Malaysian Film Industry Construct Malaysian Identity Cultural Studies Essay

Malaysia is a Multiple ethic state, but the interesting state of affairs is, the race that dominant the state are all imigrant, the Malay was come from the Javanese. The Chinese is come from China and Indian people come from India. but nowadays they all citizen of the state, with these alieness history, how should Malaysian specify their national individuality?

'We have merely celebrated the twenty-fifth day of remembrance of our independency. During this one-fourth ccentury we have reached a degree of accomplishment which we can be proud of.

We have succeeded in puting a strong foundation for the evolvement O f One people, One linguistic communication and One civilization. It is on this foundation that we build a greater Malaysia. ' ( Malaysia: Crisis of Identity p8 )

'What Malaysia demands are 'moderates of terminals ' and non 'moderates of agencies ' who are finally wMalaysia, an Indian Malaysia, a Malay Malaysia but a Malayan Malaysia where the different races, linguistic communications, faiths and civilizations can boom in Malaysia.

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' ( p3 )

The first quotation mark was adderssed by the BN Gorvenment after they win the election in 1982, at that yearss the gorvernment suggested the thought of Assimilation: A + B + C = A, where A, B, and C represent different societal groups and A represents the dominant group. The subordination of minority civilizations into a dominant culture.This attack may be likned to what some have called `` forced assimilation '' ( ( Alison Gibson. 1984. p 105 ) ( National civilization and democracy, Kua kia shortly, p133 ) . The 2nd quotation mark was the respond from the people, espeacially the Chinese which represent the thought of Pluralism: A + B + C = A + B + C, where A, B, and C represent different societal groups that over clip maintain their alone individualities.

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Cultural pluralism is fre-quently seen as a `` peaceable coexistence between groups. All civilizations are to be allowed to be individually and every bit, harmonious or non. The harmonious version has been termed '' integrity in diverseness ' . ( Alison Gibson. 1984. p 105 ) ( National civilization and democracy, Kua kia shortly, p133 ) . You can image when this two thought bump together, how much pandemonium it will do. The Malayan have stay in this occasion for over 50 old ages, it is necessary to place briefly the protagonism of assorted places on National individuality. First, I will discourse about what is National Identity, And so i will research how the Malaysia 's movie industry construt the image of Malaysian 's National Identity, And how the image alteration through the decennary.

What is National Identity.

National individuality is a complex thought,

National individuality erase difference by enforcing a set of properties on all menbers of the state - and unwilling cape to accept all these properties threatens individuality and hence threatens ejection from that community. ( p62 )

The thought of erase all the difference does n't intend to wipe out other civilization, but erase any other individuality that create by any single group in the state because these are a power that will do ejection. National individuality is one thought that can accept by all the single group, and garner them in to one voice.

National individuality is merely one of the many societal individualities available for citizens of multicultural states such as Malaya... .National individuality has a cardinal function in advancing peaceable cultural dealingss. ( Malini ratnasigam, p3 )

In the book `` Cultural relation and State Building '' Malini Ratnasingam claim that the national individuality is the best signifier of individuality should accommodate by the Malaysian, beacause the other societal individuality content excessively much class that will rupture the Malaysian into many single pieces, but national individuality will work good for the Malayan, Because state are crossed by those differences, a force of unite, a sense of belonging and nationess.

So now we understand what is national individuality. But now the inquiry is who should make up one's mind what is our individuality? At the begining of this thesis, there are the arguement about chosing which thought shall we accommodate, Assimilation or Pluralism?

'The state is imagined because the members of even the smallest state will ne'er cognize most of their fellow-members, run into them, or even hear of them, yet in the heads of each lives the image of their Communion. ' ( Benedict Anderson, p60 )

From the quotation mark Benedict Anderson belieave that the state is about all the member, even the smallest state. National individuality is a image that can imagined by every individual state. But In the book 'Cultural Contestatation ' writer Zawahi Ibrahim disagree with Anderson 's construct and suggested that the individuality formation takes topographic point within what he would name a `` two societal world '' which are `` authority-defined '' societal world, one which is magisterially defined by people who are portion of the dominant power construction. The 2nd is `` everyday-defined '' societal world, one which is experienced by people in the class of thier everday life. These two societal worlds exist side by side at any given clip. ( Zawahi Ibrahim, 1998, pg18 ) The individuality is a dialogue between these two societal world.

