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This survey examined the consequence of cultural background cognition on reading comprehension at illation and actual degrees which was gained through reading an American short narrative that depicted either culturally familiar ( nativized ) or culturally unfamiliar ( original ) versions of the narrative. Subjects were intermediate degree EFL scholars analyzing English at a linguistic communication institute in Iran. They answered true/false and multiple pick comprehension inquiries aimed at mensurating the illation and actual comprehension over two versions of the narrative. They so completed a general attitude questionnaire demoing their positions toward nativization of short narratives.
Consequences revealed important consequence of cultural acquaintance on illation and actual reading comprehension every bit good as negative attitude of Iranian EFL scholars toward nativized narratives. Possible accounts are provided and the deductions for the paradigm of English as an International Language are discussed.
Cardinal words: illation and actual comprehension, scheme, attitude, nativization/cultural version
The development of scheme theory in cognitive scientific discipline has influenced L2 reading comprehension since 1970s.
And the trademark of this theory, harmonizing to Brown ( 2001 ) is the fact that the text by itself does non transport significance ; it is the reader that brings information, cognition, emotion, and civilization to the text. Namely, the reader constructs the intended significance through the interaction of the text and his anterior cognition in which the input is mapped against the bing scheme of the reader.
Following scheme theory, prior cognition gained a important function in comprehension. A figure of surveies found that there is a meaningful relationship between reader 's activations of anterior cognition by a text and reading comprehension ( Chang, 2006 ; Hammadou, 2000 ; Kendeou & A ; van den Broek, 2007 ; Keshavarz, Atai, & A ; Ahmadi, 2007 ; Leeser, 2007 ) .
They illustrated that possessing appropriate anterior cognition could ease the comprehension of unfamiliar texts. Bartlett ( 1932 ) was the first individual who studied the consequence of scheme on reading comprehension. In his survey, English participants were asked to read and remember a narrative from an unfamiliar cultural model, and the findings showed that the callback was non accurate. Distortions found in the recalling of the narrative conformed to the past experiences of the readers, and amplifications in the recalling caused redundancies.
Sing background cognition, some surveies aim at showing the importance of cultural schemes in L2 reading ( Carrell & A ; Eisterhold, 1983 ; Johnson, 1982 ) . For case Johnson ( 1982 ) investigated the consequence of the cultural beginning of prose on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate and advanced ESL pupils at the university degree. The consequences revealed that the cultural beginning of the narratives influenced reading comprehension to a important grade more than the syntactic or semantic complexness of the text. Some other surveies have shown similar consequences in that participants comprehended better those texts that were similar to their native civilizations or were more familiar to them ( Abu-Rabia, 1996, 2003 ; Ammon, 1987 ; Carrell, 1983 ; Yuet & A ; Chan, 2003 ) . Refering methodological analysis, most surveies investigated at least two groups of topics with different cultural schemes and two reading texts which were tried to be linguistically and rhetorically tantamount. One of the texts was about the cultural background of the first group and another one presupposed the cultural background of the 2nd group. Results largely revealed that each group could understand the text which presupposed their ain native civilization better than the other.
Recent research on the function of cultural schemes in L2 reading comprehension have focused on two groups of participants with the same cultural background and one reading text in two different versions. That is, several culturally unfamiliar words in the original text are adapted to more familiar 1s in the modified version. Then each group reads either the culturally familiar or the culturally unfamiliar version of the text. The earliest survey of this type dates back to the research carried out by Chihara, Sakurai, and Oller ( 1989 ) . With respect to the premise that `` really simple things like nouns mentioning to individuals and topographic points carry with them some reasonably elusive semantic and matter-of-fact information '' , they replaced several English unfamiliar words ( e.g. Nicholas, Athen, Klein ) with Nipponese familiar words ( Ben, Osaka, Daiei ) and left all other words integral. Having controlled other possible intervening variables, Chihara et Al. ( 1989 ) reached to the decision that the participants performed significantly better on the modified ( i.e. culturally familiar ) cloze texts than on the original texts. It seems nativizing a text and altering the civilization specific words in the original text into 1s more familiar to the readers can assist L2 readers to place and happen some common land with the text.
