, nekton and benthos.
Those which dwell in pelagenic zones are the ones which are away from bottom and shore of ocean. They usually dwell in continental shore since food is quite plenty in these areas. Some birds also inhibit these zones which includes storm petrel and albatross. In pelagenic zone, planktons are usually moved by wind current and waves in different places. They usually make their food through the process of photosynthesis. In the case of benthic zone, benthoses are found here since they dwell in deep inside the ocean (Svitil, 2007).
Small animals which inhibit deep seas are found on the ground such as sessile, burrowing animals and swimming animal they usually get food through interrelations with other organism which include food web. Therefore, those organisms which live in these two distinct areas have different survival rate. Therefore, oceanography despite of its various amazing features which are formed mainly by current wind, it host many organisms and makes their survival successful by ensuring that they have food and other necessities to survive.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 18 October 2016
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