Hr Portfolio Essay
1.0 Research Synopsis
In the current era people are considered the most important asset to an organization. In today’s highly competitive economy, placing the right people in the right position at the right time is very critical for the success of any organization. Job Analysis is the foundation for every employment decision made in an organization. Human resource professionals and consultants use job descriptions and job analyses as basic building blocks for many human resource functions, including recruitment and hiring, performance evaluations, and salary ranges (Levine, Sistrunk, McNutt, & Gael, 1988). Job descriptions and job analyses are essential to businesses. They help to ensure that the correct people are hired for the job (Brannick, Levine, & Morgeson, 2007). Therefore, it is important to see to it that job descriptions and job analyses are done properly and are thorough because the accuracy of these tools will in turn affect the quality of many HR functions (Fleishman & Mumford, 1991).
Because job descriptions and job analyses are so important to HR functions, evaluating the quality of these two tools and how well they fit together is important. Job descriptions are meant to be developed from job analysis data (Brannick et al., 2007). It is also vital an HR manager focuses on aligning HR activities with the organization’s strategic goals as an organizational structure is developed through the HR planning process by the identification of positions to be staffed to support implementation of the organization’s strategy. This study illustrates the importance of conducting an accurate job analysis, the importance of it and a job description, the relationship between the two, and how it affects all other HR functions in an organization.
2.0 Job Analysis
According to (Dessler, G. 2009) Job Analysis is the process of identifying the tasks, responsibilities and context of a role and the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform them. It is a systematic exploration study. It is the procedure through which the duties of these positions and the characteristics of the people who should be hired for them are determined. The information gathered through the job analysis process is used to support the full range of HR activities. It involves determining the relative importance of the duties, responsibilities, physical, emotional skills etc. for a given job which then determine what the job demands and the specifications an employee must have to perform a job productively. This is then used for developing job descriptions and job specifications.
2.1 Importance of Job Analysis
According to (Dessler, G. 2009) an organization structure is developed through the HR planning process by the identification of positions to be staffed to support implementation of the organization’s strategy. From this plan, the knowledge, skills and attitudes that employees will require to enable the organization to achieve its objectives can be identified. Job analyses are essential to HR because they are the means for the development of all HR functions (Bowen, 2003; Brannick et al., 2007).
A job analysis can serve as the basis for many HR functions. These HR functions include job descriptions, job classifications, job evaluation, performance appraisal and training, and job specifications (Ash, 1988; Ash & Levine, 1980; Brannick et al., 2007; Levine et al., 1988). The details collected though a job analysis play an important role in controlling the output of a job. The main purpose of this whole process is to create and establish a perfect fit between the employee and the job. Job analysis also helps in the decision making of compensation, perks and incentives for a particular job position. It also helps in evaluating the performance and training needs of existing employees. This process is the basis of achieving organizational goals and objectives.
2.2 Steps in Job Analysis
According to (Dessler, G. 2009) the job analysis process involves 6 steps: Step 1 – Decide how you’ll use the information, since this will determine the data you collect and how you collect them. Some data collection techniques – such as interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails, are good for writing job descriptions and selecting employees for the job.
Step 2 – Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts and job descriptions. Organization charts show the organization – wide division of work, how the job in question relates to other jobs, and where the job fits in the overall organization. The chart should show the title of each position and, by means of interconnecting lines, who reports to whom and with whom the job incumbent communicates. A process chart provides a more detailed picture of the work flow. In its simplest form a process chart can show the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job you are analyzing. Step 3 – Select representative positions.
There may be too many similar jobs to analyze them all. In such a case use a representative sample. Step 4 – Actually analyze the job, by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. Step 5 – Verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. This will help confirm that the information is factually correct and complete. This review can also help gain the employee’s acceptance of the job analysis data and conclusions, by giving that person a chance to review and modify your description of job activities. Step 6 – Develop job description and job specification. These are two tangible products of the job analysis.