How Malaysia movie Indutry construt Malaysian 's National individuality

`` The Malaysian movie indutry was founded on Chinese money, Indian imaginativeness and Malay labor '' ( Hamzah hussin,1994, p105 )

Although outside the screen, there are fantastic mullti cross cultural relation on the film production, but about all the movie are Malay films. The lone thing that truly can see as multi racial is the Old Malay film industry have strong influnce from Indian Bollywood manner beacuse of the manager, but really less of them had truly mention about the multi ethnicity or spiritual relation.

`` I chose to name this book 120 Malay film, because more than half of the films were made before 'Malaysia ' was even created. ( Plus they were made in Singapore ) So what they have common were the languague and cultural surroundings they showcased. '' ( 120Malay film, p26 )

The autor of `` 120 Malay Movie '' clearly province that the early movie industry in Malaysia ca n't even see Malaysia 's film, It is merely presented the early life of Malay in Malaysia, it possibly a really good stuffs for the Malaysia 's Malay individuality, but evidently non suite the thought of National individuality.

But now it raise a inquiry, if the national indentity include everything, do n't the Malay civilization besides portion of the national individuality? Yes, but now we speaking about how the movie industry aid construt the national individuality, at the old clip, the Malay movie are wholly dominanted the movie industry, which give an thought of the feeling of the state have owned by Malay, In the movie 'Tajul Ashikin ' ( see figure 1 ) there was a scene where two work forces try to monger thier wares, but thier voices are drowned out by a freshly arrived Chinese squad that is offering dental services.

'This shows the Malay fright of being 'displaced ' in their ain land by new reachings who seem to be much better at buiness ' . ( p25,120Malay Movie )

Figure 1 - `` Tajul Ashikin '' by M Amin

But at that clip, the blunt economic disparity between Malay provincials and Chinese merchandisers did n't look to hold undue political reverberations because the populationwas sparse and times were good ( 120 Malay p269 ) . So the film show the concern of the Malay sovereignty alternatively of advancing peaceable cultural dealingss. With this thought, it help to destruct the national individuality alternatively of construt it.

But still there is some exception.There is still some other racial tenseness dad up in these film. On the movie `` Mahsuri '' which release in 1959 ( see fiugre 2 ) , there was a portion about a merciless Indian tease by the Malayans about his tegument coloring material. ( p165 ) The secret plan is meant to be amusing, in fact, it was directed by an Indian. Cultural struggle frequently appear in Malayan day-to-day life, we can non avoid it, but we can confront it with great attitude. This secret plan showed an attitude to confront the difference between every cultural, merely laugh at it.

Figure 2 - `` Mahsuri '' by BM Rao

The following movie that have the multi ethnicity it is 'Ali Baba Pucang Lapok ' directed by Malayan silver-screen fable P. Ramlee at 1960, P.Ramlee are one of the minority inside that can make the sense of Malaysianness in the film in the decennary. The film itself are calculated mish-mash of civilization, inside the film you can see different sort of civilization image. But the most surprise scene will be when the Chinese bargainer being asked how long he have lived in the country, he answer that he hold lived here for 80years, he non merely counted his ain 50 old ages age, but add up his male parent. ( see figure 3 )

Figure 3 - The Chinese bargainer said that his male parent lived at that place 30 old ages before he borned.

'This blurs the line between `` immigrant ' and native ' and it is exactly this blurring that must go on untill all Malayan feel they have the same interest in the state. ' ( p26, 120 Malay Movie )

It is barely seen a film have such multi civilization in Malay old movie. The national individuality is to make a sense of state, it merely can be done when the have the thought that the land does n't owned by anyone, but they were all born equal in this topographic point. This film successfully present the message. and helped build the sense of state, althought it is merely one short scene, but it is still a large measure for the Malaysia 's industry at the decennary.

Another movie besides directed by P.Ramlee 'Sesudah Sebuh ' ( see figure 4 ) , `` The most multi cultural dramatis personae we have of all time seen. '' said the Author of 120 Malay Movie Amir Muhammad. The Main dramatis personae include the 3 chief race of Malaysian, Melayu, Cina and Indian. And a conversation in the film, create am ideal racial integrating, In a bookstore by a client to the proprietor: '' Even though you 're Malay and one 'm Chinese, we are both Malaysians. And Malaysians have a responsibility to assist each other. '' The Idea ca n't be more clear, it 's simple and straight indicating the ideal without any ornament.

