Paper type: Essay Pages: 9 (2078 words)
From 8,000 BC to 6,000 BC, Sweden was first inhabited by people living off the land. Residences and tombs that were built around 1800 BC are still found today. A diverse culture distinguished the Bronze Age in the Nordic region. Agriculture became the foundation of the economy and society during the Iron Age.The Viking Age was marked by an activity expansion, largely eastward. Many Viking travels began trading along the Baltic coast. They traded with the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Kingdoms, traveling to the Black and Caspian Seas.
Sweden’s provinces were formed into one around 1000 AD, but only during the late 13th century, the king began to gain influence. King Magnus issued a statute in 1280 authorizing a nobility to be established.The Kalmar Union was formed in 1397 under a single monarch with the Scandinavian countries. However, internal conflicts that continued to grow after the 1520 Stockholm Bloodbath, where 80 Swedish nobles were executed, ruined the union. The act provoked a rebellion that led to the overthrow of Kristian II by Gustav Vasa, a Swedish nobleman, who was elected king in 1523.
Swedish had been aiming to gain control over the Baltic Sea since the collapse of the Kalmar Union, leading to repeated wars with Denmark. Sweden defeated Denmark after Sweden intervened in the Thirty Years War in 1630. Sweden was a great power in Northern Europe after Westphalia’s peace and Roskilde’s peace with Denmark. Sweden, however, did not have the resources to maintain its position. Sweden lost most of its provinces and was reduced after its defeat in the Great Northern War against Denmark, Poland, and Russia. Sweden surrendered Finland to Russia during the Napoleonic Wars. The French marshal obtained Norway as compensation, which is 1814 was forced into union with Sweden. After many disputes, this union was dissolved peacefully in 1905. Speedy cultural development distinguished Sweden in the 18th century. The Napoleonic Wars, which led to the economic crisis in Sweden in the early 19th century, severely affected overseas trade. Ninety percent of people still earned their livelihood from agriculture in the late 19th century. Emigration was one consequence, mainly to North America. Roughly 1.5 million people emigrated from the mid-19th century to 1930, out of a population of 3.5 million in 1850. Not until the 1890s did the industry begin to grow, although it developed rapidly between 1900 and 1930 and transformed Sweden after World War II into one of the largest industrial nations in Europe. At the end of the 19th century, Sweden was characterized by strong popular movements, including free churches, women’s movements, and the labor movement. The labor movement was the 20th-century turn. In 1917, the first Social Democrats came into government. Suffrage was introduced in 1909 for men and in 1921 for women. Plans for a welfare state were made in the 1930s after the Social Democrats came to power and after World War II came into effect. The government was formed during World War II by a coalition of the four democratic parties in Sweden. Under Social Democratic leadership, the Swedish welfare state began a series of reforms in the 1940s and 50s. In 1974, a new government instrument was adopted stating that all public power is derived from the people who are to select parliamentary members in free elections. Sweden has not been involved in any war since a short war with Norway in 1814. Sweden has issued a wartime neutrality policy since the First World War, based its security on a strong national defense.CultureSwedish culture has long been characterized by other cultures. Swedish art, poetry, literature, music, dance, and design are infused with the Nordic landscape and climate, but also have been influenced by other cultures of countries such as France and Germany, who have contributed to the development of Swedish literature, fashion, and cultural debate. As Swedish political influence grew, so did a desire for the country to take a place with other important European cultures. Sweden has embraced neutrality and peacefulness that permitted the country to broadly support arts and culture politically, educationally, and economically. During the last half of the 20th century, Sweden has welcomed immigrants and refugees who brought their own cultural traditions, which have influenced the broader Swedish culture. The effects of American culture have also influenced Sweden.Government/Political Issues Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Lofven had lost a confidence vote, forcing him out of his post and plummeting Sweden’s politics into uncertainty. National elections last year resulted in a hung parliament after a far-right party made significant gains. Now, the parliament’s speaker will get another leader to try to form a government, but any future alliance is unclear. Lofven has been prime minister since 2014. 204 voted against him, 142 voted for him, and three abstained. There are several political parties competing for power in Sweden. In this month’s election, the anti-immigrant Sweden Democrats surged with 17.5% of the vote. Lofven’s Social Democrats took 28.3%, and the center-right Moderate Party took 19.8%. The Social Democrats are celebrating its worst election results since 1911. These reactions come from the fact that polls had indicated a possible landslide for the Sweden Democrats. Instead, established parties took a new approach on immigration while still focusing on the welfare issues that appeal to their voters. Swedish voters ended up putting their trust in the established parties.EconomyResources and Power Wood, metallic ores, and waterpower constitute the basis for Sweden’s industrial economy. Hydroelectric power is used to a high degree but provides only about half of the electric energy needed. The iron ore deposits in Lappland were opened to export at the end of the 19th century. In Norrland, a wide range of gold, copper, lead, and zinc, are mine. The copper, silver, and iron ore deposits of central Sweden are unprofitable to extract.Manufacturing Manufacturing produces most of Sweden’s export income. Nevertheless, the number of workers employed in the private industry is smaller than the number of public employees. Sweden is a major world exporter of forest products. Pulp and paper factories process forest products. Swedish manufacturers produce a variety of wood products, including paper, boards, and furniture. The pulp and paper industry developed originally at the rivers along the Gulf of Bothnia.TradeExports account for about one-third of Sweden’s GDP. The emphasis has shifted from the export of raw materials and manufactured products to finished goods, dominated