2.3 Components of Job Analysis
Job Description and Job Specification
Job Description and Job Specification
Recruitment, selection and induction
Recruitment, selection and induction
Job evaluation: wage and salary decisions (remuneration)
Job evaluation: wage and salary decisions (remuneration)
Training and development requirements
Training and development requirements
HRP and career development
HRP and career development
Performance assessment and review
Performance assessment and review
Job design, assignment of all duties and legal compliance
Job design, assignment of all duties and legal compliance
(Dessler, G. 2009)
2.4 Uses of Job Analysis Information
(Dessler, G. 2009) states that these are the uses of job analysis information. * Recruitment and selection – Job analysis provides information about what the job entails and what characteristics are required to carry out these activities. Such job specification and job description information is used to decide on the sort of people to recruit, hire, to guide interview questions and choose suitable tests to select the best person for the job.
* Induction –When a new person joins an organization he will need to be aware of its history, current operations, policies and procedures to be followed, leave requests, pay matters, health and safety etc. A job description will provide the necessary information for the HR management to design induction programs tailored for the need of each new employee.
* Job design and productivity, job satisfaction and legal compliance – Job analysis and careful consideration of the way in which the tasks to be performed are arranged into jobs can provide challenging and satisfying jobs for employees while improving efficiency and productivity. Using the information gathered on performance standards and human requirements to influence the design of job assists compliance with law in relation to employment.
* Performance assessment and review – Job analysis information enables performance standards to be established and agreed. When clear performance standards are set, rewards may be more easily linked to the performance and training provided to specifically address any discrepancies in performance. Performance review compares employees’ actual performance with performance standards established using job analysis data.
* Remuneration – Job analysis is also essential for estimating the value of each job and appropriate remuneration for it. This is so because total remuneration usually depends on the job’s required skill and education levels, safety hazards, degree of responsibility and so on – all factors that are established though job analysis.
* Training and Development – Job analysis is also used for designing training and development programs because the analysis and resulting job description show the skills and knowledge – and therefore training and development – that is required. If performance standards are not being met, and this is found to be due to the employee’s lack of skill or knowledge, programs can be designed to lift performance to the required level.
* Human Resource Planning and Career Development – The organizational structure provided by the HR plan reveals the scope for employee movement within an organization. Employee development can be provided to ensure that skills, knowledge, qualifications and attitudes required for the future role are gained in preparation for promotion or transfer. This contributes to human resource planning in general and to succession planning in particular.
3.0 Job Description
According to (Dessler, G. 2009) a job description describes the job in terms of the tasks to be performed, equipment used, conditions under which the work is to be carried out and the standard to which tasks are to be performed. It is a written statement of what the job-holder actually does, how he or she does it, and under what conditions the job is performed. This information is in turn used to write a job specification that’s lists the knowledge, abilities and skills needed to perform the job satisfactorily.
3.1 Components of a Job Description
There is no standard format for a job description, but according to (Dessler, G. 2009) most descriptions contain sections on:
* Job identification – This contains several types of information including the job title, the job code etc.
* Job summary – This describes the general nature of the job, listing only its major functions or activities.
* Relationships, responsibilities and duties – This section presents a detailed list of the job’s actual responsibilities and duties and the relationship the employee shares with subordinates, superiors and those below him/ her.
* Authority of incumbent – This section defines the limits of the job-holder’s authority, including decision making authority, direct supervision of other personnel and budgetary limits.
* Standards of performance – This states the standards the employee is expected to achieve in each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities.
* Working conditions – The job description section will also list the general working conditions involved on the job. These might include factors such as noise level, hazardous conditions etc.
* Job specifications – This describes the type of person that would be best suited to the job, and the skills, knowledge, attitudes, experience and qualifications they would need to do the job. 3.2 The Uses of a Job Description
The uses of a job description are essentially similar to those of a job analysis. However these are a few fundamental areas in which a job description is used for:
* Performance management – It can be used to set measurable performance goals based on tasks, duties and responsibilities stated in the job description, and then train employees to achieve these goals effectively.
* Training and employee development – A job description can be used to decide on possible job promotions as incentives for workers to improve their performance and career development activities.