Figure 4- 'Sesudah Sebuh ' directed by P.Ramlee

Although there are some more movie that truly promotiong the ideal natiaonal individuality for Malayan, but these figure are still merely a bead in the pail. There are still mile a portion to make full the whole pail. But atleast we can see the root of the thought of national individuality turning indoors.

When it come to 1970s, the thought of multic ethic face a challenge. The 513 incident had drag the ethic relation into crisis state of affairs. The racial public violences led to a declaration of a province of 'national exigency ' . The public violence ignited the capital Kuala Lumpur and the environing country of Selangor, Malay rabble, have oning white headbands meaning an confederation with decease, and brandishing blades and stickers, surged into Chinese countries in the capital, combustion, plundering and killing. In revenge, Chinese, sometimes aided by Indians, armed themselves with handguns and scatterguns and struck at Malay campongs ( small towns ) . Huge pillars of fume rose skyward as houses, stores and cars burned. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //,9171,900859,00.html )

'Tunku Abdul Rahman 's multiracial manner of authorities was successful until serious and widespread anti-Chinese public violences broke out in May 1969. These public violences followed a autumn in support for the United Malays ' National Organization ( UMNO ) in the federal election and were declarative of Malay bitterness of the economic success of the Chinese concern community. ' ( hypertext transfer protocol: // )

After the incident, the gorvernment came up a series of policy that surpress the other cultural, in order to reconstitute Malayan society.

'The UMNO-dominated province 's aggressive effort to blend the state 's lingual individuality with Malay 's position as the exclusive nationaal and official linguistic communication threatened the constitutionally sanctioned freeedom to utilize thier female parent lingua. ' ( Milthiethnic, pg220 )

'The pro-Malay policy. The most important consequence of the events of May 1969 was an effort, announced in the five-year program ( 1971-75 ) , to reconstitute Malayan society. The purpose was to raise the per centum of ethnic-Malay-owned concerns from 4 % to 30 % by 1990, and to widen the usage of pro-Malay ( bumiputra ) affirmative-action quota systems for university entryway and company employment. Economic enlargement, it was hoped, would greatly ease this redistributive procedure and at the same clip offer the chance to extinguish poorness among all Malaysians. ' ( hypertext transfer protocol: // )

The National Cultural Policy ( NCP ) was formulated at a Congress held at the University of Malaya in August 1971, and the proclaimed Policy consisted of three chief rules.

The national civilization of Malaysia must be based on the civilizations of the people autochthonal to the part ;

Elementss from other civilizations, which are suited and sensible may be incorporated into the natioonal civilization ; and

Islam will be an of import component in the national civilization. ( Mohad Talib Osman, pg95 )

All of these policy indirectly influence the relation between cultural, all the unequal act make the cultural hatred adult twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. Causing the thought of national individuality start changging. The alteration of the society have brought into the movie industry, the multi cultural that seldom seen from the movie before 1970s wholly obliterate after these policy untill recent old ages. Before so we have Malay civilization dominant movie industry.

The segregate can besides see from the statistics that correlate films atendance by cultural groupwith the national or linguistic communication beginning of the movie being viewed. ( see figure 5 )






23 %

0 %

1 %


7 %

81 %

0 %


34 %

1 %

83 %


35 %

18 %

16 %

Figure 5 - Language distribution of film attending by ethinic group ( 1979 )

'The quetion of the cultural individuality of Malayan movie is a changeless issue, even for the least culturally minded movie manufacturer, since it is related to the demand to pull a broad-spectrum audience.It is still the instance that more than 90 % of audience for Malayan movies is Malay ' ( Malaysia Cinema Asian movie, pg154 )

From the statistic we can see that Bahasa Melayu film is a weak cultural force, despite the Malays being the most powerful political force in the counry. At that clip, The Chinese normally watch the Hongkong or Chinese movies ; or the 2nd pick will be the English - Language movie, but non Bahasa Malayu movie. The same state of affairs happen with the Indian autience.

'cinema is likely the most raciallly unintegrated activity in the state today ' ( Mansor bin Puteh, 1990, pg154 )

On top we discuss about crisis of cultural realation that cause restrict the multi cultural film civilization. In 1981, the thought of Malay sovereignty that set by the gorvernment start to occupy the film industry. National Film Development Corporation ( FINAS ) was established in 1981 to promote the development of the local industry.

