Should offensive language be censored?
Censorship is the controlling and limiting of people's ideas and speech, with this, people's expressions and suppressed. This is mainly managed by the government in order to limit corruption and improve society. First of all, what is offensive language? This term is entirely subjective to different people. It is up to the individual whether or not they find it offensive. The level of offense increases due to the context of the word, so the level of offense is not simply…...
Non-Native Speakers Teaching English As the Second Language
As long as the teacher is finished with the academics and pre-requisite requirements in teaching English as the Second Language or a graduate of a baccalaureate course having English as the major field of study in the academic years, then this non-native speaker of English has the capability on delivering English lessons to the students, especially the young learners to learn English as the Second Language. Non-native English Teachers are equipped with sufficient knowledge and skills for these youngsters to…...
EnglishEnglish as a second languageEnglish LanguageEnglish SpeakingLanguageTeacher
“Mother Tongue” and “Helping and Hating the Homeless”
In our daily lives, too often do we judge others based solely on their appearance; whether it's by the clothes that a person is wearing or even the color of their skin. The essence of Amy Tan's Mother Tongue and Peter Marin's Helping and Hating the Homeless is that in society, we are quick to judge others, categorizing them based upon pre-assumptions which are hardly true. Chinese American novelist Amy Tan shares her most intimate experiences of growing up with…...
Helping OthersMother Tongue
“Mother Tongue” and “Learning to Read and Write”: Compare and Contrast
The two essays “Mother Tongue” by Amy Tan and “Learning to Read and Write” by Frederick Douglass show similarities, but the differences presented between each outweigh the similarities. The essays are very descriptive of how each came to understand the English language. Tan and Douglass describe their own experiences that led to them learning English and how to read and write it. Although Frederick Douglass and Amy Tan both face obstacles in learning English, but their experiences are unique based…...
Compare And ContrastMother Tongue
Studying Abroad is an Effective Way to Learn Language
Studying abroad is an effective way to travel the world whilst still completing course requirements. It is a great opportunity to venture out and explore the beautiful culture and history that Ecuador provides. As I have not had the chance to travel the world much, I believe this would be a unique experience. As I have only had the opportunity to travel to the USA for university and my home country, I believe this would be a unique experience for…...
Advantages Of Studying AbroadLanguageLanguage learningStudy Abroad
How Does Language Affect Wealth
Rationale The topic at hand speaks on the impact and effect language has on the wealth of an individual. The content of my response links to a particular part and topic of the course because it links to both bilingualism and language and thought. It speaks of the difference between the sentence structures and grammar of languages, connecting to bilingualism. Not only that, it also addresses how these structures and grammar affect an individual’s thinking on a daily basis, more…...
Importance of Good Teachers for English Language Learners
English Language Learners, also referred to as ELLs currently make up a 9.5 percentage or 4.8 million students of the total school population in the United States (National Center for Education Statistics, 2018). The City of Chicago alone has a population of 34 percent ELL students enrolled which will just continue to increase. Therefore, the purpose of my research paper is to address the importance of having ESL teachers, the role of the ELL teachers and specific strategies used for…...
English Languageenglish language learnersEnglish TeacherLearning English
Methods That Help Learning English
Over the previous years, schools have become more diverse. There are various races, ethnicities, and backgrounds coming into school. It is important that teachers and school staff are aware of the differences that each child brings. There are more English language learners coming into the classroom. English language learners are those whose native tongue is a language other than English. English language learners have a bit of a problem with writing, speaking, and understanding English. The vocabulary in English is…...
Englishenglish language learnersLearning English
Investigating English Language Learner’s Beliefs
Introduction Background of the Study “Those who know nothing of foreign languages know nothing of their own” (Johan Wolfgang von Goethe) Learning a new language is like getting a 'ride on a different bus' and seeing a clear vision of our language for the first time. But do people believe this way? Belief is from the main factors moving towards language learning. Beliefs help the individual to define and understand the world and themselves, and they are fundamental in defining…...