* Compensation – Job descriptions can be helpful in developing a standardized compensation for each position.
* Recognition and rewards – Job descriptions can be used as a baseline for performance and as a tool to encourage employee performance.
* Discipline – A job description can be used to illustrate that an employee isn’t adequately performing his/her duties and responsibilities. (Massad, 2005)
3.3 Relationship between Job Analysis and Job Description
A job description is a general overview of what the job analysis found. According to Brannick et al. (2007), a functional job analysis can be used to generate the task and duties statements. Any work-oriented job analysis allows the analyst to discern the most important duties and tasks out of the job analysis to put into a job description. The job analysis allows raters to rank things like the goals of the job as well as the duties and tasks. When developing the job description, only the most important and most frequent of these duties, tasks, and goals are selected, allowing it to be an abbreviated version of what is found in the job analysis.
4.0 Job Analysis Interview
4.1 Job Analysis Methods
According to the (Management Study Guide, 2008) , the most common methods of Job Analysis * Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and non-performed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks. This particular method includes three techniques: direct observation, Work Methods Analysis and Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of behavior of an employee in different situations. The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially used for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behaviors that result in performance.
* Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers. This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it. It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group.
* Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal biasness. A great care should be takes while framing questions for different grades of employees. In order to get the true job-related info, management should effectively communicate it to the staff that data collected will be used for their own good. It is very important to ensure them that it won’t be used against them in anyway. If it is not done properly, it will be a sheer wastage of time, money and human resources.
Below is the constructed questionnaire prepared for research requirement.
4.2 Job Analysis Questionnaire
The purpose of a creating a job analysis questionnaire is to gather information about a position in an organization, its duties, responsibilities, experience, qualifications etc. required for the vacant position. The responses gathered accurately represent the way the position currently functions. This, then leads to the development of a job description. Name: ____________________________
Job Title: __________________________
Job status: __________________________
Hours worked: _________ AM to _________ PM
Reporting to: ________________________
* Can you brief me about yourself?
* Number of organization’s you worked for before and position/s held? * How long have you been working as an HR manager in the present organization? * What is the field you specialize in within the HR department? * Number of employees and the levels you directly supervise at present? * Number of employees and the levels you are indirectly responsible for in the organizations? * What do you think your strengths and weaknesses
* What is your job role as a HR Manager?
* Are there any activities you perform that do not come within your job specification? If yes, explain.
* What records and reports you prepare as a part of your job?
* Do you have freedom to make decisions related to;
Recruitment Health and Safety
* Explain the extent of freedom you have in these areas.
* Can you specify the key responsibilities as an HR manager in this organization?
* Can you brief me about the day to day tasks and duties allocated as an HR manager? * According to your point of view, what do you think are the most important skills that you need to possess in performing your job more practically, professionally and efficiently? * Describe the personality of an effective HR manager to suit the current era.
* What work experience and qualifications are required for an HR manager?\
* What is the minimum training / qualifications requirement for this job? Basic school educationBachelor’s Degree High School DiplomaMaster’s Degree College/ associate’s DegreeDoctorate Degree * What is your perception about how this job fits in with the other jobs in the organization?
* Briefly explain the establishment of the company and the working environment in your department.
* Have you done any tangible changes or specific improvements you have implemented to enhance the quality of HR functions in your company? If so, what?
* Is there any particular HR activity that you desire to implement but have not been able to do for a certain reason?
* What are the some of the challenges you face as an HR manager? How do you overcome some of these challenges?
* What type of relationship have you built with the employees of the organization?
* Do you deal with Trade Unions?
* If so, what is the extent of pressure from them and how do you deal with them?
* In comparison to other competing companies how do you think your company compares in terms of salary and rewards? * Do you experience any stress?Not at allSomewhatVery High * If your stress level is high, how do you handle the stress and pressure you face from the employees?
* What are the job’s physical demands?
* What are the health and safety conditions?
* Apart from your salary what benefits and opportunities do you receive as an HR manager?
* What is your personal view about the training programs implemented and conducted in your company and what is your recommendation for improvement if any?
