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Effectiveness of Fertilizers for Chinese White Cabbage

BASIC INFORMATION

Research/Project Title: Effectiveness of Kakawate leaves extract (Gliciridia sepium), Banana peels (Musa paradisiaca), and wood ash as fertilizer for Chinese White Cabbage (Brassica rapa)

RESEARCH PROBLEM AND RATIONALE:

Like all living things, plants need a variety of macro and micronutrients to be at their best. Plants are unique organisms that can absorb nutrients and water through their root system, as well as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Mouton, 2017). Farmers use fertilizers to aid the needs of plants in terms of the nutrients it needs.

Since then, the use of fertilizers became an essential in agriculture. During the 19th century, agriculture paved way for the use of synthetic fertilizers.

It opened many doors for modern agricultural production worldwide. It is considered effective because it acts immediately and shows positive physical effects on the plants. It is also convenient, easy to use and can be bought anywhere. It is a man-made fertilizer containing chemicals necessary for plant growth. The use of synthetic fertilizers is no doubt beneficial.

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But too much and continued use of it will lead to negative effects affecting not only the plants but also everything and everyone around it. Despite the positive effects of synthetic fertilizers, it also contributes long-term negative effects. It can lead to disruption of aquatic ecosystems, killing of beneficial microorganisms in the soil, and increase in water pollution. (Gilani, n.d.).

Application of Organic fertilizer should be encouraged. Not only because it is safe and easy to apply, but because it is convenient in some ways.

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Kakawate is a legume that contains nitrogen, which contributes in soil nutrient (Calleja, 2010). Banana peels, having potassium, helps plants move water and contributes in improving the quality of plants (Stone, 2018). Wood ash contains phosphorus which helps the plants to grow by converting nutrients (Rhoades, 2018). The use of kakawate leaves, banana peels and wood ash as fertilizer will not only benefit the plant but can also be an alternative to prevent the usage of synthetic fertilizers.

OBJECTIVES:

The study specifically aims:

  1. To assess the efficacy of Kakawate leaves extract, Banana peels, and Wood ash as fertilizer for Chinese White Cabbage
  2. To identify which ratio will attain the highest crop yield for Chinese White Cabbage
  3. To identify the ratio that induced the least growth rate for Chinese White Cabbage

EXPECTED OUTPUTS:

The study will provide an alternative fertilizer to promote the use of organic fertilizer which is healthier and safer for plants. In the duration of the study, the researchers are expected to integrate 3 different ratios of fertilizers which will be compared and observed in order to see and prove which ratio will be the most effective one. With having 3 ratios of fertilizers, there will also be 1 having no fertilizer, and the study will have 4 different treatments. The 4 treatments will have 3 different samples as a test for synergy expecting 12 different pots containing diffferent ratios and samples each.

In the end of the study, the expected output will show and prove that the synergy for kakawate leaves extract, banana peels, and wood ash will be an effective fertilizer for Chinese White Cabbage.

SIGNIFICANCE:

Students. This study will contribute knowledge regarding the benefits of using kakawate leaves, banana peels and wood ash as fertilizer.

Teachers. The study will serve as a source of information for teachers in understanding concepts about kakawate leaves, banana peels and wood ash as fertilizer for them to be able to clearly explain and share it to students.

Researchers. The study will help the researchers integrate possible solutions for problem concerning fertilizers. It is important so that researchers can provide recommendations as to how the problems can be solved.

Future Researchers. The study will serve as a related literature for future researchers in order for them to gather more information needed for their study. It will also serve as a guide as to which part of the study they should change or improve.

Community. The study will provide possible solutions regarding the problems that the community is facing. Through this, the community will also be informed as to how they should deal with aforementioned problem.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

Brassica rapa is known as Wisconsin Fast Plant or for its growth speed and need for a little requirement to grow, which makes it ideal for experiments. NiTruong, K. (2017) designed an experiment to differentiate the growth effect of adding the macronutrient nitrogen and potassium to growing the plant by itself. Nitrogen and potassium are chosen as it is consumed in high quantity and usually one of the deficient of soils. The experiment has three (3) different treatments applied separately; coffee was used for nitrogen treatment, potato for potassium treatment and nothing for controlled treatment. Results showed that the highest average height, number of seeds and the largest number of pods were gained using potassium treatment seconded by the averages of controlled treatment. Nitrogen treated plants grew the least but received the greatest average for first true leaf hairs. This shows that the application of fertilizer needs to be considered to make the fertilizer effective.

In a study conducted by Montegrande (2015) emphasized that kakawate is a good source of nitrogen fit for plant “enhancement of specific plants, restoring and maintaining soil quality”. In her study, she used kakawate leaves as a potential fertilizer to bell pepper. In extracting, the leaves were pounded to produce extracts from it. Extracts taken from the pounded kakawate leaves were applied to the bell pepper plant using three (3) different treatments, water was used for the first treatment, and kakawate leaves extract for the second, and kakawate leaves and bark extracts for the last. The findings have shown that the kakawate bark and leaves can be used as a fertilizer as it is high in nitrogen component that improves the growth of the plants.