English As A Communicative LanguageEnglish as a second languageLanguage
Lack of Motivation in English Language Learners
Introduction Living in the generation of global integration, to learn a new language as a second language is essential. English language is now being considered as an important factor for our future as some countries in the world are using English as the second language. Moreover, it is being acknowledged something like a passport to a better education as well as employment opportunities (Shaik Riyaz Ahmad, 2016). Especially, in the 4th industrial evolution, not only English but also other languages…...
English As A Communicative LanguageEnglish as a second languageLanguage
Personal Language Profile
Language is a system of arbitrary, vocal symbols which permit all people in a given culture, or other people who have learned the system of that culture to communicate or to interact (Finicchiaro, 1965). One's linguistic identity is based on multiple factors, these factors include but are not limited to; family, friends, profession and religion. In this paper, I will be discussing my personal language profile and being that is applicable, I will include my experience of what it was…...
LanguageMy Personality Profile
Problems and Solutions in Teaching and Learning Speaking
Introduction Unlike any other fields, language pedagogy is regarded as the most challenging one in which patience, dedication, passion are highly demanded from teachers. Having observed university and private schools’ EFL classes as my preliminary research, I noticed such problems of language teaching as grammar translation methods, formal learning environment, and monotonous lessons with no creativity and visual aids, lack of enthusiasm, passive participation, and student dominance etc. The key issue I realized was that teaching and learning L2 verbal…...
English SpeakingImportance Of Speaking EnglishLearning English
The Importance of the English Language in Today’s World
This research essay is all about the language, that is the greatest invention of humankind. This is the thesis statement of my research essay. I start my essay with an introduction and definition of language, then, In the upcoming or body paragraphs, I will describe how our language is different from other species, global or universal language (English), its importance, origin of language. I remark some quotations with my own point of view and with conclusion I came to an…...
English SpeakingImportance Of Speaking EnglishLanguageLearning English
My Personal Experience in Learning Languages
My passion for language has been the most consistent aspect of my life. Beside my Bachelor’s Degree in Communication Studies at Gadjah Mada University, I took several language courses outside campus in English, Spanish and Mandarin. These language learnings not only taught me about the language itself, but also the culture and story behind each language. Having some working experiences in various industries such as Public Relations and Banking also made me discover how language affects our lives in a…...
LanguageLanguage learningPersonal Experience
Dystopian Literature: Is Language a Powerful Weapon
Language is defined as ‘a system of communication by speaking, writing, or making signs in a way that can be understood… a particular type of expression’. The reliance on this complex is immense: one is incapable of envisaging a world in the absence of it. Throughout the years, history has demonstrated manipulation is one of the most powerful weapons the world possesses. From deceiving propaganda to censorship - both past and present - people are constantly misled to believe and…...
1984Fahrenheit 451LanguageLiteratureThe Handmaid’s Tale
Language in “Frankenstein”: Manifestation and Transformation of Society
Language, throughout history, has been the ability or resource that human beings have implemented to project their desires, thoughts and ideas regarding their surroundings. This implies that each manifestation of language, such as speech, comprises a different reality that the author allows himself to convey, and that emphasizes the cultural testimony and pragmatic value of his perspective. In Mary Shelley's 1823 book, Frankenstein, the importance and role of language in society is constant, since language is a fundamental element in…...
The Problem of Human Alienation
Alienation is a very important issue in 21st C society that has the potential to affect anybody. Alienation is present in school, work, and other settings in life, and it is experienced by many people around the world. Alienation also means choosing not to be with anyone because of the feeling that you do not fit in. It is defined as the state of being an outsider or the feeling of being isolated from society. This condition may be caused…...
Brent StaplesEnglish LanguageHow It Feels to Be Colored MeLanguagePrejudiceRacism
English Speaking Language in the Classroom
Speaking is 'the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts' (Chaney, 1998, p. 13). And Language is the source of communication. “It is that the way through which we share our ideas and thoughts with others” (Corpuz, 2017, 212). There are uncountable languages during this world as a result of each country has its own national language, but also completely different native language are spoken and understood by…...
