Job Satisfaction Essay
Job satisfaction is one of the most important areas of research for many researchers, and as such it is one of the most frequently studies work attitude. We observe closely that in most organizations the job satisfaction is highly depend upon employee’s performance, employee’s attitudes, organizational support & job commitment. (Muhammad Masroor Alam).We are studying about that factors which the employee is satisfied with his/her job. Some more important factors are HR management policies & relationship with co-workers. Primarily pay has been considered as the major factor for job satisfaction however other related Factors like promotion, work efforts and the importance/challenge of the job are also taken into Account. Through HR management policies increase effectiveness in employees relationship, personal communication & strong decision making. (Effects of job satisfaction).
The main objective of our research is known how different factors affect an employee during his /her job. Job satisfaction and its related factors like style of management style, leadership behavior & coworker relationship played important role to increase satisfaction level of employee. Job satisfaction is influenced by many organizational contextual factors, ranging from salaries, job autonomy, job security, workplace flexibility, to leadership. In particular, leaders within organizations can adopt appropriate leadership styles to affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.it is true to said that A satisfy employee is an important resource of employee for achieving organizational goals. High job satisfaction enhances employees’ psychological and physical wellbeing (Ilardi, Leone, Kansser, & Ryan, 1983)Primarily pay has been considered as the major factor for job satisfaction however other related factors like promotion, work efforts and the importance/challenge of the job are also taken into account.
The banking sector in Pakistan after changing rapidly into a services sector has a lot of emphasis on its customers both internal and external. A common phrase implied in the corporate world is that satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Customer retention is highly dependent on how employees deal with customers. Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly, upbeat, and responsive which the customers appreciate. (Kamal) Morale of employee is also played a role as an important factor that influences the employee satisfaction. Employee morale is the spirit, or tone, of an organization.
According to a January 2005 article in Entrepreneur, morale is an effect, or end result, of workplace conditions, relationships, changes or other elements. Job Satisfaction is the most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities, the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents “not at all satisfied” and 5 represents “extremely satisfied”). To sum up each element of the organization environment and system can contribute. To or detract from job satisfaction (William B. Werthe, 2000) Every organization tries to achieve their objectives. In this connection they must concentrate in many aspects. As human resource of an organization is considered as an importance resource,organizations wish to keep well trained and effective work force.
Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desires and needs at work. Many measures purport that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee goal achievement, and positive employee morale in the workplace. Employee satisfaction, while generally a positive in your organization, can also be a downer if mediocre employees stay because they are satisfied with your work environment (Airborne) In this review we discuss that that a number of researcher have emphasized the importance of factors affecting job satisfaction. Job satisfaction involves several different spheres such as satisfaction with pay, promotion opportunities, fringe benefits, job security and the importance/challenge of the job. (Nguyen, 2000). In today’s turbulent, often chaotic, environment, commercial success depends on employees using their full talents.
Yet in spite of the myriad of available theories and practices, managers often view motivation as something of a mystery. In part this is because individuals are motivated by different things and in different ways. In addition, these are times when delayering and the flattening of hierarchies can create insecurity and lower staff morale. Moreover, more staff than ever before are working part time or on limited-term contracts, and these employees are often especially hard to motivate. Twyla Dell writes of motivating employees, “The heart of motivation is to give people what they really want most from work. The more you are able to provide what they want, the more you should expect what you really want, namely: productivity, quality, and service.” (An Honest Day’s Work (1988)). Career development involves managing your career either within or between organizations. It also includes learning new skills, and making improvements to help you in your career.
Career development is an ongoing, lifelong process to help you learn and achieve more in your career. By creating a personal career development plan, you can set goals and objectives for your own personal career growth. (Career Development) Colleague morale of or concerned with the judgment of the goodness or badness of human action and character: moral scrutiny; a moral quandary. (Weekly Electronics). The focus of literature on promotion systems is their validity in predicting performance, another factor to consider is the length of time that a system will continue to be used. Over time, one would expect promotion and selection systems to be modified or replaced entirely. The cost of administering performance testing is considerable, and management periodically evaluates a system’s validity and its ability to assess employee attitudes, qualifications and perception of business need (Smith, 2007). It is worth considering why firms might use promotions for incentives.
