The extent, nature and cause of International Migration

* There are different types of migration, they are voluntary and forced.

* There are different types of migrants; they are economic, refugees and asylum seekers.

Forced Migration is that which people feel they must leave if they are to survive and feel safe e.g. Iraq, Afghanistan. Voluntary migration is when people feel they would like to find a place with a better life, but it is not vital for them to leave for their life e.g. England to Spain for the sunny weather.

The general reason for people leaving their country is because there are poor conditions, poor government power and no future there. War has also in recent years been a reason to leave.

MODELS OF MIGRATION

There are a few different patterns of Migration

PUSH/ PULL MODEL OF MIGRATION

LEES (1966) MODEL OF MIGRATION

STEPWISE MIGRATION MODEL

The Stepwise migration model is a behavioural model developed from EG Ravensteins Laws (1885). It shows that population movements occur in stages and with a ‘wave like’ motion.

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According to this idea, major settlements such as capital cities tend to attract migrants from smaller cities and towns. The same can be said about larger countries attracting migrants from smaller countries.

In China this model reflects on what has happened with migration there.

Several events in China have led to increasing numbers of Chinese residents emigrating to countries on the Pacific Rim. One of these events was famine which occurred in the early 1960s. This led to a change in political direction that many did not agree with and because of this many fled the country for places such as Thailand and Malaysia.

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Today one third of Malaysia’s population is indigenous Chinese. But for cultural reasons such as a conflict between themselves and the Malaysian people, Chinese people then move onto Singapore where their cultures are very similar.

Chinese people also moved onto Canada with a total of 400,000 Chinese people living there now. Two thirds of them live in Toronto and Vancouver which are the main cities of Canada.

There is total global displacement of 27.4 million people, meaning that amount of people are migrants who have moved from place to place. 14.5 million of them are refugees.

RECENT EVENTS

One of the most recent major migration patterns occurred in Kosovo in 1999. This was because of the Serbia- Kosovo conflict which led to war. This then meant that half of Kosovo’s population left the country.

The most recent event is Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to poor government, depression and various other problems war has broken out in the two countries forcing many to leave, with India being one of the main places of refuge for them.

PATTERNS

Main places people migrate to are;

* USA

* India

* France

* Canada

* Pakistan

* Germany

This is down to the fact of these places are either close to crisis areas e.g. India is near Iraq and Afghanistan. Whereas places like USA and France are just places which are regarded to have a better quality of life. Europe and North America are the main continents people are going to.

Main places people are leaving are;

* Afghanistan

* Rwanda

* Bosnia

* Liberia

* Iraq

Country of origin

Main countries of asylum

No. of refugees

Afghanistan

Iran/Pakistan/CIS/India

2,350,000

Rwanda

Burundi/Tanzania/Uganda/Zaire

1,700,000

Bosnia & Herzegovina

Croatia/F.R.Yugoslavia/Germany

1,330,000

Liberia

Guinea/C�te d’Ivoire/Ghana/Nigeria

750,000

Iraq

Iran/Saudi Arabia/Other Mid East/Pakistan

630,000

Somalia

Djibouti/Ethiopia/Kenya/Yemen

446,000

Sudan

Uganda/Zaire/Kenya/Ethiopia

424,000

Eritrea

Sudan

362,000

Angola

Zaire/Zambia/Congo/Namibia

324,000

Sierra Leone

Guinea/Liberia

320,000

TURKEY TO GERMANY MIGRATION

1945- 1989

Sakultuan in Turkey was a poor isolated depending on agriculture. Population there was 900. The Village eventually became overpopulated with a high birth rate and limited to resources.

To ease this problem an all weather road was built which encouraged links with bigger towns and better movement. It meant people could travel to these bigger towns for work. This road led to an increase in mechanisation in the village, thus leading to a decrease in need for farm workers meaning even less jobs were available for the people living there. With a better income it meant farmers were given advice on how to create a bigger profit and money was spent on improving the area including a major improvement on the schools.

This increased aspiration in the people, so they left for bigger and better things moving to the cities of Adana and the capital Ankura with some also moving to West Germany.

A main place these people moved to was Pforzheim in Germany, which is an industrial town near to Stuttgart. There were many job vacancies here and people from Sakultuan came over to take jobs which people in Germany did not want.

Since 1990 there have been 1.8 million Turks in Germany. This has left to major tensions between the Turks and Germans due to a conflict in culture.

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The extent, nature and cause of International Migration. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/extent-nature-cause-international-migration-new-essay

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