Another study has also demonstrated another component that enhances the physical properties of the product. ElNour et al. (2015) found that the banana compost prepared by banana waste with animal manure and crop residues, not only improves the physical properties of the product but also its water holding capacity, production and soil properties.

According to Wiklund (2017), Wood ash contributes to neutralizing the low pH in soil that causes soil acidity.  Wood ash from wood combustion can be used as fertilizer for nitrogen-fixing crops as the study acknowledge. However, it should be added with nitrogen to be enough for other crops. The experiment used two-factorial were used with lime-treatments and two weeding treatments. Lime and ash were applied to the plots before planting. In the experiment, soil data samples were already gathered before it started. Soil samples gathered before and after four weeks using an auger. Data were taken and analysed using ANOVA and spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results showed that the amount of pH increased due to ash.

The research study of Djomo et al. presented evidence for the effect of different doses of NPK on the growth and yield of rice in Ndop, North West of Cameroon. Two (2) upland rice and two (2) lowland rice were the rice varieties used in the experiment. Two (2) types of N-P-K fertilizers (23-10-05, 20-10-10) were applied in different measures for separate treatments (0 kg – control; 180 kg, 200 kg, 220 kg). In all varieties, results showed that NPK with ratio (20 10 10) received a better growth, yield, and dose than the rest. The study shows that different measures of fertilizers affect the growth and improvement of the product.

THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY:

This section briefly summarizes the major variables in the study. The different ratio of kakawate leaves (Gliciridia sepium), banana peels (Musa paradisiaca), and wood ash, (Independent Variable) will be used as fertilizer for Chinese White Cabbage (Brassica rapa) (Dependent Variable). Duration of the study, the amount and frequency of water, plant measurement, and the number of leaves (Controlled Variable) will be the sole basis for the observation of the plant in the study. The relationship between these variables is illustrated in figure 1.

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework on Effectiveness of Kakawate leaves extract, Banana peels, and wood ash as fertilizer for Chinese White Cabbage.

METHODOLOGY:

Research Site.

The study will be conducted in a University located in Bacoor City, Cavite. The University is not only the most accessible location for the researchers but has the necessary equipment in the laboratories needed for the study which makes it the most qualified site for the research.

  • Respondents of the Study.
  • None/researchers of the study
  • Research Design and Data Collection.

The study will use experimental research design for data gathering of the information needed for the study. An experimental observation will be used because the objective of the researchers is to experiment and test the effectiveness of kakawate leaves extract, banana peels, and wood ash as fertilizer for Chinese White Cabbage.

Data Analysis

The statistical tool to be used in the study will be Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Because this study will compare 4 different treatments, 4 means are expected to be computed which makes ANOVA the most effective statistical tool to use.

Research Instrument.

The observation sheet purposely integrated by the researchers will be used as an instrument to gather the data needed for the study. An observation sheet is usually used for experimental research designs. In this type of research instrument, the researchers can establish an observation based on the objectives of their study.

Appendix 1. Example of the Observation sheet to be used in the study.

In the observation sheet, the study will have 4 different treatments of fertilizers with the three having different ratios and the other having no fertilizer. In the four different treatments, the following will be observed: amount and frequency of water (in grams), number of leaves, plant length, width, and height.

BUDGETARY REQUIREMENT:

Item Estimated Cost

Personnel Major equipment Supplies and Materials Transportation, Communication and Representation Miscellaneous Total estimated expenses

BIBLIOGRAPHY/LITERATURE CITED:

  1. Calleja, D. (2010). Kakawate leaves as pesticide, bio-organic fertilizer. [online] balita.ph – Online Filipino News. Available at:
  2. ElNour, M., Elfadil, A., Manal, F. and Saeed, B. (2015). ISSN 2347-6893 1555 | Page November 18, 2015 Effects of Banana Compost on Growth, Development and Productivity of Sorghum bicolor Cultivar (Tabat). JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOLOGY, [online] Vol .8(No.2), pp.1555-1559. Available at:
  3. Gilani, N. (n.d.). The Effects of Synthetic Fertilizers. [online] Homeguides.sfgate.com. Available at:
  4. Montegrande, A. (2015). Kakawate as an organic fertilizer to plants. Acamdemia. Retrieved from:
  5. [Accessed 5 Nov. 2019].
  6. Mouton, A. (2017). Plant Nutrition | Biology for Majors II. [online] Courses.lumenlearning.com. Available at:
  7. Rhoades, H. (2018). The Importance Of Phosphorus In Plant Growth. [online] Gardening Know How. Available at: [Accessed 2 Nov. 2019].
  8. Stone, K. (2018). Banana Peel Fertilizer Benefits and Uses. [online] Stone Family Farmstead. Available at:
  9. Truong, K. (2017). The Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium on the Growth of Brassica rapa, Best
  10. Integrated Writing , 4. Retrieved from:
  11. Wiklund, J. (2017). Effects of wood ash on soil fertility and plant performance in southwestern Kenya. 16th ed. [ebook] Uppsala, pp.9-12 & 20-24. Available at: [Accessed 5 Nov. 2019

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Effectiveness of Fertilizers for Chinese White Cabbage. (2019, Nov 28). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/effectiveness-of-fertilizers-for-chinese-white-cabbage-essay

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