Using more culturally familiar footings to modify the original English text was widely employed by ( Alptekin, 2002 ) who established the construct of cultural nativization in reading comprehension. Introducing cultural nativization, Alptekin ( 2006 ) defines it as `` sociological, semantic and matter-of-fact version of the textual and contextual cues of the original narrative into the scholar 's ain civilization, while maintaining its lingual and rhetorical content basically integral '' . Harmonizing to him scenes, locations, characters and businesss are counted as textual cues. Furthermore, culture-specific imposts, rites, impression, constructions, and values are described as contextual cues. Refering the construct of nativization introduced by Alptekin ( 2006 ) , Erten and Razi ( 2003 ) carried out a survey in which they employed a reading text in two versions ; one is the original American short narrative and the other nativized Turkish short narrative. Their survey aimed at analyzing the consequence of nativization and reading activity on reading comprehension. The consequences revealed that the groups who read the nativized version of the narrative, irrespective of whether they received any reading activities or non, outperformed the other two groups who received the original narrative either with or without reading activities.
More relevant to this survey, Alptekin ( 2006 ) concentrated on the function of cultural nativization in both actual and illative comprehension in L2 reading. The survey was conducted with 98 advanced EFL pupils at a university in Turkey. The 1st group of pupils read an original short narrative while the 2nd group of pupils read the nativized version, textually and contextually modified to reflect the scholars ' ain civilization. Then they answered multiple-choice comprehension inquiries aimed at look intoing illative and actual comprehension independently across the two versions of the narrative. The findings demonstrated that by nativizing the civilization specific elements of a short narrative into those culturally more familiar, Turkish pupils were able to do better illations when they read the nativized narrative. That is, nativization contributed to the comprehension of the original narrative. Furthermore, Alptekin 's findings support Oller 's ( 1995 ) claim that replacing certain words in reliable texts with more familiar 1s facilitates reading comprehension.
Although the above surveies have provided valuable information refering the consequence of nativization on reading comprehension, these surveies suffer from some restrictions. First, since they have examined the issue chiefly in a few civilizations i.e. in Nipponese and Turkish civilizations, the consequences can barely be generalized about other cultural environments. Therefore, there is a demand to conform the findings of these surveies by farther 1s on scholars from other civilizations.
Second, few surveies have researched the degree of comprehension in which nativization is largely effectual. That is, apart from Alptekin 's ( 2006 ) which has investigated nativization with respect to both actual and illative comprehension, other surveies have been chiefly concerned about reading comprehension as a whole. This is a debatable issue since nativization and familiar cultural scheme may enforce different grades of cognitive burden ( Sweller, 1994 ) associated with actual or illative reading activities on knowledge. Rupp, Ferne and Choi ( 2006 ) indicated that illation inquiries that cause readers to prosecute with the whole text are perceived as being really disputing. This is because doing illations is indispensable to the building of the mental representation of the text. As such, illations of the type that produce fresh cognition derived from textual content necessitate more resource-demanding control processes in that they go beyond the text-base in order to incorporate it with the reader 's anterior cognition. Therefore, bring forthing illations enables readers to travel from the semantically 'shallow ' text-base to the semantically 'deep ' state of affairs theoretical account ( Perfetti, 1999 ) . Actual apprehension, nevertheless, which usually rests on lower-order conceptual and lingual operations chiefly at the text-base degree, can non be said to be as cognitively demanding as illative comprehension, because it does non imply a high grade of controlled processing ( Alptekin & A ; Ercetin, 2010 ) . Therefore, analysing the two degrees of comprehension individually, may let us to hold a better appreciation of the function of nativization in reading comprehension.
Furthermore, there is still a spread in our cognition about the attitude of EFL scholars to nativization. Knowing the attitude of pupils toward the version of cultural elements would be of great advantage in planing EFL text books since civilization plays a important function in linguistic communication teaching method.
