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Question- Briefly discuss the implications of change in the profile of people, technology & environment on managing people in organization. Suggest measures to make HR management in India more effective. Answer- As Human resources means the collection of people and their characteristics at work and these are distinct and unique to an organization in several ways. So any change in the profile of people, technology & environment causes a change in working and managing people in any organization. To make HR management in India more effective, the changing needs and expectations of the customers should be met effectively.
There should be clear cut goals, direction and future focus of the entire organization. Proper planning and execution of every program in the organization should be done. Optimum utilization of resources and cost effective engagement of labor should be there. Help in developing, managing and sustaining the skills and knowledge of the human resources. Coordination among various departments and continuous scanning of external environment is required to make HR management more effective. There should not be lack of support from the top management and rigid HR practices in the organization.
Question- Why & how HR is superior to physical resource. Elaborate the function of HRM. Answer- Human resource management is concerned with policies and practices that ensure the best use of the human resources for fulfilling the organizational and individual goals. HR is superior to physical resource as- * HR alone appreciates over a period.
* HR achieves in higher performance output than its actual input.
* HR brings value to all other assets.
* Operational flexibility is possible with HR.
Functions of HRM can be categorized into 2 i.e. managerial functions and operative functions. Managerial functions include planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. On the other hand operative functions include procurement, development, compensation, maintenance and motivation, integration and industrial relations.
Procurement includes job analysis and design, HR planning, recruitment, selection, placement, orientation and socialization. Development includes career planning and development, workers training, executive development and organizational development. Compensation includes job evaluation, performance evaluation, wages administration, incentives and benefits. Integration includes industrial relations, discipline, grievance redressal, dispute settlement, collective bargaining.
Question- Describe vividly the various models used to discuss the application of strategic management in HRM. Answer- The various models used to discuss the application of strategic management in HRM are as follows-
* Business-oriented model
* Strategic fit model
* Strategic Labor Allocation Model (SLAP) model
Business-oriented model aims at value creation by developing a HR system that creates and sustains the competitive advantage through human resources. Strategic fit model focuses on matching the HR capabilities and resources with the external opportunities. It also focuses on developing HR practices in such a way that they complement one another. Vertical fit and horizontal fit are the two types of strategic fit model. Strategic Labor Allocation Model (SLAP) model focuses on the interdependences among HR strategies, business strategies and organizational changes. It also acknowledges HRM as a continuous process of balancing the demand for and the supply of labor.
Question- Discuss the step involved in the strategic management process in detail Answer- Strategic human resource management is a process of aligning HR strategies with the business strategy to accomplish the performance goals through the employees’ competency and commitment. The various steps involved in the strategic management process are as follows-
* Determination of vision and mission.
* Analyzing the environment.
* Strategy formulation.
* Strategy implementation.
* Performance evaluation.
The purpose of determination of vision & mission is to clarify the vision for the business. This stage consists of identifying three key facets:
First, define both short- and long-term objectives. Second, identify the process of how to accomplish your objective. Finally, customize the process for staff gives each person a task with which he can succeed. Analysis is a key stage because the information gained in this stage will shape the next two stages. In this stage, gather as much information and data relevant to accomplishing the vision. Forming a strategy is to review the information gleaned from completing the analysis. Determine what resources the business currently has that can help reach the defined goals and objectives. Successful strategy implementation is critical to the success of the business venture. This is the action stage of the strategic management process. Strategy evaluation and control actions include performance measurements, consistent review of internal and external issues and making corrective actions when necessary. Any successful evaluation of the strategy begins with defining the parameters to be measured.
Question- “Growth of strategic HRM in organization is primarily due to economic liberalization & globalization”. Comment Answer- Each era in the history of HRM demonstrates the thinking and attitude of the employers and their workforce at that point of time. There are various factors that affect the human resource management of an organization. With the change in time that is with the economic liberalization and globalization strategic human resource management has gained a lot of importance. As the focus is on all the aspects of managing and keeping the working and management of the organization on a global scale
Question- Examine critically the steps in the job analysis process with relevant examples Answer- Job analysis is a process of gathering relevant information about various aspects of a job, including its content, context and the job performer’s skill requirements. The steps involved in the job analysis process are as follows-
* Determining the purpose of job analysis- should identify purpose of job analysis because that will determine what job analysis method, what data will be collected * Gathering background information about the job.
* Choosing representative jobs for analysis.
* Collecting relevant job information- Collecting data on job activities, employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job and using one or more of the job analysis methods to collect data.
* Reviewing the information gathered- must review all data collected. This will help you to confirm that the information is factually correct and complete.
* Developing of job description and job specification- Develop a job description and job specification from the job analysis information. A job description is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, working conditions and safety and hazards…A job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required for getting the job done.
Question- List out the strategies available to HR managers for enriching jobs in an organization Answer- Job enrichment refers to the development of work practices which challenge and motivate the employees to perform better. The various strategies available are as follows- * Self managing teams- They have the overall responsibility for the accomplishment of work or goal preparatory requirements for self-managing teams * Job rotation- refers to moving employees from one job to another in a predetermined way and enables an employee to perform diverse roles and gain exposure to the techniques and challenges of doing several jobs.