by engineering products and high technology. Together, Germany, the United Kingdom, Norway, Finland, and Denmark account for about two-fifths of Sweden’s export market.Labor and Taxation Taxes make up most state revenues, which are used to maintain a high level of social services that have basically eliminated structural poverty in the country. Sweden usually has a high rate of personal income tax ranging from about 30 to 60%. Since the late 1990s, there has been a shift away from tax on personal income and toward taxing services.Transportation and Telecommunications Sweden has a network of overland and air transport routes. Gothenburg and Stockholm are among the most important ports handling foreign trade. The Swedish merchant fleet has also been majorly reduced by competition from foreign ships charging lower rates. Ferry traffic between Sweden and its neighbors has grown greatly and employs larger and better ferryboats.Environmental Issues According to conservation groups, one of the biggest environmental issues in Sweden is the consequences of the logging industry. The World Wildlife Fund has reported 2000 species are threatened in Sweden. While Sweden has made progress in enhancing timber harvesting, bad practices remain, according to the WWF. Another major environmental issue facing Sweden is the pollution of the Baltic Sea caused by pollutants from agriculture sources and waste treatment facilities. Sweden was responsible for 12% of the 1 million tons of nitrogen dumped into the Baltic Sea in 2010. Sweden is also facing past industrial emissions causing the acidification of its lakes.Geographical Features In the north, Sweden is covered with mountains and forests, while central Sweden has lower mountains in the west and heavily forested hills, and dozens of rivers. In the south, large lakes and plains stretch across the land. Sweden’s border with Norway is covered by the Scandinavian Mountains. Its coastal areas include several small islands in the east and southwest. Directly south of Stockholm are Gotland and Oland, Sweden’s largest islands. Significant lakes are Siljan, Storsjom, Varner, and Vattern. Challenges Faced Challenges facing the government are four main problems: immigration and accommodating asylum-seekers, unemployment, integration, and equality. Over the past several years, Sweden has had strong economic development. However, the government has recorded high levels of unemployment. Unemployment in general and youth unemployment remains a problem.Integration poses a similar challenge. Many obstacles prevent immigrants from finding jobs and acceptance in Sweden. Unlike other countries, Sweden has devoted financial resources to solving the problem. The government has taken the first step in strengthening the internal capacity of the country.Equality and equal treatment are being tested by accommodating asylum-seekers and refugees from Syria and other war-torn countries. In the past, equality was one of the major features of the Swedish model. Tax reforms under the previous government further increased the trend toward inequality.Dessert PagesBook Talk A Man Called Ove by Fredrik Backman is about a 59-year-old widower that has a heart condition that forces him into early retirement. Now lacking purpose and overwhelmed by grief for his late wife, Ove finds himself contemplating suicide. The book flashes from his interactions with his neighbors to his past. In the end, you find out Ove is not such a bad guy after all.Art Through the Ages The earliest rock carvings in the form of symbols, characters and images began to be produced about 7000 BC. Sweden has one of the largest collections of petroglyphs with a center in Tanum. From about 400 AD, the development of the Nordic animal ornamentation reached its peak during the 7th century. Animal ornamentation experienced a renewal of the rune stones. Runestones were added between about 200 AD and 1130. The runestone is specific to the Nordic culture. Sweden leads the way with the highest amount of rune stones with a total of 2,800. The stones were originally painted and combined text and can be divided into seven different styles. Ideas during the 15th century were often religious or mythical. The famous sculpture of Saint George and the Dragon in the Great Church of Stockholm was made by the German-born painter and sculptor Bernt Notke, one of the most important northern European artists. He was very productive and had great influence. Liberty and the Gustavian period was a major style in Sweden. At this time, Rococo was the initial style. Future portrait paintings made it known in Swedish painting. During the period, many artists moved to Europe. An artist from the Rococo period was Gustaf Lundberg. His technique was long dominant in the Swedish portrait arts and is represented at the National Museum and Art Academy.Changing StylesSwedish art has changed many times throughout history. The first is before significant styles appeared just being called prehistoric. It is the earliest rock carvings in the form of symbols, characters and images. The first significant styles are medieval and gothic. It was originally established in the churches, in the form of altar screens, crucifixes, and stones. The next styles are renaissance and baroque. They consisted largely of portraits of princes, which were painted by foreign artists who were active in Sweden. After that is the Rococo and Gustavian style. It’s a style of architecture and decorative art from 18th century France. The next is the Karl Johan style. It’s inspired by the Roman empire’s art and architecture. After that, it is the romanticism and naturalism styles. They are stylized depictions of subjects of realistic objects. The last significant styles are modernism and expressionism. They are traditions that experiment with the meaning of an emotional experience.Famous Artists The first famous artist is Carl Larsson. He was a painter representative of the Arts and Crafts movement. His paintings include oils and watercolors. The next artist is Gustaf Lundberg. He was a portrait painter, working in Paris and later in Stockholm. Next, is Alexander Roslin. He combined psychological portrayal with fabrics and jewels. The next is Egron Lundgren. He developed watercolor art, as he traveled in Europe and Asia, and painted his findings. The next artist is Anders Zorn. He was one of Sweden’s best artists. He obtained success as a painter, sculptor, and etcher. The final artist is Carl Milles. He was a sculptor known for his large-scale fountains.
Cite this page
From 8000 BC to 6000 BC Sweden was first inhabited by people. (2019, Aug 20). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/from-8000-bc-to-6000-bc-sweden-was-first-inhabited-by-people-essay