Refering the restrictions of old research, it would be deserving retroflexing and widening these surveies to accomplish at a better apprehension of the function nativization drama in reading comprehension. To make this end this survey was designed to first analyze the function of nativization of short narratives in pulling illations and understanding the surface significances of the text which are severally called illation and actual comprehension and so to look into the attitude of Iranian EFL scholars towards nativization in reading texts through questionnaire and interviews.
More specifically the first intent of this survey is to understand in which degree of comprehension, actual or illation, nativization is largely effectual in L2 reading. To make so, the same narrative is used in two different versions - the original English version and its corresponding nativized version. It is thought that due to the cultural acquaintance of the nativized version in cases of scheme activation, L2 readers would execute significantly better on the nativized version in both actual and inference degree.
The 2nd intent of the survey is to happen out the attitude of EFL scholars toward nativization. To optimise cogency and dependability, two different instruments were employed: questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire was constructed by the research workers for the intent of the present survey which was to tap on the different facets of nativization as were described by Alptekin ( 2006 ) . In add-on, interviews were conducted to guarantee the cogency of the questionnaires ' findings.
In drumhead, this survey was designed to reply the undermentioned research inquiries:
Does nativization impact Persian EFL scholars ' illation and actual comprehension of a short narrative?
What is the attitude of Iranian L2 readers toward nativization of short narratives?
Sixty ( 22male, 38 female ; age scope of 18 to 32 ) intermediate degree EFL scholars were recruited from an English linguistic communication institute in Iran. The participants in this survey had learned English in instructed scene for about 2-3 old ages and they were considered as intermediate degree scholars harmonizing to the linguistic communication centre 's criterions and Oxford Placement Test which they had taken. Based on their OPT scores the participants were assigned to two approximately tantamount English proficiency groups ( see table1 ) .
For the intent of this survey, a figure of instruments such as reading comprehension trial, attitude questionnaire, and interview where prepared and utilised which will be described and delineated in this subdivision in the undermentioned order.
Choice and nativization procedure of reading text
Following the policy of utilizing the same text in two versions, one being the original and the other a culturally nativized version, in analyzing the function of cultural scheme in L2 reading comprehension, the survey tries to cut down the possible prejudice posed by different degrees of conceptual denseness and complexness in reading contexts. The narrative `` The Girl in their Summer Dresss '' by the American author Irwin Shaw ( 2000 ) , was selected. It is about a twosome passing their Sunday in the streets of New York. This narrative was adopted from Erten and Razi ( 2009 ) .
Following Alptekin ( 2006 ) , the reading text was nativized to reflect the Iranian civilization textually and contextually ( Appendix B ) . Textual hints that were nativized included informations holding to make with scenes, locations, characters and businesss as have been depicted in table 2:
A 20 point trial ( Appendix C ) was designed to mensurate the illation and actual comprehension ( 10 points each ) of the participants in true/ false and multiple pick formats following rubrics posed by Hughes ( 2003 ) . Using such formats would be nonsubjective since they eliminate the subjective factors may be involved in taging. Besides true/ false and multiple pick formats are efficient in that they take less clip to finish.
The trial was constructed in two versions ; one based on the original narrative and the other on the nativized text harmonizing to Day and Park 's ( 2005 ) categorizations of reading comprehension inquiries. Therefore, actual inquiries were designed to analyze the apprehension of the information which is presented in a straightforward mode in a narrative and illation inquiries were intended to mensurate the reading obtained from the text. The two versions of the trial were indistinguishable except for some peculiar phrases with civilization specific mentions. In add-on, the figure of illation and actual inquiries was equal in the trial.
In order to look into the cogency of the trial, it was piloted with a similar sample of pupils with the same features in add-on to the same degree of linguistic communication proficiency. The intent was to acknowledge the points that were excessively easy or excessively hard. Consequences showed that three points were non appropriate and they were changed to run into the purpose of the trial.