ClassroomEnglish LanguageEnglish SpeakingLinguisticsPublic SpeakingSpeaking English
How to Improve English Speaking Skills
Introduction Speaking skill is considered to be one of the most important skills of all the four skills which should be mastered by all students. By using speaking students are capable of expressing and conveying their meanings, thoughts ideas, beliefs and opinions orally to other people in a dialogue form even it is a formal or informal dialogue inside or outside the school. As known speaking is considered to be the most common tool in the communicational process. Learning English…...
English as a second languageImportance Of Speaking EnglishLanguageLinguisticsPublic Speaking
Listening: The Most Difficult Skill to Teach
Listening comprehension is the most forgotten skill in second language learning because listening was paid the least attention of the four language skills. This neglect gets the fact that the teachers do not spend more time on students’ listening and look for ways of improving students’ listening skills. Unfortunately, it is supposed that listening comprehension is a passive activity, but on the contrary, it is an active process because people cannot develop oral skills if the speaker is not understood…...
Reflecting on English Class
It is just my third English class at Columbia College Calgary but it has changed my whole concept of learning already. It is a very different feeling to learn a language from professionals with all rules, grammar, and reasoning. My English class has taught me how to describe the same concept in so many different ways just by changing the words in a sentence. I learned from this class how to put my thought in words and present my argument…...
EducationEnglishEnglish ClassEnglish Language
The Language Of Emotions
There are many ways to express emotions, but the most powerful and effective way is using the language. Language is a method of human communication, but it is also used to convey emotions. According to Ambrose Bierce: “ Speak when you are angry and you will make the best speech you will ever regret.” This quote shows how people's speech effect by emotions, especially when it contains toxic emotions such as anger and rage. People usually regret what they speak…...
Madurese Language in West Kalimantan Context
Abstract This article discusses the linguistic shift experienced by the Madurese language used in Kalimantan as well as the socio-cultural influences on the creation of a linguistic variation of the language. This language which was brought by the Madurese people as immigrants from Madura Island to West Kalimantan in the 18th century has transformed into a new variety of the language as the result of having direct and close linguistic encounters with the local language. The transformation seems to be…...
Figurative Language in “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
Johnathan Edward’s use of figurative language, imagery, and theme to frighten others to convert in Sinner’s in the Hands of an Angry God: [Subtitle] Jonathan Edward a savvy theologian created and preached his infamous sermon that made people fear the power of God, his harsh delivery in theme, language, and imagery, to support his perspective. ‘Sinner’s in the Hands of an Angry God 'was made to convince audience members the change their lives and get on the right track with…...
The Theories of Language Acquisition
As humans, we communicate using an extremely sophisticated aspects that forms a communication known as Language. However, the way we acquired the language either the native or second language has been studied upon famous linguists, as they try to explain how language is acquired from young age to the point where most people starts to acquire a second language. Two theories were controversial and they became the most famous theories in language acquisition, The Behaviorist and The Nativist Theory. The…...
ChildLanguage AcquisitionLanguage learningLinguistics
The Psychology of Bilingual Children
In the early stages of bilingual development, children are often faced with the task of learning two languages at the same time. Now depending on the type of language acquisition setting the family is situated in, this may determine the type and amount of challenges encountered within a child’s linguistic growth. In addition, it is also possible that outside influences can affect a child’s bilingualism, such as - extended family, school, and society. There are many ways to approach the…...
BilingualismChildrenLanguage AcquisitionLanguage learningLinguistics
How Young Children Learn Language
The acquisition is recognized for a speed in which it takes place and requires some basic processes. A child starts using large numbers of vocabularies and expressions, even before attending school. In addition to the speed of the acquisition, children have the inherent ability to obtain language and this special capability is possessed by all newborn babies. No matter what language mother speaks, the baby will acquire the language of the surrounding in which the child is brought-up. So basically…...
Function and Form of Child Language Acquisition
Language has a function-to communicate meaning-and it has a form-the substance out of which those meanings are expressed linguistically. Everything we say or write must have some function, and as we say or write it, we can avoid it, we cannot avoid using its forms-its sounds or written shapes, its words, its sentence structure and so on. There are so many functions in English as there are reasons for speaking and to describe them systematically would be difficult. Describing the…...