'ensure that a ample part of the entire volume of buimess done in the production, distribution and exhibition sectors would be handled by Malays ' ( Baharudin Latif, 1981, pg150 )

Control and restrict from the gorvernment have caused the other cultural have lower opportunity to do their ain film, and besides restricted the creativeness of subject or subject. All of these limitation had conveying the Malaysia movie industry far off from their Golden age in 1950s -1960s.

'Film are censored or banned if it oppose authorities polucy or promote anti-gorvernment feeling ; glorify communism and socialism ; laud any peculiar race while minimizing others ; gloriy offense and immorality ; trade with sadism, inhuman treatment and inordinate force ; insult 'public self-respect ' ; and demo behavior non acceptable to Malayan society ' ( Mohd Hamdan Bin Haji Adnan, 1991 )

These policy had make the Malayan confuse and inquiry about thier naional individuality, the policy have succesfully incite the desire of Malay that persuit for Malay sovereignty, the other cultural like Chinese and Indian felt betray by the state, when there is no state pride in them, the National individuality become dominant by the Malay, and go the image that shown by the Movie industry, but it is non the image that the state portion along, from ( figure 5 ) we can see the local Malay movie have non accepted by the other cultural. so it is non a National individuality of that decennary, the movie on that decennary have lose the construct of being a National film.

'The film is so a mean of 'speaking the state ' in all its constructed singularity. The connexion between 'speaking the state ' and 'selling the state ' become all the more invitable when the rhetoric of both nationlism and selling emphasize qualities of singularity, peculiarity and nationalism. The term 'representing the state ' there bow accuires and ecmonomic every bit good as an analytical and cultural nonsubjective - it is non merely ' how ' a film represents the state, but besides 'how successfully ' it does so. ' ( Malaysia Cinema, pg 107 )

New Malaysian Film

The decennary of Malaysian movie might look like a decennary that have controled by Malay, and their the relation with other cultural race does n't look good. Althought the realation between the different cultural group are peaceable in decennary before 1960s, but the policy in 1970s created an long battle between cultural group.

'Race has ever been an issue in my state, even before independency but ne'er has it been as serious and dissentious as it is today.Almost every issue is seen from the perspectivve of race to the point where it is impossible to obtain a consensus of public sentiment on any issue ' ( Kee Thuan Che,1993, p57 )

But where there is force per unit area, where there is opposition. The serious state of affairs besides created a tendency, Never has it been every bit desire as today, people pursuit for the integrity of the Nation. In the book `` Found in Malaysia '' have interviewed 54 influential Public figure who have different race, faith, civilization, gender, sexual, genarational and political. But when it come to the inquiry: Describe what sort of Malaysia you whould like for yourself and future coevals? They all gave a same reply in many different manner, but in the terminal, the chief thought is the same.

`` All of us regardless of racial/ethnic, regious, category and lingual backgrounds, portion one thing in common: we are all Malayan citizens and we call this state our place and attention for its hereafter. We dream of future Malaysia that is equal to all, but takes into acount ourparticular wants, demands and aspirations and at the same clip, is able to provide to the demands of others harmonizing to an inclusive logic of equal representation and equal right. `` ( Azizi Khan, 2004, pg475 )

The thought go a tendency, and get down to look in the recent 10 old ages. Beacuse the inrternet have start to cover all the new genaration day-to-day life. Internet is one of the most powerful beginnings in human history, the information can portion in rapid velocity, milllion of `` personal narrations '' or `` popular signifiers of look '' which help construt the `` everyday-defined '' societal world was shared everyday. Causing the Balance between the `` authority-defined '' societal world and `` everyday-defined '' societal world started to alter. So we will get down from Malaysia Independence Film Industry, which have good used the cyberspace as a province for them to distribute thier thought and narrative. The first illustration for indipendence movie is the Undertaking `` 15 Malaysia '' .