The dependability of the reading trials was verified by agencies of the internal consistence of responses to the points that made up each trial. The Cronbach alpha coefficients all exceeded 0.75 ( by and large considered to show a satisfactory degree of dependability in societal scientific discipline research ) .
Sing Alptekin ( 2006 ) definition of nativization, an attitude questionnaire was constructed in Likert graduated table utilizing a 5-point graduated table ; runing from strongly hold to strongly differ. It was used to analyze the attitude of EFL scholars toward nativizing of short narratives in three dimensions of civilization including sociological, semantic and matter-of-fact facets. The aesthetic dimension which taps on the literary facets of civilization was non considered here because it is thought to be irrelevant to the survey. Besides, to analyze the dependability of the questionnaire, Cronbach 's coefficient alpha was calculated ( I±=0.784 ) proposing that the points have comparatively high internal consistence.
Individual 15- minute interviews were conducted with 24 participants indiscriminately chosen. They were asked if they prefer to read nativized English narratives in which all the civilization specific constructs is converted to Iranian civilization. Furthermore, they were asked to lucubrate and explicate their grounds to back up their replies. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Therefore, the information set included the completed questionnaires and transcripts of the interviews. Interviewing helped to set up a resonance with the topics. Such a resonance helped to convey out elaborate information about the scholars ' personal beliefs ; inside informations that might non hold been possible to entree merely through questionnaires.
The original and nativized narratives were given to the two groups. The participants were asked to read the narrative and reply the reading comprehension inquiries in about 40 proceedingss. Then both groups were provided with the attitude questionnaire to show their sentiments sing nativization. They were given as much clip as needed to finish the questionnaire. Neither of the groups was different from the other with regard to the proving conditions. The participants were non allowed to utilize a dictionary or inquire for aid during test disposal. This determination was made because the survey was intended to analyze how scholars handle their undertakings entirely depending on a given undertaking status without any external feedback.
As indicated before, this survey examined the consequence of cultural background cognition on reading comprehension at illation and actual degrees. Furthermore, it investigated the attitude of Persian EFL scholars towards nativization of English short narratives. In what follows, the consequences of reading comprehension trials, questionnaires and interviews will be reported individually.
Independent sample t-tests were conducted on Literal and illative inquiries ( 10 points each ) individually, to find whether the difference between the original and nativized groups ' reading comprehension is at illation, actual, or both degrees of comprehension. The consequences are demonstrated below:
The consequences of the independent sample t-test shown in Table 4 revealed that the differences in the groups are statistically important ( p= .002 and p= .003 ) . As shown in table 4, the nativized group who received the nativized version of short narrative possesses a higher mean mark ( M=6.71 & gt ; 5.83 ) than that of the original group ( M=8.16 & gt ; 7.08 ) in both illation and actual comprehension. As such, although both groups, nativized and original, had an equal degree of linguistic communication proficiency, those who read the nativized narrative drew more illation and understood the straightforward significance of the text better than those who read the original 1. As a consequence, nativization of a short narrative from a different cultural background sing L2 readers ' illation and actual comprehension was important.
Having concerned the analysis of the informations, it seems nativization of civilization specific words and phrases in a short narrative has a positive consequence on both illation and actual comprehension of readers.
The responses of the participants sing their position toward nativization of English short narratives were calculated and presented in the graph below. As demonstrated most of the participants disagree with the procedure of nativization and support originality of the narratives.
Graph1: attitude of Iranian EFL scholars toward nativization
For clear uping the point, there is a item analysis of the questionnaire:
To stipulate participants ' attitude toward nativization a descriptive analysis was used. As it is understood from the graph, most of the participants who received the nativized version of the reading severally about 21 % and 46 % are `` strongly differ '' and `` disagree '' with the nativization of short narratives in reading texts. Besides, approximately 28 % of the questionnaire respondents supported nativization. However, about 6 % of all the participants had no thought in this regard.