ChildrenLanguage AcquisitionLanguage learningLinguistics
Noam Chomsky’s Theory on Language Acquisition
More than 50 years ago, Noam Chomsky’s theory on language acquisition made a massive impact on the way modern linguists look at language acquisition. It was a new way of thinking. Radical, profound, and completely different to the school of thought at the time. Now, half a century and a wealth of linguistic, biological and psychological research later, we are still trying to figure out whether Chomsky is indeed the genius he is touted to be. Chomsky theorised that all…...
Behavioral TheoryChildrenExperimentLanguage AcquisitionLinguistics
Speech and Language Difficulties in Children
Speech, communication and language development are always at the heart of each and every child’s learning as well as the link to other areas of the child’s development. Without these skills in speech, language and communication, a child will not reach their full potentials. According to a report by the Charity ICAN, one out of ten children, about three children in every classroom have difficulties in communication that may require a help from a specialist (http://www.ican.org.uk). With this number of…...
ChildrenDifficultiesLanguage AcquisitionSpeech Presentation
The Message of The “Mother Tongue” by Amy Tan
In this research paper, I will be writing about Amy Tan’s achievements and her life whenshe was growing in the United States. I will also be discussing one of her particular articleswhich is “Mother Tongue”. I will be talking about the message of the article “Mother Tongue”and the intended meaning to the audience. The American-Chinese writer wrote this article in 1990. Tan mostly talks about her relationship with her mother and the impact her mother had onher life. According to…...
Amy TanMother Tongue
Importance of Mother Tongue in Education
A mother tongue is a language a person or child speaks at home and has started speaking from an early age; it also explained as a person's native language which also means a language learned from birth. Other terms are as follows: a first language, dominant language, home language, and native tongue (Richard N. 2018). The mother tongue generally means the speaker's main and home language and does not only mean the language one learns from his or her mother.…...
Dialect or its Own Native Tongue?
There are hundreds of languages used around the world. Whether it’s English, Spanish, French, Italian, or Arabic, they are each distinctly different from one another. For instance, suppose you hear someone say “She be there in a minute”? For some people, that sentence would make them cringe, while for others, they would understand what the sentence means. Over the years, a different language has formed. It’s not the slang spoken in the cities, it’s not the uneducated form of English,…...
A Critical Analysis of Namibia’s English-Only Language Policy
Language Policy was properly introduced after 1990 when Namibia got independence. The aims of the language policy were to address the inequality and injustices from the apartheid regime where and Afrikaans was a dominant language and was elevated above any language in society. Prior to 1990, Afrikaans was used as the official language in Namibia particularly in schools, and learners who spoke Afrikaans were having advantages over non-Afrikaans speaking learners. Only students whose mother tongue was English or Afrikaans were…...
The Effects of Teaching the Mother Tongue to the English Speaking Skills of Learners
According to Valerio (2015), one of the changes in Basic Education Curriculum brought about by the new K-12 program is the introduction of Mother Tongue- Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) specifically in Kindergarten, Grades 1, 2, and 3 to support the goal of “Every Child- A- Reader, and A –Writer” by Grade 1”. The mother tongue helps boost confidence for learners in public school because they can explain their idea and opinion without hesitation. As mention by Butzkamm (2003), the mother…...
EnglishEnglish LanguageEnglish SpeakingLinguisticsMother TongueSkills
Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education in Elementary School
Abstract This study determined the Impact of Science 3 using mother-tongue based multilingual instructions into the 4th-grade academic performance of the science class pupils in Lahug Elementary school. The demographic profile of the teacher respondents was interpreted and analyzed. Additionally, it includes the learner’s age and gender. The researchers identified the academic performance of Grade 4 pupils in the Science subject whether there is a relationship between the learner’s proficiency, the outcomes of teaching Science 3 into Science 4, and…...