* What are your goals or plans to develop your department?
* What is the experience and advice you can share for those following HR management? * What is the most enjoyable part of your work? Which HR activities are most satisfying to perform? * What are your personal goals?
(Refer Appendix for the completed questionnaire)
5.0 Developing a Job Description
According to the details gathered through the interview conducted and information gathered through the developed questionnaire, this is the prepared job description for the position of Head of Group Capabilities at Brandix.
Position Title: Head of Group Capabilities
Department: Corporate HR
Working Hours: 8.30am to 5.30pm
Reports to: Chief Peoples Officer (CPO)
Salary: 200,000 – 250,000
The Head of Group Capabilities is accountable for directing and evaluating the implementation of all the activities that come under the Learning and Development function, liaising with business partners for learning solutions, understanding business problems in order to provide appropriate training solutions and leading, coaching and mentoring his/ her team to perform the company’s annual goals.
* Formulating Leaning and Development strategies and policies * Sourcing for strategic partnership for solutions
* Formulating Training and Development plans based on Training Need Analysis Other Responsibilities
* Training Need Analysis to be done through discussion with Strategic Business Unit leaders (CEO, Senior Director, HR Heads, Head of Departments) * Address knowledge gaps through the performance and preparing the employees for leadership roles and the organization for growth * Prepare monthly dashboards (includes training man days, training programs delivered, training budget utilization, dropouts etc.) * Prepare employee engagement dashboards (includes number of engagements of the CEO and senior management with executives) The candidate hired has the authority to make decisions regarding recruitment, selection and evaluate the performance for the employees in his/ her department. He/ she will be directly accountable for the team of four under them and indirectly accountable for the executive cadre (which includes entry level executives to the board of directors) and assisting the staff category of employees which consists of 2,000 associates. Core Competencies
* Leadership skills
* Good Communication and Negotiation skills
* Strategic Thinking
* Critical Thinking
* Approachable and friendly
* Good decision maker
* Ability to work under pressure
* Ability to motivate team members
* Ability to work with teams
* Good listener
* Professional HR qualifications
* A relevant bachelor degree or higher qualification
* At least 8 years’ managerial experience in HR management
As a student following the Bachelor of Business at Australian College of Business and Technology (ACBT) it is part of our course structure that we take Human Resource Management as a subject. In this unit it is an absolute requirement for us to conduct a job analysis interview and prepare a job description as an assignment. As a possible HR professional to be in the future, I took this as a challenge to develop a comprehensive HR related assignment to help me in the future. The first was to conduct a job interview analysis. There are many methods to conduct one, through observation, interviews, questionnaires etc. However due to time limitations, my main focus was on the interview and questionnaire method. The first task I had to do was prepare a list of questions that I was going to ask the HR manager I was going to interview. The task proved to be quite challenging as I had never prepared a questionnaire of this nature before. Choosing the right questions to gather the relevant data was the most difficult. However with the help and guidance from my lecturer I was able to design a decent questionnaire.
It consisted of a few multiple choice questions but mostly open ended questions. It was time consuming and at times frustrating but was a great learning opportunity nonetheless. I then made an appointment with the Head of Group Capabilities at Brandix Lanka, through a contact I have, for a job analysis interview. I was nervous at first, having never interviewed someone before but she was very pleasant and put me at ease immediately. She was also very obliging and answered all my questions to detail and further gave me insight to the general HR practices and procedures at Brandix Lanka. Initially when I had to start on this assignment I wasn’t fully aware of the importance of a Job Analysis. I was confused. However after a detailed discussion with the Head of Group Capabilities and being given full insight into how big a role Job Analysis plays into the role of all other activities in her organization, I am now enlightened. This also gave me the opportunity to understand the job analysis process. After gathering the data from the job analysis interview my next task was to prepare a job description.