More specifically, most of the respondents ( 67 per centum ) did non prefer altering the English names of metropoliss, avenues and streets into Iranian. As shown in tabular array below, 87 % of all participants believed that altering all English drinks to Iranian 1s would non take to a more interesting narrative. Furthermore, about 84.8 per centum considered nativization of English imposts, nutrient, currencies and day of the months unfavourable. Approximately, 83.5 per centum of the participants were non satisfied with altering English parlances into Iranian 1s. In add-on, approximately 80.5 per centum of the respondents did non back up version of English characters in narratives.
It can be concluded that even though nativization improves participants ' reading comprehension, they prefer to read English narratives with English context and civilization.
The informations obtained from the interviews are by and large in melody with those of the questionnaire. Specifically, although 86.6 per centum of all the interviewees ( 24 ) expressed a clear penchant for the original version of English short narratives, the remainder of the interviewees agreed with the procedure of nativization and expressed their grounds in footings of comprehension. They maintained since the English and Iranian civilizations are different, nativization helps the narrative to go more touchable and reduces the ambiguity in the narratives. Furthermore, some of the interviewees who preferred reading original narratives stated their penchant in a figure of grounds. First, they favored the originality of the narratives since it helps them acquire familiar with other civilizations. They stated since linguistic communication and civilization are inseparable, larning a new linguistic communication means larning a new civilization and nativizaiton hinders this procedure. Some of their responses are as follow:
Lili: `` I disagree with nativization because by reading English narratives I expect to gamble in a new universe non reminding my ain civilization '' .
Nima: `` I strongly disagree. I personally prefer everything to be in the original manner. Originality is the best. Besides if we merely read transitions in our ain context and civilization, how can we of all time be acquainted with other civilizations and imposts? Are we supposed to tack ourselves in 'our ain little little universe ' and non allow anyone else in? ''
Second, they explained when they read an English narrative they like it to hold an English ambiance and context since it gives them the existent pleasance of reading narratives whereas nativization turns the narratives into bogus 1s:
Mina: `` Nativization does non give me the existent pleasance I want. Because when it is the original text I can wholly touch it, understand it and bask it '' .
Afshin: `` Nativization makes the transition seems unreal and the readers can non bask plenty '' .
Those who supported the nativized narratives mentioned the easiness of comprehension as the chief factor in their protagonism:
Zahra: `` I think this manner the narrative becomes more touchable and there would be no equivocal parts in the narrative '' .
Ayda: `` Cause the two civilizations are different we can acquire all the inside informations and narrative better '' .
The topics ' beliefs in the interview were so compared with their replies that had been stated in the questionnaire. Comparisons were made between the responses in the two subdivisions, as a signifier of response triangulation. It was clear from the scholars ' responses to the questionnaire and interviews that their beliefs represented an interrelated system where some beliefs were cardinal. These nucleus beliefs were seen to oppose nativization. Consequences from the questionnaires showed that 87 % of the participants dislike the procedure of nativization and support originality of the narratives. The findings of the interview suggested that 86.6 % of all the interviewees were disagree with the nativization of English short narratives. The interview findings, triangulated with the informations collected from the questionnaire, back up the reading that Iranian EFL scholars ' attitude toward cultural version in L2 reading is negative.
To understand the impact of nativization of civilization specific words on actual and illation comprehension that was encountered in a short narrative every bit good as to analyze the attitude of Iranian EFL scholars to nativization, the following treatment foremost seeks the evidences for the influence of nativization on comprehension and so for the negative attitude of linguistic communication scholars toward nativization. In what follows, the findings obtained sing each research inquiry will be discussed in bend.
The first research inquiry addressed the consequence of cultural nativization on Persian EFL scholars ' illation and actual comprehension of a short narrative. Consequences suggested that cultural nativization had a positive consequence on L2 reading comprehension. The findings of this survey confirmed the consequences reported by Erten and RazA± ( 2009 ) , Keshavarz, et Al. ( 2007 ) , and Razi ( 2004 ) , about all of which found that readers ' acquaintance with the civilization specific content of a text plays a facilitative function in reading comprehension. These consequences can be supported by a figure of grounds.