The Importance of Mother Tongue in Psychotherapy
Abstract. The purpose of the article is to sort out what important role mother language play in talk therapy. Talk therapy is used in some mental illnesses. It is a treatment rather than medicine. By using talk therapy, the therapist makes an interpersonal relationship with his client by using a language to seek out his mental disorder which is being faced by his/her client. Language, a medium to share information between the patient and his therapist, work s as a…...
DiseaseHealthMental HealthMother TonguePsychologyTherapy
Discovering and Exploring Language
Language is one of the most important tools of advancing oneself socially, emotionally, and intellectually. A great deal in humanity is achieved by the constant learning of language, not only as a medium of expression but also through the crisp articulation of one’s thoughts and feelings. The complexities of language are not inherent, nor are they easily acquired. The quintessential idea of this essay is both authors, Malcolm X and Hellen Keller were confined to their own dark bounded worlds…...
Ways to Identify Language Anxiety
Teacher and researchers might sometimes be able to infer language anxiety through tests of general anxiety. Behaviors vary across cultures, and what might seem like anxious behavior in one culture might be normal behavior in another culture. The following are the signs of language anxiety. general avoidance: `forgetting` the answer, showing carelessness, cutting class, coming late, arriving unprepared, low levels of verbal production, lack of volunteering in class, seeming inability to answer even the simplest questions. Physical actions: squirming, fidgeting,…...
RFID (radio frequency identification)
RFID (radio frequency identification) is a new technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, or person. An RFID system consists of three components: an antenna and transceiver (often combined into one reader) and a transponder (the tag). The antenna uses radio frequency waves to transmit a signal that activates the transponder. When activated, the tag transmits data back to the antenna. The…...
ElectronicsRadio In EnglishTechnology
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Speech Organs and Human Brain
The human capacity for language is intrinsic. In other words, language is acquired with universal regularity. Human anatomy has speech organs, which are dual-purpose organs for survival and for the production of sound in our language (I.e., tongue, teeth, soft palate, larynx). Speech breathing also occurs naturally by utilizing a different set of muscles, lung pressure, and changes in the timing of exhalation. Areas of the human brain are dedicated to language, which allows us to be more complex in comparison to other species. The acquisition of language occurs through exposure rather than being a taught skill. Cognition and the environment are the underlying contributors to language development. Regarding the cognitive aspect, there are many existing theories suggesting how and when language skills are acquired, but regardless of the timing/reasoning, the majority agrees that language acquisition is innate. The environmental aspect of acquisition is the natural exposure of language from caretaker to child.
Comprehension of Language
A language disorder is a deficiency in the use and/or comprehension of language (spoken or written). Language disorders range in severity from mild to severe and can occur within the context of other conditions. The disorder may be solely expressive, solely receptive or impact both expressive and receptive language (mixed receptive-expressive language disorder). Any and all of the five language domains could be impacted. Syntactical deficits would lead to difficulty acquiring rules regarding word order and present as an inability to express and/or organize ones ideas. A sematic disorder would be characterized by inappropriate use of word meanings and poor vocabulary development. A phonological disorder would lead to incorrect use of sounds when communicating and present as sound errors (omissions, substitutions, distortions). A morphological disorder would cause difficulty using grammatical morphemes to signal alternate meanings. A pragmatic disorder would cause problems comprehending and using language appropriately in social contexts. Due to the impact on communication, children with language disorders typically have trouble expressing their wants and needs, as well as comprehending what peopling are expressing to them.
Cause Of Developmental Language Disorders
When considering the cause of developmental language disorders, experts are unsure. Research considers both environmental and genetic components that play a part in the development of language, but a specific cause is still unidentifiable. Risk factors for language disorders include premature birth, low-birth weight, certain genetic syndromes, neglect/abuse, maternal drug use, etc. Acquired language disorders are typically caused by damage to the brain (I.e., CVA, TBI, seizure). Other causes of language disorders are prelingual hearing loss, ASD, intellectual disabilities, and neurological disorders. Regardless of the etiology of the disorder, language disorders can impact a child’s academic achievement. The school setting is fast-paced-requiring adequate expressive and receptive language skills to be successful. Language disorders in adults typically impact word recognition, word comprehension, sentence comprehension, paragraph comprehension, conversational issues, phonological aspects, word retrieval, sentence formulation, narratives, and/or discourse.