`` 15Malaysia is a short movie undertaking. It consists of 15 short movies made by 15 Malayan film makers. These movies non merely cover with socio-political issues in Malaysia, they besides feature some of the best-known faces in the state, including histrions, instrumentalists and top political leaders. You may believe of them as fetid small movies made by 15 Malayan voices for the people of Malaysia. '' ( hypertext transfer protocol: // )

From the undertaking name we can cognize that this movie is dedicate to demo 15 sort of narrative that happened in Malaysia. I traveling to take a few of them into discusstion. First I will get down with the `` personal narration '' narrative. `` House '' is a narrative about an Indian household forced by the capitalist to give up their house for development, and besides show the feeling of the Indian child ( Rama ) toward the house is more so a house, but a household. ( see figure 6 ) The narrative effort to research the narrative inside the slums normally the Indian race who have many household suffer with these job in order to allow the audience understand the state more.

Figure 6 - Rama show his experiencing about the house.

We will strat from Yasmin Ahmadm ( see figure 6 ) , Malaysia 's celebrated movie manager, writter and scriptwriter, in Malaysia, most of the cultural used to avoid each other but necessarily knock together, no 1 can avoid, because this is merely what live in Malaysia are look like, And most of her movie are disputing the minute when different cultural bump together, she narrate the flicker of the minute and bend in into a moving image. When most of the popular civilization 's film intentionally avoid the cultural struggle, her movies break the boundary between cultural and faith. She focus on emotion and the relationship between people, narate and show the narrative in a human position, non in Malay, Chinese or Indian, but back to the beginning - human emotion. It makes the audience to rethink about politic, faith and societal issues in indirectly ways. The more we understand each other, the lupus erythematosus we affraid.

'She is an embassador of integrity. An single with astonishing foresight who ; work has bridged all the races in the state. Great loss to the state and the originative universe. ' ( Chandran Ravi. hypertext transfer protocol: // cp-documentid=5080081 & A ; page=13 )

Figure 6 - Yasmin Ahmad

Yasmin Ahmad foremost film `` Sepet '' ( see figure 7 ) is a narrative about a Chinese male child autumn in love with a Malay miss. This might look normal in foreign state, but the relation between Chinese and Malay is non simple.

Figure 7 - Sepet

The relation between Chinese and Malay ever been complicate, that hatred between both of this race go on before incident 513, when in World war 2, the Japan invade and ruled this state for over 3 old ages. on that period, the Nipponese surpress the Chinese but treated the Malay friendly and even organize a Malay ground forces to defence againts the Communist, but who is communist? At that clip many Chinese were the Communist, the root of hatred were start from here, and Malay 's fright of get replace by the Chinese in the econimic, so is the 513 incident, the unequal policy, Chinese fright of forced to fall in Muslim if married a Muslim and etc.

All of these caused the relation between this two race are ever controvertial. In the film 'Sepet ' that is a scene the Protagonist 's ( Jason ) friend attempt to carry Jason the relation between him and Heroine ( Orked ) is forbiden. Which clearly potrait the head set of Chinese about the relationship of the interacial twosome. ( See figure 8 ) .

Figure 8 - Keong ( left ) advices Jason non to acquire involved in relationship with Malay misss.

Yasmin Ahmad used the traditional perceptual experience of Malaysians and confronted it in her film. It ca n't be denied that she used a really originative manner to demo the relationship between history civilization and guiltless love.

Malay movies rarely touch on forbidden subjects like intoxicant, Canis familiaris, harlotry, self-destruction, etc. Many of the Malay movies merely showed the 'good side ' . Much of the clip, they are hindered by those issues. But Yasmin Ahmad used rearward psychological science to convey out the negative issues, because there are many gray countries to look into in Malayan civilization. The followers are some of the tabu in Malay tradition that is shown in the film `` Muallaf ( 2007 ) '' . A Muslim adult female who despaired on her matrimony ended up taking her ain life by self-destruction. Young Malays drama and acquire rummy in a snooker room. An Islam instructor touched a Canis familiaris on his manner to mosque. A sincere Malay Muslim miss works in a saloon at dark. These issues are a challenge to the traditional Malay society.

However, the undertakings that she undertakes must be lawful from the point of position of Islam. She must non work as a terpsichorean, a theoretical account, a barmaid, a waitress, a movie actress, a musician, or a cocotte to sell her muliebrity in order to do money, even with the consent of her hubby. ( A. Rahman I. Doi, 1990:147 ) .

Yasmin Ahmad 's films use the sensitive issues faced by Malays as a treatment. Talking about sensitive issues is really ambitious, particularly on ethnicity. But it depends on how the manager presented it. How much can the audience accept it, based on the issues?