A possible reading might lie in the point that, as Yuet and Chan ( 2003 ) maintains, the version of the civilization specific words in the short narrative contribute to the activation of and usage of appropriate cognition or scheme. As such, since the civilization specific textual and contextual hints were nativized to reflect Iranian civilization, the topics who read the nativized narrative could successfully trip their cultural and content scheme, which in bend resulted in better comprehension of the narrative at both illation and actual degrees. For case, in the original version of the narrative, the twosome is supposed to travel watching a football game, a state of affairs that is typically played out in a foreign civilization but non in participants ' native civilization, since adult females are banned from traveling to football bowls in Iran. In the same vena, the topics seem to be more familiar with the scene in which people are playing volleyball than with that of actresses waiting to be picked up by a manufacturer or with such topographic points as java stores instead than bars since, these state of affairss, although typical in some foreign civilizations, are unusual and eldritch in Iranian cultural environment. Therefore, nativization appears to make a sense of cultural familiarity or a feeling of being 'at place ' with the narrative secret plan ( Alptekin, 2006 ) .
The positive consequence of nativization in L2 reading comprehension can be explained by mention to Stanovich 's ( 2000 ) interactive-compensatory theoretical account. Taking into history the single differences, interactive-compensatory theoretical account of reading makes heavy usage of the thought of cognitive resource allotment in that it synthesizes information provided at the same time from several cognition beginnings. With respect to this theoretical account of reading, the topics who read the nativized version of the narrative may counterbalance for their possible lacks in comprehension by pulling on their cultural scheme. Hence, their comprehension of the narrative is enhanced.
Another support for the effectual function of nativization in reading comprehension comes from the impression of abstract scheme ( Oller, 1995 ) . It is besides called lingual scheme ( Ketchum, 2006 ) , cultural scheme ( Yule, 1996 ) or narrative scheme ( Mandler, 1984 ) . Apart from minor terminological differences, these assorted theoretical accounts are therefore in general understanding about the implicit in abstract scheme informing the narrative 's informal organisation. Abstract scheme is described as internalized representation of narrative construction. It consists of sets of outlooks about the structural make up and conceptual organisation of narratives ( Klapproth, 2004 ) .This cognitive construction enables readAers to retrace the writer 's message by foretelling the manner in which texts advancement. As Oller ( 1995 ) maintains abstract scheme is 'non-syntacticized ' , that is, non dependent on the syntactic agreement of the surface signifiers in the text therefore contributing to rich comprehension. As such, topics who read the nativized narrative could make at greater comprehension by retracing the message through activation of the relevant scheme.
Our survey indicated that familiar textual and contextual hints from a mark linguistic communication civilization would enable Iranian intermediate EFL readers to pull deeper illations and to hold richer actual apprehension of the text. These findings provide farther support for schema-theoretic and knowledge-based theories of acquisition ( Anderson, 1978 ) in which the ownership of appropriate background cognition in the building of scheme is valued. The consequences provide extra grounds in support of the surveies such as Erten and Razi ( 2003 ) , Chihara et Al. ( 1989 ) , Razi ( 2004 ) and Sasaki ( 2000 ) which have demonstrated that accommodating short narratives to run into the scholars ' cultural outlooks enhances their reading comprehension. However, these findings do non conform to that of Alptekin ( 2006 ) who concluded that nativization plays a facilitative function chiefly in readers ' illation comprehension and `` actual comprehension in L2 is non needfully affected by the reader 's degree of acquaintance with the culture-specific content of the text '' . This decision could be attributed to the background of his topics since some of them had graduated from English-medium high schools in Turkey where, as Alptekin claims, they had been familiarized with the civilization of English-speaking states to some extent.