When assessing for language disorders, a combination of formal and informal measures should be utilized. Formal language assessments analyze multiple language domains via standardized tests such as the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals- Fifth Edition, the Preschool Language Scale- Fifth Edition, the Test of Language Development- Fourth Edition, etc. Formal measures allows for normative comparisons and administration guidelines. Informal measures include language samples, curriculum-based assessments, client/parent questionnaires, and client/parent interviews. These informal measures allow for a detailed case history and medical history to be obtained (interview), MLU and type token ratio to be calculated (language sample), academic achievement compared to similar-aged peers (curriculum-based assessment), grammatical elements of language to be analyzed (language sample), and pragmatic analysis of language (naturalistic observation). The assessment process for adults with language disorders would be similar, but replace academic assessments with vocational assessments.
Children With Language Disorders
Habilitation is the teaching of a skill to a person, where rehabilitation is the re-teaching of a skill. Intervention for language disorders varies depending on the age of the client (habilitation versus rehabilitation), cause of the language impairment (congenital versus acquired), severity of the disorder (mild, moderate, severe), comorbid factors, etc. Depending on the area(s) impacted, individual and/or group speech-language therapy may be the most appropriate.
When planning intervention for children with language disorders it is important to choose targets within the client’s zone of proximal development, while moving around on a continuum of naturalness. Targets/goals need to be appropriate for the client’s phonological abilities, while improving their communicative effectiveness. Intervention can range from clinician-directed approaches (drill, modeling, etc.) to child-centered approaches (self-talk/parallel talk, imitations of child, expansion, extensions, recasted sentences, etc.) with hybrid approaches in between (focused stimulation, vertical structuring, milieu teaching, script therapy, etc.). Clinician responses to client utterances are vital in language intervention (reinforcement and specific feedback). In addition, SLPs must always program for carryover; meaning that therapy materials should be similar to those found in the child’s natural environment as much as possible. Intervention responsiveness must be monitored throughout the intervention process to ensure that a client is receiving benefits from the plan of treatment. If they are not, the intervention plan needs to be reconsidered and adjusted to better meet the needs of the client.
Adults with Language Disorders
When planning intervention for adults, there is a focus on the client’s skills in real life environments rather than on specific language skill development. Intervention approaches are typically selected based on the specific language impairments, while factoring in other coexisting conditions. Intervention approaches can be traditional, functional, or a combination of both. Traditional approaches target fixing the underlying processes that have been impacted. Traditional approaches include linguistic stimulation approaches, visual action therapy, melodic intonation therapy (MIT), and cognitive linguistic therapy. Functional approaches target effective communication and/or compensation. Examples of direct approaches are PACE: Promoting Aphasiac Communication Effectiveness, environmental systems, and group/conversation therapies. Therapy combining traditional and functional approaches aim to get the client effectively communicating as soon as possible, while targeting the underlying deficits. Similar to intervention with children, Intervention responsiveness must be monitored throughout the intervention process to ensure that a client is receiving benefits from the plan of treatment. Adults have responsibilities that children don’t, which is why ‘reentry into the community’ is extremely important with this population.
Speech-language pathologists play a critical role in the assessment and intervention of language disorders. Parents and teachers must be informed and educated about what to look for in order for proper, early detection of language problems. Early identification and intervention is crucial for academic success. SLPs should collaborate with classroom teachers to develop material based on curriculum standards to ensure that students are developing age-appropriate skills. This collaboration will act as a screening tool to identify students who may be at risk. Resources should be sent home to parents in preschools and early elementary years providing them with normative information in addition to professional contacts if they feel that their child may be at risk. Intervention for language disorders is highly successful- especially at an early age. SLPs must do their part in spreading to word to prevent lifelong impacts caused by language disorders. With the adult population, SLPs need to make it known that help is available while providing alternative resources to help with the psychological toll. There are far too many cases of people who do not receive help simply because they do not know it is out there.