Individualistic schemes, especially ones that do not depend on job assignments, allow more flexibility in providing incentives. In other words, promotions are often used to achieve two goals simultaneously that in principle might be separated: putting employees in the right jobs, and generating motivation. Thus, it is not immediately obvious why promotions should be used as incentives. (Gibbs). An important reason that promotions are sources of incentives is worker reputation, or “career concerns” (Fama, 1980). Where does reputation come from? Often it is the worker’s history of positions or promotions which provides the greatest evidence on productivity and potential. (Waldman, 1984).Social interaction with colleagues is a highly valued job aspect for many workers.
Research in psychology, sociology, and management shows that receiving affective support from colleagues and having good interpersonal relationships at work are positively associated with job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. (Sol, August 3, 2009). Social interaction with colleagues is also one of the most missed job aspects under retired workers in Australia. (Shacklock, 2005). Lastly, using time-use data for France and the US, Krueger and Schkade (2007) show that worker who are in jobs that entail more frequent interactions with co-workers are more satisfied with their jobs and in a better mood during work time. (Sol, August 3, 2009).
These findings have a clear managerial implication: In their struggle to attract and retain workers, managers should strive to create and maintain high-quality co-worker relationships. Employees, who satisfy with their job, may exert high effort to organization wish to satisfy their employees for getting effective more work done. To make the best use of people as a valuable resource of the organization attention must be given to the relationship between staff and the nature and content of their
jobs. The organization and the design of jobs can have a significant effect on staff. Attention needs to be given to the quality of working life. According to organizational commitment can be defined as an employee’s level of identification and involvement in the organization. Mowday et al.defined organizational commitment as a strong belief in an organization’s goals, and values, a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of an organization and a strong desire to remain a member of the organization . Age and job tenure are significant predictors of organizational commitment. Job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. It is a result of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. Several researchers have reported mixed findings on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
For instance, Curry, Wakefield, Price and Mueller found no significant relationship between the two. However, other researchers. Many studies use different facets of job satisfaction to predict organizational commitment. Job satisfaction is a key instrument to gauge the organizational health as service quality largely depends upon the human resources. (Crossman & Abou-Zaki, 2003). Since the transformation of personnel into HR, and its inception in the industry new concepts related to human capital has been emerging day by day. Apart from the bread and butter the organization used to act as their sanctuary and no one was much concerned about the job itself or job satisfaction. Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experiences.”
In general, therefore, job satisfaction refers to an individual’s positive emotional reactions to a particular job. In Pakistan the concept of HR is also flourishing day by day and employers as well as the employees are getting awareness of their rights and demands. Job satisfaction involves several different spheres such as satisfaction with pay, promotion opportunities, fringe benefits, job security and the importance/challenge of the job (Nguyen, 2000).Job satisfaction can lead to cost reduction by reducing absences, task errors, and turnover.
Since work is an important aspect of people’s lives and most people spend a large part of their working lives at work, understanding the factors involved in job satisfaction is crucial to improving employees’ performance and productivity. Job satisfaction has often been linked to organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and absenteeism. These variables are costly to an organization, as they could lead to low morale, poor performance, lower productivity, and higher costs of hiring, retention, and training. (Opkara, 2002).Recent studies emphasize that job satisfaction may be an important determinant of the choice between self- and wage-employment (Blanch-flower 2000, 2004; Georgellis et al. 2007; Taylor 1996, 1999).
Organizational research indicates that employees develop attitudes toward such job facets as work variety, pay, promotion, co-workers, company policies, and supervisors (Johnson & Johnson, 2000;Taber & Alleger, 1995). Job design affect the job satisfaction, as jobs that are rich in behavioral Elements such as variety autonomy, task unimportance and feedback contribute to employees satisfaction. (Kamal) .Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experiences.” Job satisfaction has significance towards human health both physical and mental and is positively or negatively correlated. . Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly, upbeat, and responsive which the customers appreciate. (R. T. Mowday, 1982 New York) The purpose of study is to investigate about the relationship of job satisfaction with fair promotion & relation with coworkers of the organization.
Based on the literature discussed this study attempted to answer the following questions:
1) Increase in promotion increases job satisfaction.