Yasmin Ahmand movie has a power of self-contemplation, Yasmin Ahmad movie excavation into the confilct between cultural group alternatively of attempt to avoild these sensitive issue like other, Yasmin Ahmad bring the struggle right into audience oculus without beautify it, merely with the simplest emotion of human being, a manner that lead us to undestand empathy. Merely when Malayan strong plenty to truly confront themselves, so we can organize our Identity Honestly.

The following instance will be opposite of Yasmin Ahmad film.Yasmin Ahmad movie represent the world side of cultural struggle, now we are traveling to see the Malayan Utopia. 'Nasi Lemak 2.0 ' ( see figure 9 ) is directed by a controversial public figure - Namewee, who have temper the national anthem and content with rasict, critic to gorvenment and faith in 2007. The vocal 'Negarakuku ' drag the attending of public, Public reaction towards the vocal is split, Immediate reactions in the signifier of YouTube remarks range from being critical, in just understanding, support, onslaughts and menaces towards Wee. He became One of the most haterd public figure by the Malay ethnic at that clip.

Figure 8 - Nasi Lemak 2.0

Nasi Lemak2.0 is the first Malayan movie that did non aim one of the three population groups as its audience. And succesfully hit 7million ringgit gross. The film is have many secret plan that content the relation between the different ethnic for illustration: the bright non-Muslim pupils unable to inscribe into universities, governments bias in favor of Malays, Chinese educated citizens speak hapless English, immigrants issues, Hang Tuah 's unresolved individuality enigma, English educated Chinese deficiency of assurance in talking Chinese linguistic communication, Kuala Lumpur a busy and unsettling metropolis, some non-Chinese could talk better Chinese, mix of Indian and Chinese vocal, and civilization of Baba and Nyonya.

Different with Yasmin Ahmad movie, althought in Nasi Lemak2.0 there is still some cultural struggle, but most of the clip, it show a Utopia of how Malaysia cultural group interact with each other, and make a whole new sort of civilization. The vocal 'Curry Neh ' ( see figure 9 ) in the film, mixed the Chinese and Indian civilization, There is more illustration like, the Malay chef learning Chinese matial art 'Taichi ' at the park ( see figure 10 ) or the Chinese tradition vocal sing with English words ( figure 11 ) . Attempt to oppugn why ca n't a specific cultural learn the civilization of other cultural.

Figure 9 - Curry Neh

Figure 10 - Malay learning 'Taichi '

Figure 11 - Tradition Chinese vocal sing with English Lyric

The movie was success because the intereact of different cultural causation resonance among the Malaysian, the manner of moving and some humour about the Malaysia 's gorvernment or stereotyping of cultural is what Malaysia face in day-to-day life.

The 2nd movie of Namewee is 'Hantu mobster ' ( see figure 12 ) . The movie continue the manner of 'Nasi Lemak 2.0 ' . Hantu mobster effort to direct the message of Nation integrity earlier 1970s, and inquiry about why todays cultural relation become worst. The movie manner is same with 'Nasi Lemak2.0 ' The thought is the same but merely the narrative had alteration, there are many cultural intereact like Chinese merely understand Malay when it speak in Chinese speech pattern, a Taoist priest that know different faith manner of dispossession, a lampoon of the 513 incident, and a Indian Party vocal with Malay, Mandarin, Hokkien, Tamil words, etc. These cultural mixture is what Malaysian Interested, although world might non be the same, but from the sucess of these movie we can see the hereafter that Malayan persuit, the hereafter that Malayan image.

Figure 12 - Hantu Gangster 2012


Malaysia is a immature state, there is many thing we have to see to understand what are we today, what will be out hereafter. Today Malaysia is in a turning point, where the politic have a new Atmosphere which will straight act upon the `` authority-defined '' societal world. And the development of cyberspace, autonomy of address aid people to understand their capableness, have the manner to stand up and express thier emotion and their narrative, one believe in the hereafter, when the `` authority-defined '' and the `` everyday-defined '' have found a manner to line up, Malaysian will no longer quetion their identiry.


hypertext transfer protocol: // ( benicdic Anderson )

Updated: Feb 22, 2021
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Malaysian Film Industry Construct Malaysian Identity Cultural Studies Essay essay
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