Health Education Individual Paper

Individual Health Education Paper

The student participated in an individual observation that took place in a classroom setting of preschool age children. The overall observation was an evaluation of the safety and child development of the preschool classroom observed.

Topics to be Discussed

Safety and developmental assessments of the preschool children will be discussed.

The safety assessments to be discussed as follows: emergency prevention and poisons, food preparation and eating, and indoor toys and equipment. In the second section of this paper, developmental assessments will be discussed.

Section One: Safety Assessments

In this section, the safety assessments observed will be discussed and evaluated. The California Childcare Health Program (CCHP) Health and Safety Checklist was used to assess the safety of the classroom setting.

Emergency Prevention and Poisons

The first safety assessment was emergency prevention and poisons. One evaluation made was the emergency procedures posted for fires and tornadoes were not age friendly and posted too high for most of the children to read (California Childcare Health Program, 2005).

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Natural disasters can happen anywhere and can intimidate children, but helping children prepare for these situations can help them teach others and feel prepared when a natural disaster may occur.

Cleaning supplies were kept in the classroom and placed in a cupboard above the sink where the children wash their hands (CCHP, 2005). Risk for accidental poisoning was observed here because of potential spills, leaks, and ability of children to climb onto the counters or chairs and reach this cupboard. According to Hockenberry and Wilson (2015), “toddlers are at the highest risk for accidental poisoning due to their curiosity” (p.

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516). Typically children after the age of one explore objects by tasting them (Hockenberry and Wilson, 2015, p. 516); this was prevalent during the observation with many children putting toys in their mouth, licking the toys, or licking liquids spilled on the table during lunch time. To aid in prevention of accidental poisoning, the Pittsburg Poison Center created the famous “Mr. Yuk” sticker to educate children and adults about poison prevention and promote poison center awareness (UPMC, 2018).

Food Preparation and Eating

Using the CCHP Health and Safety checklist to evaluate food preparation and sanitation, an area of improvement is the length of time the food is sitting out before the children eat it (CCHP, 2005). Before the children ate lunch, the food was covered but sitting in the classroom for thirty minutes prior to eating and sat out for sixty minutes total. The food sitting out included taco meat, milk, string cheese, and carrots. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2013) states that perishable foods should not sit out at room temperature, if less than ninety degrees, for more than two hours (USDA, 2013). The left over food was taken back to the kitchen to be refrigerated after meal completion. The proper handling of perishable food was a positive safety assessment evaluation.

Indoor Toys and Equipment

The CCHP Health and Safety Checklist discusses proper indoor climbing equipment height and padded mats (CCHP, 2005). In the classroom, there was not designated climbing equipment. Area rugs instead of padded mats were used throughout the classroom. Rugs pose a tripping hazard for children and do not protect children from falls. The children were climbing on shelves, chairs, and television stands that were located in the classroom. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) supplied a toy list for developing large and small muscles of preschoolers that schools and daycares can utilize to expand development throughout the classroom (NAEYC, n.d.). Some of the toys recommended include: large and small balls for kicking, throwing, catching, and rolling, pop-up tunnels to crawl through, wagons and wheelbarrows, plastic bats and balls, plastic bowling pins, and a work bench with plastic tools (NAEYC, n.d.). The National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education addresses that providing an indoor place for gross motor activities for children when whether does not permit is important to promote adequate development (2018).

Section Two: Developmental Theories

This section discusses the developmental theories of Erik Erickson and Sigmund Freud.

Erikson’s Theory

Erikson believed that humans resolve conflicts as their developmental stages progress in the life cycle (Vetter, 2018). The psychosocial developmental stage that correlates with the children observed is initiative vs. guilt. The initiative skills of the phase emphasizes that parents allow their children to play, ask questions, use imagination, be creative, and constructive (Vetter, 2018). Children’s main relationship during this phase is with their family members. Erikson’s theory also states that children have a strength within every phase. Within this phase, purpose is the strength. They learn the initiative skills through supportive family members but also through their independent play time and separation from the parents during the day by attending preschool. The balance between their relationships with family members and themselves helps build the child’s independence, developmental and language skills during this phase (Vetter, 2018.

According to Joseph and Strain, they discuss the importance that building positive relationships with children helps foster the child’s cooperation and motivation which in-turn creates positive outcomes at school (Joseph & Strain, n.d.). This correlates with Erikson’s theory for children to complete the stages completely and successfully. In Building Positive Relationships with Young Children, there is a list of practical strategies for building positive relationships between adults and children that assist development during this phase. Examples of the strategies mentioned are as follows: follow a child’s lead during play, listen to a child’s ideas and stories, post children’s work, acknowledge a child’s efforts, and give compliments (Joseph & Strain, n.d.).

Erikson also explains that the development of the superego is a major task for children in the preschool age group (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2015, p. 525). Many children struggled differentiating why an action was acceptable or unacceptable. This is common during preschool because behavior is learned through punishment and reward and these children rely on parental principles for developing moral judgement (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2015, p. 525). This was an observation in the classroom because children this age have a hard time being independent when morals and rules differ in each environment such as home and school.

Freud’s Theory

Freud’s theory focused on the psychosexual development of the child. His belief is that children develop through pleasure seeking activities through the erogenous zones (Vetter, 2018). If these activities are not completed successfully, fixation occurs; fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier stage that was not completed fully (Vetter, 2018). The stage that corresponds with the children observed is called the phallic stage. During the phallic stage, children comprehend that they are different from other people and there are multiple categories to life (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2015, p. 525). The main goal of this stage is further differentiation of sexual differences and sexually appropriate behavior (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2015, p. 525). During this stage, children develop jealousy and conflict with the same-sex parent resulting in the Oedipus or Electra complex (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2015, p. 525). According to McLeod (2017), the Oedipus and Electra complex is resolved through an identification process involving the child mimicking the characteristics of parent of the same sex. Expected conflict during this stage is focused on the genitals and the differences between males and females; activities for gratification include fondling genitals and masturbation (Vetter, 2018). This behavior was observed multiple times with the males in the classroom having their hand down their pants or looking down their pants.

Conclusion

This paper discussed three safety assessments that were evaluated during the observation. Also, the developmental theories of Erik Erikson and Sigmund Freud were discussed in detail. Characteristics of the children in the classroom that related to each theory were mentioned. In conclusion, there are a few safety areas that could be improved; however, there were many safety assessments that were already safe throughout the classroom. The developmental theories discussed is a way to distinguish if children are completing developmental milestones.

Cite this page

Health Education Individual Paper. (2022, Apr 21). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/health-education-individual-paper-essay

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