2) Increase in relation with coworkers increases job satisfaction. So there is a positive relationship between fair promotion, Relationship with coworkers & job satisfaction.
A sample of 60 employees was randomly selected from different education institutes & different public offices in Rawalpindi & Islamabad. Purpose of study is descriptive because we know something but exactly we want to prove this about the characteristic of employees. Convert it in exactitude i.e. Mean, Median, Mode. Sampling used in this research is convenience sampling. Different educational institutes in Pakistan were targeted in the vicinity of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. . The target audience was officer level & Teachers. . A tested questionnaire has been used with a number of variables related to job satisfaction, Promotion & Relationship with Coworkers. Questionnaires were circulated among the employers and their responses were collected. A total of one hundred questionnaires were distributed out of which sixty questionnaires were filled by the respondents, which is successful ratio in social research.
The major problems faced during the data collection procedure were mostly peoples’ unwillingness to fill and not taking this as a serious research. Another problem was that employees were reluctant to write the truth as their supervisors might know and would create problems for them in future. However, once they were realized that this effort is done purely for research purposes and their responses should not bear their identity as well as will be kept confidential then they filled the questionnaires with ease. Data analysis in a quantitative research is essential as the interpretation and coding of responses can be very critical. The analysis part has been dealt with using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The questions and responses were coded and entered in SPSS for analysis followed by the interpretation of the results.
The variables were coded in SPSS and certain statistical methods were applied on the data to get the results which were analyzed. In the first instance the reliability of the tool used was measured to find out whether the instrument used is reliable or not. Their satisfaction with promotional opportunities, co-workers was also compared. Linear regression analysis was employed to examine the relationship between different overall job satisfaction, promotion and co-workers. ANOVA along with its extensions has been used for comparing means and the results. Simple correlation has also been applied to the data to find out relationships among different variables and a comprehensive regression model with its extensions is applied.
In the first instant the reliability analysis using the SPSS was done to find out the reliability of the instrument used for data collection. Cronbach’s alpha is the most common form of internal consistency reliability coefficient. The value of alpha should lie between 0 and 1. * Reliability of job satisfaction is 0.645 & the no. of items is 8 * Reliability of promotion is 0.667 & the no. of items is 2 * Reliability of relation with coworkers is 0.537 & the no. of items is 4 Correlation Analysis
Correlation is a statistical tool which can determine the strength and direction of relationship between two variables. The value of correlation ranges from +1 to -1 and both these values show strong positive and negative relationships. While the value 0 show no relationship. Results shows that the correlation between relation with coworkers, Promotion, Job Satisfaction. The value of correlation coefficient for coworkers & promotion with job satisfaction is 0.209 and 0.420 simultaneously, which shows a positive relationship of both variables with job satisfaction. This relationship is significant at α 0.01.for coworkers & 0.110 for promotion. Promotion & coworkers are equally correlate with each other at 0.232 & level of significance is 0.074 of both.
The value of is 0.436, and R Square is 0.190. The value of R shows a moderate to strong positive relationship between two variables and job satisfaction. The value of R Square shows that model explains 19% variance in job satisfaction. The rest of variance is explained by other variables not included in the model. This results support our alternate hypothesis which assumed a causal relationship between our model (independent and dependent variables).
This research accepted that the employee’s promotion and relation with coworkers has positive impact on job satisfaction. That is high level of fair promotion, good working condition leads to high level job satisfaction. So we accept our H1 that shows positive relationship b/w job satisfaction, promotion and relation with coworkers. There are several factors affecting employees’ satisfaction, but as a researcher we consider only two independent variables: promotion, relationship with coworkers. We take minimum sample of 60 and it take less time through less financing.
The entire formulated hypothesis have been accepted, it is necessary to improve job satisfaction through promotion and relation with coworkers. Following are some suggestions given to improve job satisfaction. * Organization should develop good working condition. This facilitates employees to do their work effectively. * Organization should develop good relationship among employees. Through which, promotion of employees is enhanced. As a research, employee’s job satisfaction will be at high level. * Organization should provide unbiased promotion. That is promotion should be provided based on the qualification of employees and or experience.
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University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 28 September 2016
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