* Job reengineering- the process of streamlining jobs in the form of combining a few jobs into one, redistributing the tasks among various jobs and reallocation of resources. * Job enlargement- aims at making the job more attractive by increasing the operations performed by a person in the job. It transforms the jobs to include more and/or different tasks. * Participative management- means allowing employees to play a greater part in the decision-making process. * Peer performance review- team members evaluate one another’s performance. Thus, performance appraisal for employees becomes more personalized and is conducted on a regular basis. * High performance work design- Presence of highly skilled, dynamic and loyal employees and existence of flat, flexible and modern management etc.
Question- Enumerate the various techniques & its relevance to forecast the HR needs of an organization. Answer- Forecasts involve estimating the future requirements of the organization in terms of the nature and the number of people. Forecasting techniques commonly used for human resource forecasting are as follows- * Trend analysis—analysis is done based on the trends.
* Ratio Analysis- analysis is the analysis of the relationship between any two numerical variables. * Delphi technique- is basically a group-based systematic forecasting method. This technique does not require any face-to-face participation by the experts. * Normal group technique- It is an interactive mode of decision-making. Each expert in a group independently develops HR requirements and presents it before other experts in the group. * Managerial judgment- The forecasting in managerial judgment is based on the managers’ subjective views on the possible human resource requirements in the future. Forecasts are made about the HR requirements, usually by the senior managers of the organization based on their experience.
* Work study- It aims at examining the business operations to achieve the optimum utilization of the human and physical resources available. The major purpose of this technique is to improve the employees’ productivity and organizational efficiency. * Zero-based forecasting- Zero-base forecasting requires lines managers to justify the need to continue with the positions or jobs that fall vacant in their department. It does not consider any position as eligible for routine continuance.
* Simulation model- Simulation model is a mathematics-oriented, software-enabled technique. This model simulates the HR requirements and availability to determine the likely gap between the demand for and the supply of human resources. * HR allocation model- This method allows comprehensive modelling of the interaction among the components. The matching model deals with the allocation of different jobs to employees. An organization would make HR forecasting based on the specific outcome of the matching model.
Question- What are the key recruitment practices followed in Indian organization. Answer- Recruitment is a search for promising job applicants to fill the vacancies that may arise in the organization. Recruitment is a positive act and involves a series of planned activities. It helps in developing applicant pool and represents the first contact between the organization and the potential employees. It intends to locate and reach out to potential applicants. The various key recruitment practices are as follows-
* Existing employees
* Employee referrals
* Private employment agencies
* Internet recruiting
Question- Analyze the merits & limitations of psychological test as a tool of measurement Answer- Selection is a systematic process of identifying suitable candidates for the available jobs from the available applicant pool. The objectivity of the psychological test is the validity and reliability of the measuring tools. There are various types of psychological tests- ability test (intelligence test, aptitude test, and achievement test), personality test, interest test, integrity test. The merits of the psychological tests are as follows-
* Objective in evaluation.
* Ideal for large groups.
* Predictor of intangible talents.
* Goal-specific and target-oriented.
* Record for future.
The limitations of the psychological tests are as follows-
* Lack of flexibility.
* Unsuitable for smaller groups.
Question – What do you mean by job placement? What are the challenges faced by organization while placing employees in the organization. Answer- Job placement is the placement of individuals in jobs matching their abilities. Personnel offices interview and test applicants for the purpose of achieving suitable job placements where there is a good match between management needs and employee qualifications.
Question – “Training is not an expense but a long term investment on people” Discuss. Answer- Organizations spend a huge portion of their operating budgets compensating employees. In return, they expect them to provide excellent products and services to their customers. Yet half of all employees say that they don’t receive the training they need to do their job well. Cost reduction is the order of the day for most industries. What is often forgotten, is the fact that there is a big difference between an expense and an investment. In public education for example, clearly a long-term investment, more often than not cost reduction is the leading motive. And now the training industry risks falling in the same trap, this is understandable, as appearances are against the skill training industry when it comes to return on investment (ROI).
Costs are made for a nice location, the pricing model is unclear (in company prices suddenly drop by 40%) and the raving evaluations at the end of the training hardly match the tangible results at the office. It seems to make sense therefore, that many training providers lower their prices and shorten the training’s duration. Or: they lower the costs. But a training should be an investment and an investment has a return. The task is now up to training companies to undisputedly prove this return.
* Business owners should track and measure their training efforts. If you want to know whether a particular training has worked for your employees, ask them. If employees have benefited, you should see some evidence of improved skills, increased productivity and enhanced job satisfaction. * Use training as a source of competitive advantage. Numerous studies have highlighted the positive impact that employee development can have on a business’ productivity and profitability. Training is one important way to bring less-qualified employees up to acceptable standards of performance and to increase productivity.