This wasn’t as difficult to prepare as I thought it would be, as I had gathered the relevant data necessary for it through the interview. Having being briefed about the tasks, duties, and matters concerning their Corporate HR department, this provided me with a better understanding to structure the job description well. I took the answers I was given as well and was able to compile a fitting job description. It took a few hours but in the end the result was satisfactory. A Job description and job analysis are used every day in organizations, and while research provides guidelines for what should be included in each of these and how each should be constructed (Brannick et al., 2007; Cascio, 1998), this is not necessarily what is done in practice. This study found that a typical job description for Brandix contains the components recommended by Dessler, G. (2009). Those components include: Title, location, summary, duties and tasks, etc. Through the interview conducted I could come to the conclusion that there weren’t significant differences between the job description and the job analysis.
I found that the HR professional in charge of conducting the job analysis was thorough in including everything about the job in the job description. There were no gaps to be seen. This indicates that the HR department allows no gaps for mistakes and runs their practices effectively and efficiently. The findings of this research are important because job analyses and job descriptions play such an important role in HR functions. They serve as the foundation for activities such as performance evaluation, recruitment and hiring, and salary determinations (Levine et al., 1988). It is important to get a better understanding of what influences the job analysis process and look at where differences are in the job descriptions and job analyses On completion of this assignment I realized it has helped me achieve a professional knowledge on the major role Job Analysis plays in all HR functions in an organization including, HR planning, Job description, job specification, employee recruitment, employee selection, performance appraisal, HR development, training and development, rewards and remuneration etc.
Furthermore I think it has improved my ability to communicate more effectively than before which is part of the learning outcome of this study, and be a professional in doing so, and it has improved my ability to generate ideas. I think this experience, interviewing a person in an authoritative position, has made me more confident in my communication skills and my understanding about the general HR practices in an organization. In concluding my reflection I would say that this study has shown me that job analysis in an organization is the primary task that sets a baseline enabling HR professionals to manage other job related activities effectively.
The study also demonstrates the need for careful consideration on part of aligning the job description with the job analysis. The information collected by conducting job analysis plays an important role in controlling the output of the particular job which ultimately leads to the overall success of an organization. Employees are key to the success of an organization. Thus hiring the right person with the right skills, knowledge and attitude is vital. This can only be done through developing a suitable job description through conducting a thorough, accurate and effective job analysis.
* Bowen, C. C. (2003). A case study of job analysis. Journal of Psychological Practice, 8, 46-55.
* Brannick, M. T., Levine, E. L., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Job and Work Analysis: Methods, Research and Applications for Human Resource Management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication. * Ash, R. A. (1988). Job analysis in the world of work. In S. Gael (Ed.), The Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry and Government, I, 3-13 * Ash, R. A., & Levine, E. L. (1980). A framework for evaluating job analysis methods. Personnel, 57, 59 * Levine, E. L., Sistrunk, F., McNutt, K. J., & Gael, S. (1988). Exemplary job analysis systems in selected organizations: A description of process and outcomes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 3, 3-21. * Dessler, G. (n.d.). Human Resource Management (12th Ed.). Global
edition, 142-175. * HR-Guide.com. (1999). Job Analysis: Overview. Retrieved 05 01, 2013, from HR-Guide.com: http://www.job-analysis.net/G000.htm * Stone, R.J. (2010). Managing human resources 3rd. edn. John Wiley & sons Australia Ltd. * Jones, R. (2011). Managing Human Resource Systems (2nd Ed.).Pearson * Levine, E. L., Sistrunk, F., McNutt, K. J., & Gael, S. (1988). Exemplary job analysis systems in selected organizations: A description of process and outcomes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 3, 3-21. * Fleishman, E. A., & Mumford, M. D. (1991). Evaluating classification of job behavior: a construct validation of the ability requirements scales. Personnel Psychology, 44, 523-575. * Cascio, W. F. (1998). Applied Psychology in Human Resource Management, 5th edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
* HR-Powerhouse.com. (2005). Job Description: Uses of Job Description. Retrieved 05 01, 2013 from: http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/78506 * Managementstudyguide.com. (2008). Job Analysis Methods. Retrieved 11 01, 2013 from: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/job-analysis-methods.htm * www.brandix.com
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 3 June 2017
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