In add-on, the current survey yielded consequences that corroborate findings from a great majority of earlier surveies which has explored the consequence of cultural schemes on reading comprehension ( e.g. Abu-Rabia, 1996, 2003 ; Carrell, 1987 ; Droop & A ; Verhoeven, 1998 ; Johnson, 1981 ; Pritchard, 1990 ; Steffensen & A ; Joag-Dev, 1992 ; Steffensen, Joag-Dev, & A ; Anderson, 1979 ) . Compatible with the consequences of these surveies, the findings of current survey showed that readers were better able to understand texts culturally familiar than texts culturally unfamiliar or less familiar for which they lack the appropriate cultural scheme.
The 2nd research inquiry concerned the attitude of Iranian L2 readers toward nativization of short narratives. Consequences from the questionnaires and interviews revealed that Iranian scholars are eager to better their cultural competency by reading an original narrative weltered in its ain civilization. The EFL topics justified their involvements in reading the original narratives by mentioning to their pleasance addition from these narratives every bit good as their inducement to larn about other civilizations in reading narratives. In other words, although nativization had a facilitative function in reading comprehension, Iranian EFL scholars did non back up it. This goes against what is suggested by Erten and RazA± ( 2009 ) . They believed when pupils see elements of their local civilization in the nativized narrative, they feel much more occupied and place themselves with the context of the text which led to a better reading comprehension. However, learner variables such as personality, proficiency, and larning manner might do it to be hard to analyze this issue. Overall, these differences warrant extra research and are the topic of uninterrupted analysis.
In decision, the consequences of the present survey clarifies the consequence of cultural acquaintance, that of nativization on illation and actual apprehensions in reading comprehension. In add-on, the survey considered the general attitude of Iranian EFL scholars toward the nature of nativization in short narratives. In general, there is a meaningful relationship between nativization and reading comprehension at the two degrees of illation and actual. Furthermore, the participants did non back up nativization of civilization specific words in English short narratives and they expressed their positive attitude toward analyzing the original English narratives.
Sing the function of nativization on L2 reading comprehension for EFL scholars, the findings offer some notable deductions. To get down with, EFL instructors should see whether the cultural scheme in the reading contexts are familiar to the scholars. If they are non, scholars may neglect to grok the text due to miss of consciousness of the culture-specific content. The ground is that intending does non be in the text but in the dynamic interaction between reader 's knowledge and the text ( Jalilifar & A ; Assi, 2008 ) . Therefore, nativization topographic points reader in a familiar context in which they are trying to continue. Second, since it was found that nativization improves reading comprehension, it might supply benefits to utilize some nativized narratives in EFL learning books. So, nativization could be considered as a new technique for stuff interior decorators to supply more familiar cultural content. However, despite the facilitative consequence of nativization, the attitude of scholars should be counted every bit good.
Furthermore, as English is distributing extensively throughout the ball and so is the instruction of English as an International Language ( EIL ) , the accent has been put on the localised assortment of English, known as World Englishes, every bit good as on the local civilizations. While English keeps its motion toward a de-nationalized and planetary linguistic communication to pass on people 's thoughts and civilizations, it besides becomes localized ; a procedure Sharifian ( 2010 ) called glocalization of English. Sing the consequences of the current survey, the topics ' attitudes towards nativization is non positive, and this runs against localisation of English. However, the findings of this survey demand to be verified against future research affecting more representative samples. Traveling toward the EIL, localisation of English should be done with attention, and more research should be conducted to do this conceptualisation more clear and operational. To make so, we need to examine into the scholars ' and instructors ' beliefs and motive sing the nature of L2 and larning it. This manner, we may be able to travel toward how to do localisation possible.
Future surveies may see other degrees of comprehension in reading comprehension of nativized narratives with different signifiers of comprehension inquiries. Besides the consequences of this survey could be verified by using lengthier texts with EFL scholars in different age, gender and linguistic communication proficiency degree. In add-on, this survey chiefly was concerned about the attitude of EFL scholars toward nativization and EFL instructor 's attitude did non addressed. Finally, it might be of great advantage to look into scholar 's beliefs and motives in relation to nativization of civilization specific words.
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